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Gross ExpenCost. Receipts ses

in 1848. in 1819. $ 3,222,289 516,252 266,450 328,091 | 140,970

63,213 3,000,000 477,052 267,173

130,000 500,000 450,000 395,600 100,000 168,000

450,000 50,000 30.000 1,508,402 280,086 136.617 1,754,260 298.166 137,216 1,106,131 85 276 27,355

Ga. Central (Savannah to Macon), .
Macon and Western,

101
Georgia (Augusta to’Atlanta),.

170 Athens Branch,

40 Western and Atlantic,

102 Fa. Tallahassee and St. Marks,

26 St. Joseph (St. Joseph to Jola),

28 Montgomery and West Point,

67 Tuscumbia and Decatur,

46 Miss. Vicksburg and Jackson,

46 Jackson and Brandon,

13 Mississippi (Natchez and Malcolm),

30 St. Francisville and Woodville,

28 Ky. Lexington and Ohio (to Frankfort),

29

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468.529 381,150 5,554,633

427,430 239,234 936,295 300,000

84 Ohio, Little Miami,

Mad
River and Lake Erie,

135
Sandusky and Mansfield, -

57 Ind. Madison and Indianapolis,

86 Mich. Central (Detroit to Kalamazoo),

2181 Southern (Monroe to Hillsdale),

63 Tecumseh Branch,

10 Detroit and Pontiac,

25 Adrian and Toledo,

33 Total out of New England and New York, 4,058 Grand total in the United States, .

6,117}

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6

XXVIII. POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES.

Cities.

1790.

1800.

1810.

1820.

1830.

1840.

1845.

New York,
Philadelphia,
Baltimore,
New Orleans, .
Boston,
Cincinnati,
Brooklyn,
Albany,
Charleston,
Washington,
Providence,
Louisville,
Pittsburg,
Lowell,
Rochester,
Richmond,
Troy, .
Buffalo,
Newark,
St. Louis,
Portland,
Salem,

* Including the county.

33,131 60,439 96,373|123,706 203,007 312,710.371,102
42,520 70,287 96,664 108,116 167,118 258,037*
13,503 26,614 46,555 62,738 80.625 134,379*

17,242 27.176 46.310 102.193
18,038 24,927 32,250 43,298 61,392 93,383 114,366

750 2,540 9,614 24,831 46,338

3,298 4,402 7,175 12.042 36.233 59,566 3,498 5,349 9,356 12,630 24,238 33,721 41,139 16,359 18,712 24,711 24,480 30,289 29.261 3,210 8,208 13,247 18,827

23.361 7,614 10,071 11,767 16,832 23,171

1,357 4,012 10,352 21,210 1,565 4,768 7,248 12,542 21,115

6,474 20.796 28.841

1,502 9,269 20,191 25,265 5,537 9,735 12,046 16,060 20,153 3,885

5,264 11,401 19,334 21,709 1,508 2,095 8,653 18,213 29,773

6,507 10,953 17,290 34,140

4,598 5,852 16,469 63.4917 3,677 7,169 8,581 12,601 15,218 19,0131 7,921 9,457 12,613 12,721 13,886 15,082

| In 1849.

1 In 1848.

XXIX. STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER AND DESIGNATION

OF PASSENGERS ARRIVING IN THE UNITED STATES DUR

ING THE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1848. [From a letter of the Secretary of State to the Speaker of the House of Representatives,

dated December 12, 1848.)
1. States in which the Passengers arrived.

Sex not
States.
Males. Females.

stated.

