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1,762

Gross receipts for the year, including $ 200,000 appropriated

for government postages, and $ 48,739 collected from and $ 4,371,077

belonging to the accounts of preceding years, Expenditures for the year,

4,326,850 The receipts exceeded the expenditures,

44,227 During the year, 1,309 new post-offices were established, and 296 were discontinued. 2,169 postmasters were appointed in consequence of resig. nations; 184 in consequence of deaths; 240 for changes of sites of the offices; 1,309 to new offices; 197 by removals; 3 where commissions expired, and were not renewed; 14 where commissions were renewed; 5 by becoming Presidential appointments; in all, 4,121. 2. Table of Mail Service for the Year ending June 30, 1848.*

Length
Annual Transportation.

Total
States.
of

Total
In
Mode not

Railroad Transpor-
routes.

and

tation. Cost. specified. Coaches.

St'mboat.
Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles, Miles.
Maine,

4,183 856,693 284,118 70,824 1,211,635 $ 42,565 New Hampshire,

2,188

229,144 362,440 144,768 736,352 26,242 Vermont, 2,423 301,018 456,22

757,216 26,228 Massachusetts,

3,963

331,370 639,402 | 1968,858 1,989,630 109,071 Rhode Island,

414 58,760 77,376 30.261 166,400 9,1931 Connecticut, :

361,493 175,656 +230,444 770,593 46,485 New York,

13,331 1,929,176 1,657,959 1,455,382 5,072,517 233,148 New Jersey, :

2,029 117,330 425,464 223.298 766,082 59,435 Pennsylvania,

10,369

909,922 1,587,50 356,720 2,854, 150 155,778 Delaware, 555 66.144 84.861 1

151,008 17,887 Maryland,

2,379
243,828 306,332

391,768

941,928 134.014 Virginia,

11,370 1,410,890 653,874 406,120 2,470,884 165,472 North Carolina,

7,632

800,736 480,16 342,640 1,623,544 152,166 South Carolina,

4,704

517.663 253,656 267,176 1,065,500 105,491 Georgia,

6,421

723,426 286,20 478,660 1,493,294 136,918 Florida,

1,784 156,272 102,372 39,000 297,614 24,937 Ohio,

11,825 939.037 1,696,029 450,790 3,085,856 169,877 Michigan,

4,188

429,204 352,600 200,720 982,524 41.509 Indiana,

7,224 851.290 399,062 92,352 1,345,704 58,664 Illinois, 8.925 800,190 1,358,240

2,158,430 105,627 Wisconsin, 3,626 333.984 177,112

511,096 18,786 Iowa, 2,178 249,392 89,544

338.936 12,511 Missouri, .

9,035 739,076 463,832 $475,696 1,683,604 55,221 Kentucky,

8.332 893,280 354,68 111,504,872 2,752,840 92,152 Tennessee, 7,074 692.896 692.016

1,384.912 61,537 Alabama,

6,851

839,020 527,280 1252,722 1,619,022 143,079 Mississippi,

4,707
567,216

330,304 52,104 949 621 67.223 Arkansas,

5,334 573,460 107,640 55.536 736.636 44,529 Louisiana,

3,623 308,880 28,496 205,856 543,232 45,115 Texas,

4,779 422,396 109,720 16,640 548,756 43,838 Total,

163,208 17,744,191 14,555,188 8,713,200 41,012,579 2,394,703 Mail Agencies,

51,063 Foreign mails, 3,800

100.500 167,003 17,744,191 14,555,18€ 8,713,200 11,012.579 2.549,266 * The entire service and pay of the route are set down to the State under which it is numbered, though extending into other States, instead of being divided among the States in which each portion of it lies. † These embrace some express transportation. 1 The Baltimore, Wilmington, and Philadelphia Railroad is under a Maryland number. $ This embraces the steamboat service from St. Louis to New Orleans. || This embraces the steamboat service from Louisville to Cincinnati, and from Louisville to New Orleans.

T This includes the route from Mobile to New Orleans.

3. Number of Post-Offices, Extent of Post-Routes, and Revenue and Expen

ditures of the Post-Office Department; with the Amount paid to Postmasters and for Transportation of the Mail, since 1790.

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Revenue Expenditures Amount paid for of the

of the Compen. of Transport'n Department. | Department. Postmast'rs. of the Mail.

75

453

1790 1795 1800 1805 1810 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819

1820 1921 1822 1823 1824

1825

1826 1827 1828

Miley.

