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CREATION OF THEM BY GOD,

ANIMALS.

the Dove, an emblem of the Spirit of God:the Eagle, distinguished for its powerful pin

Out of the dust of the ground, and named by ions, rapid flight, lofty nest, penetrating eye,

Adam.

GOD'S PROVIDENCE OVER THEM,

In the necessary food and preservation of every one of them-exemplified at the flood, in Nineveh, etc., represented as teaching and telling of God, honouring Him, crying unto Him, and seeking their meat from Him.

WILD BEASTS,

God's scourge, while on behalf of his people, He makes with them a covenant and peace.

SUBJECTION OF THE INFERIOR ANIMALS TO MAN.

and rapacity, illustrative of persecutors,-the Hawk as a bird of passage and prey,-the Ostrich, as timid and easily driven from its nest, the Owl as the symbol of desolation,— the Partridge illustrative of the persecuted,

the Peacock as admired for its beautiful plumage,-Poultry noted for affection to their young,-Quails as birds of passage, which cross the Arabian desert,—the Raven as a bird of prey, the Sparrow as common and little esteemed, two sold for a farthing, the Swallow, and Crane as birds of passage, their instinc tive knowledge of the time of their migration employed as a reproof to Israel; and the Vulture, as filthy and rapacious, etc.

FOWLING,

Appointed by God, effected by taming them, and exemplified in the killing of the lion by Pursued by means of snares, gins, and nets. Samson, etc.

WILD ANIMALS.

Each noted for its own characteristic peculi. arity, Bear for fierceness-Behemoth or Hippopotamus for great strength-Boar for wasting,-Coney for its inaccessible abode,-Deer for agility and beauty,-Dog for its filthy and predatory habits,-Fox for its smallness and cunning,-Leopard for its spotted hide, and swift and sudden spring,-Lion for its boldness, power, and terrific voice; an emblem of a mighty ruler, a powerful people, and Satan the adversary; an instrument of judgment in God's hand, as in the case of the disobedient prophet and the emigrants sent to Samaria:-Leviathan, or Crocodile, for its bulk, terrible appearance, and impenetrable scales,-Unicorn for its strength,-Wolf for its ferocity, etc.

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FISHES,

Often employed for food; Fishing a common employment, prosecuted by means of hooks, nets and drags; illustrative of the work of Gospel ministers, and an emblem of the Assyrians carrying Israel away captive, the fish-gate, a gate of Jerusalem.

REPTILES,

The Dragon, probably including several animals under it, represented as being of terrible and poisonous aspect, and frequenting ruined cities, rivers, and marshes; illustrating the malignity of the wicked one, the Frog an object of disgust,-the Horseleech as craving for blood, the Worm as bred in putrifying matter, as also in certain diseases; often alluded to in connection with the grave and illustrative of the punishment of the place of woe,-the Serpent described as subtil, fiery, crooked, deadly poisonous, and susceptible of being charmed, illustrative of the cunning of Satan, the Snail found in damp and shady places, the Viper in many respects similar, and often associated with the ser

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ANIMALS.]

SYNOPSIS.

[ARCHITECTURE.

Flea on account of its insignificance.-Flies scales and fins;-Clean fowls not formally for their swarms, the Gnat for its proverbial described, but the unclean excepted by name; smallness-Grasshoppers, for their vast num- creeping things, clean in part, described and bers, and individual smallness,-the Hornet named, as the locust, beetle, grasshopper, etc., for the severity of its sting, and as an unclean in part described and named, as the instrument of Divine judgment,-Lice one lizard, etc. of the plagues of Egypt,-the Moth for its silent destructiveness-the Spider for its frail web; illustrative of the hope of wicked men,

etc.

ANIMALS USED FOR LABOUR, The ass for riding and work, persons of rank riding on white asses, wild asses regarded as untameable-the camel used on long desert journeys, the swift dromedary,-the horse which Israel was forbidden to multiply, used especially by warriors in early times, and in drawing the chariots of the great,-The war steed, characterized by strength, fleetness, and courage,-Mules employed in riding, horses of various colours, with their riders and chariots, used as prophetic symbols in Zechariah.

DISTINCTION OF ANIMALS INTO CLEAN AND

UNCLEAN, FOR SACRIFICE AND FOOD,

Animal food given to Noah, etc., blood forbidden, and fat, animals unclean which had been killed by beasts, or died a natural death; christian law, and conscience, require abstinence from what may be doubtful to ourselves, or offensive to weak brethren.

