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business on the docket is determined, or continued upon good cause shown. It has power to hear and determine all cases in law and equity, brought before it by appeal, or by the parties. It has original and exclusive jurisdiction in repealing letters-patent, and also has power to issue all writs necessary and proper for the exercise of its jurisdiction.
Superior or Circuit Courts. Judges. — Salary, $ 1,950 each.
Solicitors. Thomas Settle, of Rockingham. Robert R. Heath, of Edenton. John M. Dick, of Greensboro'. John S. Hawks, of Washington. D. F. Caldwell, of Salisbury. Thomas L. Ashe, of Orange Co. John W. Ellis,
of Salisbury. John F. Poindexter, of Fayetteville. John L. Bailey, of Hillsborough. Hamilton C. Jones, of Rowan Co. M. E. Manly, of Newbern. Burgess S. Gaither, of Ashville. Wm. H. Battle, of Chapel Hill.
Barth. F. Moore, of Halifax Co., Attorney-General. The judges of the Supreme and the Superior Courts are elected by joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly, to hold office during good behaviour. Their salaries cannot be diminished during continuance in office.
Salary of a solicitor, $ 20 for each court which he attends, and fees for conviction. The Attorney-General receives, in addition, $ 100 for each term of the Supreme Court which he attends.
The Superior Courts of Law, and the Courts of Equity, are held twice each year in every county of the State. There are seven circuits, of about ten counties each, which the judges ride alternately, never visiting, however, the same circuit twice in succession. The judges of these courts have complete equity jurisdiction.
Receipts from Nov. 1st, 1846, to Oct. 31st, 1847,
$ 251,717.65 Expenditures during same period,
175,402.61 Excess of receipts,
76,315.04 State Debt.- - This is contingent, and arises from indorsements by the State of bonds of railroad companies, to the amount of $ 1,100,000. From this deduct $ 13,000 for bonds not used, and $ 110,000 for bonds paid; which reduces the amount for which the State may be liable to $ 977,000.
Deaf and Dumb. The corner-stone of the building for the North Carolina Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb was laid April 14, 1848. The institution is in Raleigh, near the State House. The grounds have an extent of four acres. The main building, when completed, will be 60 feet by 36, and four stories high. The two wings, each 38 by 22, will run at right angles from the main edifice, and will be three stories high.
Lunatic Asylum. — The Legislature, at its last session, imposed a tax of one cent and three quarters on every $ 100 worth of land, and 54 cents on every taxable poll per annum for four years, to raise a fund for building a lunatic asylum. The tax will yield about $ 80,000 in the four years.
XIV. SOUTH CAROLINA.
Government for the Year 1850.
Salary. W. B. SEABROOK, of Edisto Island, Governor,
$3,500 W. H. Gist,
of Union C. H., Lieutenant-Governor. B. K. Hennegan, of Marion C. H., Secretary of State,
Fees. William C. Black, of York District, Comptroller-General, 2,000 Jeremiah D. Yates, of Charleston, Treasurer, Lower Division, 2,000 R. C. Griffin, of Abbeville Dist.,
Upper Division, 1,600 William F. Arthur, of Columbia, Surveyor-General,
Fees. F. H. Elmore,
of Charleston, Pres. Bank of the State of S.C., 3,000 W. E. Martin, of Grahamville, Clerk of the Senate,
1,000 Thomas W. Glover, of Orangeburg, Clerk of the House,
1,000 The Governor is elected by the Senate and House of Representatives jointly, to serve for two years, and is not reëligible until after the expiration of four years. In case of his death, or removal from office, the LieutenantGovernor acts as Governor.
Legislature. - Assembles at Columbia, on the fourth Monday in November, annually. Representatives (124 in number) are chosen for two years, on a mixed basis of population and taxation. Pay, $3 a day, and 10 cents for every mile of travel. The Senate consists of 45 members, who are elected for four years ; one half chosen every second year. Pay of Senators the same as that of Representatives.
JUDICIARY. The judges and chancellors are elected by joint ballot of both houses. They hold their commissions during good behaviour, and receive a compensation which can neither be increased nor diminished during their continuance in office. Repeated attempts have been made to limit their tenure to 65 or 70 years, but without success. A judge, or chancellor, may order a special court, and a chancellor may hear cases, by consent, at chambers. Chancellors in Equity.