1,875 13,207 20,817 31,076 36,406 43,748 48,673 52,089 59,473 67,586 72,492 78,808 82,763 84,860 84,860 94,052 94,052 105,336 105,336 115,000 115,176 115,486 104,466 119,916 119,916 112,774 118,264 141,242 134,818 133,999 155,739 155,026 149,732 142,295 144,687 143,940 152,865 153,818 163,208

903 1,558 2,300 3,000 3,260 3,459 3,618 4,000 4,500 4,650 4,709 4,043 5,182 5,677 6,150 7,003 7,530 8,004 8,450 8,686 9,205 10,127 10,693 10,770 11,091 11,767 12,519 12,780 13,468 13,778 13,733 13,814 14,103 14,183 14,601 15,146 16,159

1829 1830 1831 1832 1833

8 37,935 160,620 280,804 421,373

551,684 1,043,065

961,782 1,002,973 1,130,235 1,204,737 1,111,927 1,059,087 1,117,490 1,130,115 1,197,758 1,306,525 1,447,703 1,54,633 1,659,915 1,707,418 1,850,583 1,997,811 2,258,570 2,617,011 2,823,749 2,993,356 3,408,323 4,235,779 4,238,733 4,481,657 4,543,522 4,407,726 4,546,819 4,296,225 4,237,288 4,289,841 3,487,199 3,955,893 4,371,077

$ 32,140
117,893
213,994
377,367
495,969
748,121
804,422

916,515 1,035,832 1,117,861 1,160,926 1,184,283 1,167,572 1,156,995 1,188,019 1,229,043 1,366,712 1,468,959 1,689,945 1,782,132 1,932,708 1,936,122 2,266,171 2,930,414 2,910,605 2,757,350 3,811,766 3,544,630 4,430,662 4,636,536 4,718,236 4,499,528 5,674,752 4,374,754 4,296,513 4,320,732 4,084,297 3,979,570 4,326,850

$ 8,198 30,272 69,243 111,552 149,438 241,901 265,944 303,916 346,429 375,828 352,295 337,599 355,299 360,462 383,804 411,183 447,727 486,411 548,049 559,237 595,234 635,028 715,481 826,283 897,317 915,418 812,803 891,352 933,918

980,000 1,028,925 1,018,615 1,147, 256 1,426,394 1,358,316 1,409,875 1,042,079 1,060,228

$ 22,081

75,359 128,644 239,635 327,966 487,779 521,970 589, 189 664,611 717,881 782,425 815,681 788,618 767,464 768,939 785,616 885, 100

942,345 1,086,313 1,153,616 1,274,009 1,252, 226 1,482,507 1,894,638 1,925,544 1,719,007 1,638,052 1,996,727 3,131,308 3,285,622 3,296,876 3,159,375 3,087,796 2,947,319 2,938,551 2,905,504 2,716,673 2,476,455 2,394,703

1834

1835

1836

1837 1838

1839 18.10

1811

1842

1813

1844 1815 1816 1817 18 18

* The returns for 1316, 1817, and 1848 are for the first three years under the new law, passed March 3, 1815.

4. Revenue and Expenditure of the Post-Office from 1st July, 1836, to 30th

June, 1848. Year ending

Newspapers Total Annual Total Annual 30th June.

Letter Postage. and Pamphlets. Receipts. Expenditures. 1837 $ 3,674,834 $ 425,714 $ 4,236,779 $ 3,544,630 1838 3,776,125 458,737 4,238,733 4,430,662 1839 3,976,446 500,873 4,484,657 4,636,536 1840 4,003,776 535,229 4,543,522 4,718,236 1841 3,812,739 566,246 4,407,726 4,499,528 1842 3,953,315 572,225 4,546,849 5,674,752 1843 3,738,307

543,277 4,296,225 4,374,754 1844 3,676,162 549,744 4,237,288 4,296,513

1845 3,660,231 608,765 4,289,841 4,320,732 Total to 30th June, 1845,

34,271,935 4,760,810 39,281,620 40,496,353 Average of

3,807,993 528,979 Nine Years,

4,364,625 4,499,595

The above statistics apply wholly to the revenue under the old law. The following table shows the income for the first three years under the new law:

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From the above tables it will be seen that the annual average income for nine years, ending 30th June, 1845, was $4,364,625; and that for the

three years under the new law it has been $3,938,056. The average exį penditure for the nine years was $4,499,595; and for the three years it has

been $ 4,130,239. The average revenue from letter-postage for the nine years was $ 3,807,993; and for the three years it has been $3,210,319. The increase in revenue from letter-postage in 1847, over that of 1846, was $317,260. The increase in 1848 over 1847 was $ 351,347. The increase in 1848 over 1846 is $ 668,600. The postage on newspapers and pamphlets has steadily increased, and has not only exceeded the average of the nine years preceding June 30th, 1845, but has been larger than that of any of the single years. This is owing partly to the increased rates of postage on newspapers and pamphlets under the act of March 30, 1847.