THE HERD,

Cattle an important description of wealth in ancient times, the calf often fatted and killed as a luxury;-Bulls, fierce, bulls of Bashan,— the Ox used for agricultural labour, unaccustomed to the yoke, an image of impenitent men under divine chastisement; statutes appointed enforcing equity and mercy, pasture ground very extensive, dairy produce, Milk, Butter, and Cheese, killing cattle for food frequently exemplified, and very often referred to in Scripture-the Horn frequently employed as an emblem of power, pride, protection, and as a prophetic symbol.

THE FLOCK.

Sheep a common element of ancient wealth, kept for their wool and flesh, prone to wander, are illustrative of mankind going astray from of a scattered people. and of Christ's followers God; symbols of innocence and helplessness, under persecution-Tending the flock performed by the sheepmaster and household, similitude of the rulers and teachers of a nation and of Christ the Shepherd of souls ;-Multiplication of the flock, a token of the Divine blessingANIMALS CLEAN AND UNCLEAN IN THEMSELVES, Wild goats, inhabitants of inaccessible rocks Quadrupeds clean which parted the hoof, and and mountains,-the domesticated led in flocks chewed the cud, unclean which did not part by a he-goat-the milk and flesh valuable for the hoof or chew the cud;-Fishes clean which food, and the hair employed in manufactures; had scales and fins, unclean which had not-emblem of the wicked; symbol of Macedon.

ARCHITECTURE.

ORIGINAL DWELLINGS,

Tents, used in part at least by the Antediluvians, by the Patriarchs, and by Israel in the wilderness,-Materials composing them, cords, curtains and stakes; figuratively applied to the earth, with the curtains of heaven above, and also to the body of man.

OCCASIONAL DWELLINGS,

Cares resorted to, for shelter, and in seasons of danger; caves mentioned in Scripture, Makkedah, Adullam, Engedi, etc.

ORDINARY DWELLINGS,

Houses of various forms, palaces, castles and cattages; Foundation metaphorically applied to the mountains, and to the world at large, illustrative of strength; a name given to Christ and his Apostles;-Materials usually

employed, bricks, stones, timber,-Erection was executed by carpenters, masons, etc.; used as a symbol of the increase of families, and of spiritual edification.

ORDINARY FORM OF HOUSES,

Walls so built as very much to seclude the building,-Courts uncovered, open spaces;Roof required by the Mosaic law to be flat, and fenced with battlements, usually communicated with the house, and was often resorted to for the purpose of observation, for making public proclamation, and for retirement and prayer, Peter on housetop,-Pillars employed for strength and ornament, symbolically applied to eminent men,-Door, porch, gate, the passage for entering and departing,-Windows for light,-the Dial for determining the hour,

the various apartments constructed so as to suit the various objects for which they are designed.

THE TENURE OF HOUSES.

names given to them from that of the In unwalled villages held on the same principle builder, from the object of the erection, or as in ordinary inheritance,-Houses in wal- from some circumstance connected with the led cities limited in respect to their redemp-fied, namely, Royal, Treasure, Commercial, erection. Different kinds of cities speci

tion and restoration; dedication attended by certain ceremonies and privileges, the thir

tieth Psalin.

FURNITURE,

Beds sometimes richly ornamented, but ordinarily couches ranged round the walls of the rooms; used as an emblem of the grave; bottles made of leather or the skins of animals; instanced in Hannah, the Gibeonites, etc., The pitcher used for carrying water, exemplified in the woman of Samaria,-The table used for meals and often used figuratively for the food itself as "providing a table." Seats (domestic) often formed simply of the sleeping couches folded up;-other household stuff consisted of pots, baskets, etc.

THE HEARTH,

Fires for cooking, and during the winter months for warmith; instanced in the hall of the high priest during the trial of Jesus; forbidden to be lighted on the Sabbath day, Fuel of wood, thorns, dried grass, etc.,-The Candle or lamp of oil usually kept burning during the night, and often employed as an emblem of domestic prosperity, but “lamp pul out," the symbol of domestic adversity; leprosy in houses and law about it.

CITIES,

Erected for security, for convenience in merchandise, and often from personal ambition,

Chariot, Fenced Cities, the walls of great strength, and provided at intervals with watch-towers and battlements; gales sometimes constructed of brass, iron, etc., being places of concourse, spaces around them used for merchandise, and for judicial proceedings, often alluded to as the resort of the idle,Streets and thoroughfares usually narrow in the east,-Watchmen employed to guard during the night; elders of the people appointed by Moses to act as magistrates; instanced in the history of Ruth.

CITY OF GOD,

Jerusalem, often called the holy city, so named from being specially the place of God's presence, the scene of his worship, and the convocations of his people Israel.

ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS,

Erected by good men to mark special manifes tations of God's favour, as by Jacob at Beth-el, Moses at Sinai, Joshua at Gilgal, etc.