Appointed. Salary. Job Johnston, of Newbury,
1830 $ 3,000 Benjamin Faneuil Dunkin, of Charleston,
1837 3,000 J. J. Caldwell, of Columbia,
1846 3,000 G. W. Dargan, of Darlington,
1847 3,000 Judges of the General Sessions and Common Pleas. John S. Richardson, of Sumter,
3,500 Josiah J. Evans, of Society Hill,
3,000 J. B. O'Neall, of Newberry,
1835 3,000 D. L. Wardlaw,
3,000 Edward Frost, of Charleston,
3,000 T. J. Withers, of Camden,
Appointed. Salary. Isaac W. Hayne, of Charleston, Attorney-General, $1,100 and fees. A. M. McIver, Solicilor for Eastern Circuit,
900 and fees. J. N. Whitner,
900 and fees. Simeon Fair,
900 and fees. T. N. Dawkins,
900 and fees. M. L. Bonham,
900 and fees. James A. Strobhart, of Grahamville, State Reporter, 1847
1,500 Law Court of Appeals and Equity Court of Appeals. — The former, consisting of all the law judges, for hearing appeals from the Courts of Law, and the latter, of all the chancellors, for hearing appeals from the Courts of Equity, are held in Columbia on the first Monday in May and fourth Monday in November. These courts are also held in Charleston on the second Monday in January, for hearing and determining appeals for the Districts of Georgetown, Horry, Beaufort, Colleton, and Charleston.
Clerks. — At Charleston, T. J. Gantt. At Columbia, A. Herbemont.
Courts for the Correction of Errors, consisting of all the judges in law and equity, to try constitutional questions, or questions where the law and equity courts are divided, and which are referred thereto by either of the courts, are held at such times, during the sitting of the Courts of Appeal, as the chancellors and judges may appoint.
Courts of Common Pleas and General Sessions. — These courts have original jurisdiction in all civil cases where legal rights are involved (except in matters of contract where the amount is $ 20 or under), and in all criminal cases affecting free white men; and appellate jurisdiction in all appeals from Magistrates' Courts, and in appeals from the Court of Ordinary in all cases except in matters of account. They are held in each and every district of the State twice in each year. The times of holding the court for Charleston District are the first Monday in May, to sit six weeks, and the fourth Monday in October, to sit four weeks. Daniel Horlbeck, Clerk for Charleston District.
Courts of Equity take cognizance of all matters belonging to a court of equity, as contradistinguished from a court of law. A term is held by one chancellor, annually, in each district, except Charleston District, where two terms are held; viz. on the first Monday in February, to sit six weeks, and on the second Monday in June, to sit four weeks.
City Court of Charleston. — An inferior court of limited jurisdiction, both in civil and criminal causes. William Rice, Recorder.
Ordinary's Court.- Each district has its own Ordinary. The principal duties of the Ordinary are to grant letters of administration; probate of
examine executors' and administrators' accounts, &c. His office is the proper depository of wills and other papers relative to the administration of estates. An appeal lies from his determination, in matters of account, to the Court of Equity, and, in all other cases, to the Court of Common Pleas. M. T. Mendenhall, Ordinary for Charleston District.
Magistrates' Courts have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of contract of and under twenty dollars.
Court of Magistrates and Freeholders, for the trial of slaves and free persons of color for criminal offences.
$329,638.32 Whole amount expended,*
333,393.76 Whole amount of State debt, "
3,622,038.95 Property of the State. Bank of the State of South Carolina, for capital,
8 2,933,611.10 for sinking fund,
653,022.77 for balance due Treasurers,
101,071.15 Debt of railroad and canal companies,
523,396.69 Shares in S. C. Railroad Co. and Southwestern Railroad Bank,
800,000.00 Balances due by tax-collectors, sheriffs, &c., .
