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The character of much of the literature of this reign was considerably influenced by that of the sovereign, and by political events. The tumults of the preceding reign had subsided; and though many were still dissatisfied, the general joy and security induced by the restoration, disposed a large majority to settle into that tranquillity and good humour favourable to literary pursuits. The temper of Charles was cheerful, and inclined to pleasure; and the wit and humour which distinguished his voluptuous court, contributed to dilute and mollify the sourness of fanaticism, and the rage of faction.

The ardour for philosophical pursuits kindled by Bacon, shone forth with great lustre in the respected names of Boyle and Barrow. Theology became more calm and more rational; and South and Tillotson may be ranked, , in point of style, among the best writers in the language.

The stage of this period can boast the name of Dryden ; who is not only conspicuous as a dramatic writer, but as having been the first to fix the laws of the English drama. A new species of comedy commenced in this reign, which, laying aside the verse of the old drama, reduced it at once to a point of degradation, from which no attempt in diction has been made to recover it, till the time of John Tobin.

I should have noticed perhaps in the preceding reign, that the French Romances, as they are called, made their appearance about the year 1650. Calprenades, Cassandra; Cleopatra and Pharamond; the Clelia and Grand Cyrus of Madame Scudery; and the Ibrahim and Almahedi of her brother; (the Astrea of D'Urfe is of a different character, partaking more of the pastoral romance;) upon this detestable model is Parthenişsa, by the earl of Orrery.

Novels began also with short stories of intrigue, by Mrs. Behn*. The conversational

These, under the title of histories and novels, were published in two volumes 12mo. Lond. 1735, sth edit. with the life of the authoress prefixed.

style of writing too, was introduced by sir Roger L'Estrange; in which he was followed by Tom Brown; and all the slang and barbarism of colloquial life made their appearance

in print.


The general literary character of this period is well delineated by Dr. Isaac Barrow. reputation (says he,) appears now to vail and stoop to that of being a wit. To be learned, to be wise, to be good, are nothing in comparison thereto; even to be noble and rich are inferior things, and afford no such glory. Many at least, (to purchase this glory, to be deemed considerable in this faculty, and enrolled among the wits,) do not only make shipwreck of conscience, abandon virtue, and forfeit all pretences to wisdom; but neglect their estates and prostitute their honour: so to the private damage of many particular persons, and with no small prejudice to the public, are our times possessed and transported with this hy. mour."

VOL. 111.


FRANCIS Quarles, son of James Quarles, esq. clerk of the green cloth, and purveyor of the navy to queen Elizabeth, was born at Stewards near Romford in Essex, in 1592. He was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, and at Lincoln's Inn. He was subsequently preferred to the office of cup-bearer to Elizabeth, daughter of king James I. electress palatine, and queen of Bohemia; though he quitted her service, probably on the ruin of her husband's affairs, and went over to Ireland, where he became secretary to the learned archbishop Usher. On the breaking out of the rebellion in Ireland in 1641, he was compelled to fly to England again for safety, where he repaired to Charles I. then at Oxford. This circumstance, together with the

publication of a piece, which he entitled, “The Loyal Convert,” gave umbrage to the republican party, which ruined his fortunes. But the injury he most regretted was, the plunder of his books, and of some valued MSS. he had designed for the press; circumstances which are said to have accelerated his death, which happened in 1644.

In his day he was most known as a poet; though he was also the author of a few prose works, of which the principal is his

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If a kingdom be apt to rebellion, it is wisdom to preserve the nobility and commons at variance; where one of them is discontented, the danger is not great. The commons are slow of motion, if not quickened with the nobility ; the nobility is weak of power, if not strengthened by the commons. There

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