CITIES IN RUINS.

As the result of God's displeasure; often the subjects of prophecy, and often described as in the case of Babylon, Damascus, Nineveh, etc. Rebuilding of a city once in ruins is illus trated in the case of Jerusalem after the Babylonish captivity.

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Israel marching in the wilderness, had the standard of Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun on the east, Reuben, Simeon and Gad, on the south, Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin on the west, Dan, Asher and Naphtali on the north; sign of mustering nations, and the gathering of converts to Christ.

DISCIPLINE,

Began by Saul, attempted by David, and completed under the kings, Foreign armies often referred to as those of Egypt, Midian, Amalek, Philistia, Moab, Syria, Assyria, Ammon, etc,- Allied armies also often referred to in sacred history, as in the case Founded on gradations of rank. the common of the kings of Canaan against Joshua, soldiers being the mass of the army, and the Judah allied with Simeon,-Ammon with officers in command, consisting of various Syria, Judah with Syria,-Judah with grades, distinguished in different armies as, Israel, Judah with Assyria,-Moab with captains of thousands, captains of hundreds,

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captains of fifties, captains of the host, cap- they heard the evil report of the spies,-by tains of the guard, centurions, etc.

CONSTITUENTS OF ARMIES,

Infantry, Cavalry largely employed in foreign armies, but forbidden by Moses to Israel, lest they should traffic with Egypt, those who fought in chariots, pioneers, etc.;-the Commissariat provided sometimes by voluntary contribution, and sometimes by compulsory levy.

WAR TRUMPET,

Employed in mustering the people and in directing them while under arms, commanded by Moses, used by Joshua at the siege of Jericho by Gideon,-by Nehemiah, etc.

Moab when they saw the numbers of Israel,by the kings of the Amorites when they heard of the wonders which God had wrought for the tribes, by the Roman guards at the sepulchre of Jesus, - promise made to Israel fore them, which was often fulfilled in their that their enemies would be panic struck behistory.

ARMOUR,

Usually worn by soldiers in battle, used symbolically to denote the weapons by which the Christian may meet and successfully repel his spiritual foes, the defensive consisting of the helmet, for the head, the shield fastened on the left arm, and used in parrying off the strokes of enemies, the symbol of divine protection,-the coat of mail fitted to the body to protect it greaves, fitted round the legs to protect them, - the offensive Often displayed in the troops, often in indiv- consisting of the bow and arrow, the characteridual heroes, as in those who attached them-istic weapons of the Jews and foreign nations; selves to David, and in heroines, as instanced image of terrible evil inflicted by man, as also in Deborah, Challenges to deeds of valour of divine judgments, the dagger, darts, or made by Caleb, calling to the assault of Kirjavelin, the spear, the sling, used by shepherds jath-sepher, by Jonathan to attack the in defending their flocks, as well as in war,Philistines,-by Goliah to meet himself, etc.

VALOUR,

COWARDICE,

illustrative of casting or expelling a people out of their own land, and the sword the most deadly of all the ancient weapons; the symbol of divine punishment and of human

Evinced by Israel in the wilderness, when persecution.

BODY,

BODY.

Formed out of the dust-fearfully and wonderfully made-symbol of the Church, in its sympathetic unity; has an interest in Christ's salvation; grows in stature, and possesses senses, appetites, and organs.

CONSTITUENT PARTS OF THE BODY,

Flesh the name often given to the whole corporeal person, or to corrupted human nature, used to signify what is external, denotes humanity generally. Bone, name and index of blood relationship, often alluded to as the stat of pain, often applied to the dead body, as bones of Joseph. Joints said to be loosened in fear. Skin black, expressive of severe disease, bones cleaving to it denoting emaciationanews hardened, a symbol of obstinacy-blood often used to express murder as "the pollution of blood." Flesh and blood an expression for humanity.

PARTS AND ORGANS OF THE BODY,

THE HEAD,

Hair its natural covering, often standing for the person or life itself, a natural symbol of chief or governor-bowed in token of reverence to God and respect to man-covered with dust a mark of mourning-hoary, a mark of age and venerable appearance-baldness a token of disease, grief, and reproach-tossed in token of contempt, anointed for refreshment, one hair not falling to the ground denoting perfect safety. Beard usually worn among the Jews,-Forehead, a spot on it marking public or official rank-Face bowed down in obeisance-falling on it the result of sudden or overpowering sensation-To set the face denoting steady purpose-cheek, to smite on it an act of haughty contempt-ear the organ of hearing, to give ear denoting attention-bad characteristics of the ear denoted by the epithets, uncircumcised, stopped, not inclined-earrings, a common ornament. Eye the organ of sight, and the source of tears; sometimes by women, exemplified in Jezebel, an evil eye

Are often alluded to and frequently employed dimmed by age or sorrow; occasionally painted by the inspired writers.