$5,020,517.32 Taxes for 1847. 317,468 slaves, $ 191,107.40 Lots,
$ 43,985.43 2.554 free negroes, 5,038.00 Lands,
31,189.39 Goods, wares, and merchandise, 24,496.09 Double taxes, arrears, &c.,
749.70 Professions, . 6,864.68| Total, .
$ 303,480.93 Free Schools. — Number of schools in 1843, 739; number of teachers, 737 ; number of scholars, 7,188. Amount expended by the Legislature, in 1847, $ 33,527.52. These schools are under the superintendence of commissioners appointed by the Legislature.
Government for the Year 1850. GEORGE W. Towns, of Muscogee Co., Governor, (term of office Salary. expires November, 1851,)
$3,000 Nathan C. Barnet, of Clark Co., Secretary of State,
1,600 William B. Tinsley, of Baldwin Co., Treasurer,
1,600 David E. Bothwell, of Jefferson Co., Comptroller-General, 1,600 P. M. Compton, of Butts Co., Surveyor-General,
1,600 John S. Thomas, of Baldwin Co., Director of the Central Bank. Anderson W. Redding, of Harris Co., Keeper of the Penitentiary. Jesse H. Campbell, of Baldwin Co., Commissioner of Deaf and Dumb. Andrew J. Miller, of Richmond Co., President of the Senate, $5 a day. William H. Crawford, of Sumter Co., Secretary of the Senate, 500 Charles J. Jenkins, of Richmond Co., Speaker of House of Rep., $5 a day. Allen F. Owen, of Talbot Co., Clerk of House of Rep., 500
The pay of members of the Legislature is $4 a day. The Legislature meets biennially. A new Legislature was elected October 1, 1849.
* In this amount is an item of $20,000, expended for the benefit of the Palmetto regiment.
1852 Hiram Warner, Judge,
1850 Eugenius A. Nisbet,
1854 The judges of the Supreme Court are elected by the General Assembly, and are removable upon address of two thirds of each house. All causes shall be determined at the first term; and in case the plaintiff is not ready for trial, unless he be prevented “by some providential cause,” the judg. ment of the court below shall be affirmed. Judges of the Superior Court are elected for six years, with jurisdiction exclusive in criminal cases, and in land cases; and concurrent in all other civil cases. Justices of the inferior courts are elected by the people, and act as probate judges. Justices of the peace are elected by the people in districts.
The State is divided into eleven circuits, with a judge for each. Salary. W. B. Fleming, of Chatham Co., Judge of Eastern Circuit, $1,800 W. W. Holt,
1,800 N. C. Sayre,
1,800 Charles Dougherty, of Clark Co.,
1,800 James A. Meriwether, .
1,800 J. J. Scarborough,
1,800 John Floyd, ·
1,800 Robert B. Alexander,
Chatahoochee “ 1,800 Aug. R. Wright, of Cass Co.,
1,800 Edward Y. Hill,
2,100 Lott Warren,
2,100 Alpheus Colvard,
Attorney-General, $ 250 and perquisites. Mordecai Shaftall, Sen., of Chatham Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and
Terminer, Savannah, 1,000 John W. Wilde, of Richmond Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and
Terminer, Augusta, 1,000 R. M. Orne, State Printer.
FINANCES. The public debt of the State consists of bonds issued for the construction of the Western and Atlantic Railway. Its aggregate amount may be stated at $ 1,903,472, of which $1,831,472.22 are in federal bonds payable at the treasury, and $ 72,000 in sterling bonds sold by Messrs. Reid, Irving, and Co., of London, England. The semiannual dividends of interest, as well as the principal of the sterling bonds, are payable in London. The balance in the Treasury, Oct. 21, 1847, was
$362,251.50 Receipts into the Treasury, year ending Oct. 20, 1848,
367.585 60 Aggregate receipts,
$729,837.10 Expenditures during the year were
361,219.37 Balance in Treasury, Oct. 21, 1848,
$365,537.73 Between Oct. 20, 1848, and November 28, 1848, there was received the sum of
$113,897.39, and paid out $ 19,929.16, which leaves in the Treasury, Nov. 28, 1848,
$ 159,555.96 or this balance there are unavailable the Education Fund, $ 262,300, and stocks, scrip, and accounts, amounting to
297,935.50 Leaving a balance of available assets of