A System of Mechanical Philosophy, Հատոր 2

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Էջ 119 - I call the steam-vessel, must, during the whole time the engine is at work, be kept as hot as the steam that enters it ; first, by enclosing it in a case of wood, or any other materials that transmit heat slowly ; secondly, by surrounding it with steam or other heated bodies ; and thirdly, by suffering neither water or any other substance colder than the steam, to enter or touch it during that time.
Էջ 119 - I intend, in many cases, to employ the expansive force of steam to press on the pistons, or whatever may be used instead of them, in the same manner in which the pressure of the atmosphere is now employed in common fire engines.
Էջ 120 - ... vessel moves round, it is supplied with steam from the boiler, and that which has performed its office may either be discharged by means of condensers, or into the open air.
Էջ 120 - I intend in some cases to apply a degree of cold not capable of reducing the steam to water, but of contracting it considerably, so that the engines shall be worked by the alternate expansion and contraction of the steam. Lastly, Instead of using water to render the piston or other parts of the engines air and steam-tight, I employ oils, wax, resinous bodies, fat of animals, quicksilver, and other metals, in their fluid state.
Էջ 119 - ... first, that vessel in which the powers of steam are to be employed to work the engine, which is called the cylinder...
Էջ 113 - When this was raised as high as was thought proper, the communication with the digester was shut, and that with the atmosphere opened ; the steam then made its escape, and the weight descended. The operations were repeated, and though in this experiment the cock was turned by hand, it was easy to see how it could be done by the machine itself, and to make it work with perfect regularity.
Էջ 114 - It also appeared that any approach to a vacuum could only be obtained by throwing in large quantities of injection, which would cool the cylinder so much as to require quantities of steam to heat it again, out of proportion to the power gained by the more perfect vacuum, and...
Էջ 118 - Ibs., which was hung to the lower end of the piston-rod. The exhaustion-cock was shut, the steam was readmitted into the cylinder, and the operation was repeated; the quantity of steam consumed, and the weights it could raise, were observed, and, excepting the nonapplication of the steam-case and external covering, the invention was complete, in so far as regarded the savings of steam and fuel.
Էջ 114 - A small engine was therefore constructed, with a cylinder six inches diameter and twelve inches stroke, made of wood, soaked in linseed oil, and baked to dryness. With this engine many experiments were made ; but it was soon found that the wooden cylinder was not likely to prove durable, and that the steam condensed in filling it still exceeded the proportion of that required for large engines according to the statements of Desaguliers. It was also found, that all attempts to produce a better exhaustion...
Էջ 113 - Papin's digester, and formed a species of steam-engine by fixing upon it a syringe, one-third of an inch diameter, with a solid piston, and furnished also with a cock to admit the steam from the digester, or shut it off at pleasure, as well as to open a communication from the inside of the syringe to the open air, by which the steam contained in the syringe might escape. When the communication between the digester and syringe was opened, the steam entered the syringe, and by its action upon the piston...

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