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a mark of mean disposition-winking with the eye a sign of evil intent, lighting up the eye denoting begun or renewed attention; used as the symbol of intellect, reason, or opinion. Nose the means of breathing and the organ of smell, breathing of the nostrils metaphorically descriptive of divine wrath. Mouth used in speaking-opening it the sign of commencing a discourse-laying the hand on it a token of reverence-smuting on it an act of contemptuous anger. Lips used with a variety of epithets to express shades of character, as uncircumcised, flattering, lying, joyful, burning, unclean, etc.,used in Proverbs, especially to point out vices and virtues of character. Teeth, the organs of mastication, gnashing them a sign of agony, gnashing with them a sign of rage-the principal instrument of speech, like lips used with a variety of epithets denoting great diversity of character. Throat as the means of utterance compared in wicked men to a sepulchre-neck adorned with ornaments of needlework, chains of gold, etc., the seat of yoke, and the symbol of subordination - clasped in joy and grief, hard or stiff denoting obstinacy.

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OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY.

Shoulder the seat of burden, badges of honour borne on it, as exemplified in Christ, on whose shoulder "the government shall be." Arm the natural symbol of strength-of flesh denoting weakness-hand used in a variety of idioms as, at hand, near in time or space, "by the hand"-by means of, "into," or "in the hand," into or in the power of, "from the

ITS BOUNDARIES, ETC.,

hand," from the power of; to give the hand the mark of amity; -hands also used in a variety of idioms, to "clap them" expressive of sudden feeling-to "lay them on," to take hold of, or to impart healing, spiritual office, or gift-to lift or spread them the posture of prayer-to lift those of another to comfort him to lift them against one to rebel-to join them a sign of combination; left hand used with the right, in idiomatical expressions, denoting both sides-left handed persons noted for dexterity and precision of aim-righthand the symbol of power, and the place of honour. Bosom the seat of emotions, as joy, sorrow, etc;-breast, smiting it, expressive of intense grief. Back, turning it the sign of forsakingbowing it of servitude-loins bound, and strengthened by the girdle, expressive of lineage or descent. Heart the seat of emotionto harden it, to persist in disobedience, to apply it, to denote oneself to study. Liver called glory in the Hebrew Scriptures; reins or kidneys, figuratively, the seat of feelingbowels, used in many places of Scripture, where in modern language, heart would be employed. Thigh, putting the hand under it a form of oath. Knee, kneeling, token of obeisance to God or man-leg, foot, instruments of motion, therefore the symbol of personal action, purpose, etc., Feet used idiomatically in various ways, "under feet," token of subjection, "at the feet" close attendance on, or implied inferiority, "falling at another's" feet an act of homage.

CANAAN.

As defined by Moses, extending to Egypt, the great (Mediterranean) Sea, the desert, and the river (Euphrates); as defined by Ezekiel in vision, more limited and more nearly coincides with the territory generally possessed by the tribes, noted for its hills and valleys, fountains and springs, -its wheat, barley, vines, figtrees, and pomegranates, and for its richness represented as flowing with milk and honey, etc.

PROMISE OF POSSESSION,

Repeatedly given to Abraham and the Patriarchs, to Moses, Joshua, etc., subsequent allusions to the same subject made by David, by the captives from Babylon, aud by Stephen and Paul,-conditions of continued possession, that the tribes should obey God and abstain from idolatry.

COMMISSION TO CONQUER THE LAND, Given to Moses and renewed to Joshua,the aborigines to be expelled, gigantic in stature, given up to idolatry with other kindred sins, and falling under the judgment of

God, the expulsion accomplished by Israel under Moses and Joshua, acting under the Captain of the Lord's host,-prosecuted little by little, the original inhabitants who were spared being in the meantime placed under tribute,-the chosen people entering on the possession of cities which they had not built, and vineyards and oliveyards which they had not planted.

CHART FOR THE DIVISION OF THE COUNTRY.

Canaan proper, having the wilderness of Sin, etc., on the south, the great sea on the west, Lebanon on the north, and the Jordan on the east; the territory on the other side Jordan, having the Arnon on the south, the wilderness on the east, Hermon and Bashan on the north, and the Jordan on the west;— the territory east of the Jordan conquered under Moses, and allocated to two and a half of the tribes, the rest by Joshua, and given to the remaining nine tribes and a half.

THE SEVERAL INHERITANCES, Allocated to the several tribes and families for the most part or altogether by lot, and

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