Total. Maine, 3,589 2,670

6,259 New Hampshire,

33
15

48 Massachusetts,

13,052 8,839

472 22,363 Rhode Island,

61
47

108 Connecticut,

7
1

8 New York, 96,318 64,676

160,994 Delaware, 989 1,002

1,991 Pennsylvania, 5,385 4,439

9,824 Maryland, 4,133 2,958

7,091 Virginia,

237
187

424 South Carolina,

232
104

336 North Carolina,

5
4

9 Georgia,

27
10

37 Florida,

49
30

79 Louisiana, 11,614 7,685

19,299 Texas,

397
225

622
Total,
136,128 92,892

472 229,492 2. The Countries registered as the Birthplaces of the Passengers. Great Britain and Ireland, 148,212 France,

7,743 United States, 2,968 Prussia,

451 British America, 6,354 Denmark,

210 Germany, 58,018 Switzerland,

319 West Indies,

1,271 Other countries, or unkn’n, 3,043 Sweden and Norway,

903
Total, ·

229,492 3. Ages. Less than 5 years,

18,484 Between 25 and 30 years, 35,329 Between 5 and 10 years, 17,249

30 46 35

21,765 10 " 15

17,480
35 " 40

13,891
15 20
29,157 Above 40 years,

23,066 20 " 25 51,008 Not returned,

2,085 Total,

229,514 4. Occupations. Laborers,

47,125 Women and children not Servants,

4,433

counted in families, 5,263 Merchants, 3,486 Farmers,

34,434 Professional men, students, Other occupations, or unand engineers, 364 known,

109,293 Mechanics, miners, and

Total, .

229,380 manufacturers,

24,982 These tables include only those who were entered at the custom-house. If those who came to the United States by way of the British Provinces, and those not regularly entered at any custom-house, were reckoned, the number would be much increased.

Some trifling errors, probably typographical, exist in the tables of the Secretary's letter. These have been correcied when the means were at hand; but some may still be noted above.

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979,000

979,000 65,000 New Hampshire, None.

None.
Vermont,
None.

None.
Massachusetts,

1,041,491 5,049,556 6,091,047 52,540 Rhode Island, Connecticut,

None.

33,212 33,212 New York,

22,703,343 1,233,906 23,937,249 1,253,584 New Jersey, 62,596

62,596 3,756 Pennsylvania, 40,424,737

40,424,737 2,139,043 Delaware, None.

None. Maryland,

8,800,000 7,100,000 15,900,000 525,000 Virginia,

8,368,767 6,071,740 | 14,400,507 491,540 North Carolina,

None. 977,000 977,000 South Carolina, . 3,622,039

3,622,039 217,332 Georgia, 1,903,472

1,903,472 116,053 Florida, Alabama, 10,385,938

10,385,938 542,581 Mississippi,

2,271,707 5,000,000 7,271,707 136,000 Louisiana,

1,380,566 14,857,565 | 16,238,131 78,914 Texas, 11,050,201

11,050,201 Arkansas,

3,682,172 180,000 3,862,172 153,670 Tennessee, 3,337,856

3,337,856 177,426 Kentucky, 4,531,913

4,531,913 271,975 Ohio, 19,173,223

19,173,223 1,159,893 Michigan, 2,849,939

2,849,939 175,000 Indiana, 6,556,437

6,556,437 244,228 Illinois, 16,612,795

16,612,795 Missouri, 956,261

956,261 75,000 Iowa, 55,000

55,000 5,500 Wisconsin,

None. Total,

170,749,453 40,502,979 211,252,432 7,884,035 Total, near Jan. 1, 1848, 169,776,030 35,932,008 205,708,038 8,521,671

1847, 165,129,900 51,781,654 216,911,554 9,072,939 1846, 179,635,022 | 44,388,805 224,023,827 | 9,930,052

Total, “
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These tables are believed to be very accurate, being compiled almost exclusively from official reports made by the Treasurers and Auditors to the Legislatures of the several States, near the 1st of January, 1849. The account of the State debts, in particular, is full, and may be depended upon ; that of the several kinds of property owned by the States of course is more defective, - for the State archives seldom afford complete materials for accurate accounts of this sort, and the property is sometimes estimated at a nominal valuation, which is much above its market value. The editor of the American Almanac respectfully invites his correspondents in the

1

· THE FINANCES OF THE STATES.

States.

Amount

of School Fund.

Other
Productive
Property.

Ordinary annuOther Property al Expenditure

not now exclusive of Productive. Debts and

Schools.

Maine, .

