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Join BUNYAN, the well-known author of the Pilgrim's Progress, was born at Elstow, within a mile of Bedford, 1628. His origin was very humble, his father being a tinker ; in which occupation himself was also brought up. In his early years he seemed to manifest an inherent depravity, and was particularly addicted to cursing and swearing. But being reclaimed (as be says himself) by a voice from heaven, he began to read the Scriptures with great zeal, and soon became as remarkable for enthusiastic piety as he had been before for vulgar profaneness. In the year 1671, he became pastor of a Calvinistic congregation at Bedford. He died at the age of sixty, in 1688.

The most complete edition of Bunyan's works is that of Mr. George Whitefield, in two volumes folio, 1767 ; and the most considerable pieces in this collection are:

1. Grace abounding to the chief of Sinners,

in a faithful account of the Life of John Bunyan.

2. The Doctrine of the Law and Grace unfolded, or a Discourse touching the Law and Grace.

3. The Pilgrim's Progress, in two parts. 4. The Jerusalem Sinner saved.

5. The Heavenly Footman; or a Description of the Man that gets to Heaven. Together with the Way he runs in, the Marks he goes by. Also some directions how to run so as to obtain.

6. Solomon's Temple spiritualized, 7. A Discourse upon the Pharisee and Pub, ican.

8. The Life and Death of Mr. Badman. It is in the form of dialogue; and contains the different stages of a wicked man's life, and an account of bis miserable death.

9. The Barren Fig-tree; or, the Doom and Downfall of the fruitless Professor.

10. One Thing is Needful; or, Serious Me


ditations upon the four last things, Death, Judgment, Heaven, and Hel.

10. The Holy War, made by Shaddai upon Diabolus, for regaining the Metropolis of the World; or the losing and taking again of the Town of Mansoul.

19. A Discourse of the House of the Forest of Lebanon.

13. Christian Behaviour, being the Fruits of true Christianity.

14. A Discourse touching Prayer.

15. The Strait Gate; or great Difficulty of going to Heaven.

16. The Holy City, or New Jerusalem.
17. Divine Emblems.

In the Heavenly Footman, (article the fifth) is the following curious passage :

They that will have heaven, they must run for it; because the devil, the law, sin, death, and hell, followeth them. There is never a poor soul that is gom ing to heaven, but the devil, the law, sin, death, and hell, inake after that soul. The devil


adversary, as a 'roaring lion, goeth about, secking whom be

may devour. And I will assure you the devil is nimble; he can run apace; he is light of foot; he hath overtaken many; he hath turned up their heels, 16. Sends him his Apollonius, and Perspective Lectures. Oct. 11, 1970.

Of Wit.

First it may be demanded what the thing we speak of is, or what this facetiousness doth import? To which question I might reply as Deinocritus did to him that asked the definition of a man; 66 'Tis that which we all see and know.” Any one better apprehends what it is by acquaintance than I can inform him by description. It is indeed a thing so versatile and multiform, appearing in so many shapes, so many postures, so inany garbs, so variously apprehended by several eyes and judgments, that it seemé eth no less hard to settle a clear and certain notion thereof, than to make a portrait of Proteus, or to define the figure of the fleeting air. Sometimes it lieth in pat allusion to a known story, or

in able application of a trivial saying, or in 'forging an apposite tale : sometimes it playeth in words and phrases, taking advantage from the ambiguity of their sense, or the affinity of their sound. Sometimes it is wrapped in a dress of humorous expression; sometimes it lurketh under an odd similitude ; sometimes it is lodged in a sly question, in a smart answer, in a quirkish reason, in a shrewd intimation,


in cunningly diverting, or cleverly. retorting an objection: sometimes it is couched in a bold scheme of speech ; in a tart irony; in a lusty hyperbole; in a startling metaphor; in a plausible reconciling of contradictions, or in acute nonsense : sometimes a scehical-1

- representation of persons or things; a counterfeit speech; a inimical look or gesturė passeth for it: sometimes an affected simplicity, sometimes a presumptuous bluntness giveth it being : sometimes it riseth only from a lucky hitting upon what is strange; sometimes from a crafty wrestling obvious matter to the purpose : often it consists in one knows not what, and springeth up one can hardly tell how. Its ways are unaccountable and inexplicable, being answerable to the numberless rovings of fancy and windings of language. It is, in short, a manner of speaking out of the simple and plain way (such as reason teacheth and proveth things by) which by a pretty sürprizing uncouthness in conceit or expression doth affect and amuse the fancy, stirring in it some wonder, and breeding some delight thereto. It raiseth admiration, as signifying a nimble sagacity of apprehension, a special felicity of invention, a vivacity of spirit, and reach of wit more than vulgar. It seemeth to argue a rare quickness of parts, that one can fetch in remote conceits applicable ; a notable skill, that he can dexterously accommodate them to the purpose before him, together with a lively briskVOL. III,


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