The reduction in the expenditures has been made in the lettings in the different sections, where the service has been taken at reduced prices, under that provision of the act of 1845 which directs the acceptance of the lowest bid, without regard to the former contractor, or the stock which he may have had on the road. At the same time the mail service has been increased, both in the number and extent of the routes, and in the frequen. cy of the transmission of the mails.

* Exclusive of fines.

5. Business of the Post-Office and Compensation of Postmasters. It was estimated that the number of letters paying postage, including ship and steamboat letters, drop-letters, and printed circulars, which passed through the mails for the year ending June 30th, 1847, was $ 52,173,480. This estimate was founded upon the revenues of the preceding year, and upon the October returns of 1845. Besides this number, there were not less than 5,000,000 free and franked letters, and about 1,800,000 dead letters were returned to the department. A similar estimate for the year ending June 30th, 1848, would give, as the number of paying letters for that year, 58,069,075; and of these it is supposed that over one fourth, and less than one third, paid the ten-cent rate. Between December 1st, 1847, and October 1st, 1848, there were sent through the mails, free of postage, about 5,000,000 copies of speeches and other matter weighing under two ounces, and about 177,000 public documents, besides the letters written by the members of the House of Representatives; and there still remained to be forwarded more than one half of the public documents ordered to be printed at the preceding session. In seven days, from the 6th to the 12th August, 1848, 450 bags of free matter, weighing 35,550 pounds, – - or a daily average of 5,078 pounds, – passed through the city post-office at Washington. About 2,000,000 dead letters are annually returned to the department, and as many more newspapers, periodicals, &c., are sent to the various offices, and never called for.

The rates of commissions of postmasters are as follows, viz.:

1. On the amount of letter postage, not exceeding $100 in any one quarter,

40 per cent. 2. On any sum between $ 100 and $ 400 in any one year, 33 3. On any sum between $ 400 and $ 2,400 in a year, ·

30 4. On any sum over $2,400 in a year,

12} 5. On the amount of letters and packets received for distribution at offices designated by the Postınaster-General for

7 6. On all'sums arising from the postage on newspapers, magazines, and pamphlets,

50 7. Box rents not exceeding $2,000 per annum.

The postmasters at New Orleans and Washington have special allow. ances for extra labor. To the postmasters at offices where the mail is regularly to arrive between the hours of 9 o'clock at night and 5 in the morning, the commission on the first $ 100 collected in one quarter may be increased by the Postmaster-General to a sum not exceeding 50 per cent. To postmasters whose pay does not exceed $2,000 per annum, two cents are paid for the delivery of each free letter or document.

The term letter postage includes all postages received, except those which arise from newspapers sent from the offices of publication to subscribers, and from pamphlets and magazines.

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6. Rates of Postage within the United States. For a letter not exceeding half an ounce in weight (avoirdupois), sent not exceeding 300 miles,

5 cents. Sent over 300 miles,

10 A letter over half an ounce in weight, but not exceeding an ounce, is rated with two charges of single postage ; over one ounce, but not exceeding two ounces, with four charges; over

two ounces, but not exceeding three ounces, six charges of single : postage, and so on: there being two additional charges for each

succeeding ounce, or fraction of an ounce, beyond the first ounce.
When advertised, two cents additional are charged on each letter,
or four cents, if the advertising cost so much.

The postage of a single letter to Oregon or California, via
Chagres and Panama, is 40 cents, to be prepaid or not, at the
| option of the sender.
For drop-letters (not to be mailed), each .

2
For all letters or packages, conveyed by any vessel not em-
ployed in carrying the mail, from one post or place to any other
Ti post or place in the United States,

2 For any pamphlet, magazine, periodical, or other matter of every kind that is transmittible by mail, and has no written communication on it, of one ounce or less, or for a newspaper exceeding 1,900 square inches of surface, sent from the office of publication,

2}" For each additional ounce, or an excess greater than a halfounce,

1 cent. For newspapers of 1,900 square inches or less, sent from the office of publication, not more than 100 miles, or any distance within the same State,

1 Sent over sueh distance,

1. " On each newspaper sent to Oregon or California, the postage is 43 cents; to be prepaid, except when sent from the office of publication.

Transient newspapers, i. e. those not sent from the office of publication, are subject to the general newspaper-postage rates; but the postage is in all cases to be prepaid.

For handbills, or circular letters, printed or lithographed, not exceeding one sheet in size (sent any distance), to be paid upon delirery at the office and before they are put in the mails,

3 cents. As the postage on these articles is chargeable on each copy, postmasters will carefully examine all packets, and rate the postage accordingly. When the article to be mailed is a circular, pamphlet, or newspaper, it should be so enveloped or folded that it can be distinctly seen at the office to be such, and also that it contain no writing, marks, or signs, to serve the purpose of written communications. If not done up so as to open at the end, it is to be charged as a letter, by weight.

No packet can be mailed which weighs more than three pounds. Bound

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