350,000

700,000 New Hampshire, None. None. Vermont,

None. None. Massachusetts, :

850,767

6,712,885 1,500 Rhode Island,

51,300 Connecticut,

2,077,641 406,000 New York,

6,491,803 31,763,468 New Jersey,

369,278 222,398 764,671 Pennsylvania,

32,152,754 Delaware,

225,000 190,000 Maryland,

4,608,970 16,526,915 Virginia,

1,488,261 6,107,634 5,409,706 North Carolina, South Carolina,

4,910,030 Georgia,

262,300 10,000 15,635 Florida, Alabama,

1,215,381 3,177,150 Mississippi,

2,000,000 Louisiana,

2,416,938
Texas,
Arkansas,
Tennessee,

1,346,068 4,837,430 1,101,390 Kentucky,

1,221,819 3,520,500 Ohio,

1,566,931 18,000,000 Michigan,

500,000 889,229 Indiana,

2,195,149 Illinois, Missouri,

575,668 Iowa,

132,909 Wisconsin, Total,

21,420,275 118,508,448 28,236,755 Total, near Jan.1,1848, 20,338,246 111,638,746 31,498,469 Total,

1847, 17,631,553 108,643,384 | 30,660,945 Total,

1846, 16,608,719 110,396,552 23,232,715

150,000

75,000 90,000 450,000

45,000 100,000 750,000 117,700 350,000

11,000 180,300 573,324

75,000 115,000 131,000

45,000 120,000 130,000 515,207 116,000

76,121 165,000 250,000 213,000 135,000 100,000 125,000 110,000 25,000

20,000 5,258,652 5,062,310 5,435,285 5,455,186

several States to communicate such errors as they may detect in these tables, and they will be republished in the volume for 1851 in a revised and perfect condition. The object here is to give only a summary of the facts, so as to afford the means of comparing the States with each other. Their financial condition is shown at much greater length under the head of “Individual States.” Official returns published in this work for 1843 (page 135) showed that the total of the debts of the States in 1842 was $ 198,818,736. It is apparent, then, that there has been no great reduction of these debts.

XXXI. CONGRESS.

The Congress of the United States consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, and must assemble at least once every year, on the first Monday of December, unless it is otherwise provided by law.

The Senate is composed of two members from each State ; and, of course, the regular number is now 60. They are chosen by the Legislatures of the several States, for the term of six years, one third of them being elected biennially.

The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate, in which body he has only a casting vote, which is given in case of an equal division of the votes of the Senators. In his absence, a President pro tempore is chosen by the Senate.

The House of Representatives is composed of members from the several States, elected by the people, for the term of two years. The Representatives are apportioned among the different States according to population. The 31st Congress is chosen according to the act of Congress of 1842, the ratio being “one Representative for every 70,680 persons in each State, and one additional Representative for each State having a fraction greater than one moiety of the said ratio, computed according to the rule prescribed by the Constitution of the United States.” The law of 1842 also requires, that the Representatives of each State “shall be elected by districts composed of a contiguous territory, equal in number to the number of Representatives to which said State may be entitled, no one district electing more than one Representative.” The present number of Representatives is 231, and there are two Delegates, one each from Oregon and Minesota, who have a right to speak, but not to vote.

Since the 4th of March, 1817, the compensation of each member of the Senate and House of Representatives has been $8 a day, during the period of his attendance in Congress, without deduction in case of sickness; and $8 for every twenty miles' travel, in the usual road, in going to and returning from the seat of government. The compensation of the President of the Senate pro tempore, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, is $ 16 a day.

THIRTY-FIRST CONGRESS. THE SENATE.

MILLARD FILLMORE, New York, President.
[The figures denote the expiration of the terms of the Senators.)
Maine.

Vermont.
Hannibal Hamlin, Hampden, 1851 Samuel S. Phelps, Middlebury, 1851
J. W. Bradbury, Augusta, 1853 William Upham, Montpelier, 1855
New Hampshire.

Massachusetts. John P. Hale, Dover, 1853 Daniel Webster, Marshfield, 1851 Moses Norris, Jr., Manchester, 1855 John Davis, Worcester,

1853

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