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while the experimental demonstrations of the Laboratory render him familiar with the practical application of those principles to agricultural and manufacturing operations."

The committee proceed to consider at length the advantages to be derived from such an institution, refer to the particular industries that derive aid from Chemistry and other sciences, and conclude by saying that they do not hesitate to express their belief "that the system of instruction pursued in the Rensselaer School is eminently calculated to promote the best interests of the State, and they therefore respectfully suggest that the Board of Regents do recommend the proposition of the Trustees to the favorable consideration of the Legislature.

The first President of the School was AMOS EATON, whose pioneer labors in Geology, Botany and other branches of Natural Science entitle him to an honorable place in the Educational History of the State. While engaged in studying the "Canal Rocks of New York,” under the patronage of Hon. Stephen Van Rensselaer, about 182829, he made summer excursions with his school, in a flotilla of canal boats, from one end of the Erie canal to the other, stopping at every point that offered subjects of scientific interest or opportunities for studying structures in engineering, mechanical operations, quarries, fossil beds or mineral localities. His classes brought back at the end of the season rich stores of knowledge, gathered on the way, and habits of observation that would last through life.

By an act passed May 9, 1835, the Trustees of the Rensselaer Institute (formerly Rensselaer School) were empowered to establish a department of Mathematical seats, for the purpose of giving instruction in Engineering and Technology, as a branch of said institute, and to receive and apply donations for procuring instruments and other facilities suitable for giving such instruction in a practical manner, and to authorize the President to confer certificates on students in said department, in testimony of their respective qualifications for practical operators in the Mechanical Arts.

The act incorporating the Troy Academy was revived May 8, 1837, and the Trustees were allowed to unite with those of the Rensselaer Institute, and to be known as the department of Classical Literature of the latter. Each was to conduct its own operations according to its own laws and usages, and as respected the use of instruments, apparatus and library, particularly in field exercises and various excursions for purposes of improvement in

the Mathematical Arts and the Natural Sciences. The Institute under this union was to be subject to visitation by the Regents. The Troy Academy, although a separate institution, at present affords special facilities to students preparing for the Institute, and is regarded as its training school, and more students enter from it than from any other institution.

This institution was received under the visitation of the Regents, with the privileges of an Academy, February 5, 1846, and was classed with them until its reorganization in 1852, receiving for eight years a share of the literature moneys distributed to the academies of the State. It has at several times received appro priations from the Legislature. In 1873, it obtained a grant of $10,000, to assist in rebuilding after a fire; in 1868, it got $15,000, and in 1871, $3,750.

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By an act passed March 8, 1850, the restrictions as to place of residence of Trustees was removed, and the number was increased to nineteen, the first members of the new Board being named. The office of Director was created. He was always to be an acting member of the faculty.

By an act passed April 8, 1861, a full Board of Trustees was named, their powers enlarged and defined, and the name changed to the "Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute."

The purposes of the Institute were declared to be, the maintenance in the city of Troy, of a school for instruction in Mathematics, Civil Engineering, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geology, Botany, Literature and the Arts in their application to Agriculture, Domestic Economy and Manufactures, as the Trustees might direct.

The Faculty, consisting of the President of the Board of Trustees, the Director, Professors and Teachers, were to have charge of instruction and discipline, their duty being to pursue such a system of instruction as would be calculated to make thorough scholars in the several branches of Civil Engineering, and other studies in the Institute.

The Trustees might confer the degrees of Civil Engineer, Topographical Engineer, or Bachelor of Science, or such other academic honors as they might deem proper, upon those who had pursued the course of study prescribed, and who had passed a thorough examination, and had been recommended by the Faculty. The Institute was subject to visitation by the Regents, and entitled to the same privileges as academies, colleges and schools of the higher

order, upon complying with the terms required by law, and with the rules of the Regents. The change of name was to affect no right.

The State Paleontologist, was directed by act of April 23, 1864, to present to the Institute as full a series of fossils from the duplicates of the State Museum, as could be made up, for the use of the school.

The Institute building was burned in 1862, but soon after rebuilt, and is at present a substantial and imposing structure, 115 feet long, 50 wide, and four stories high. The Winslow Laboratory, named in honor of John F. Winslow, of Poughkeepsie, a former President of the Institute, is adjacent, being 60 feet in length, 40 in width, and three stories high. The Williams Proudfit Observatory, erected by the late Ebenezer Proudfit, Esq., of Troy, as a memorial of his deceased son, formerly a member of the Institute, occupies a commanding site, and consists of a central part 30 feet square, with north, south and east wings, with a total length of 76 and total breadth of 60 feet.

There are extensive collections of various kinds, in different departments of the natural and physical sciences, including apparatus, instruments and models and other conveniences for instruction.

The Reports of this institution to the Regents have not been continuous since its reorganization as a general Polytechnic Institute in 1861, although there has been no interruption in its operations.

The report published in 1883 shows an attendance of 104, in the four Divisions, and 4 in special studies. Number of graduates in June, 1882 (C. E.), 17. Whole number of graduates, 775.

The annual tuition fee is $200; Graduation fee, $18.

The total value of property is reported at $116,500, of which $88,500 is in buildings and grounds, $10,000 in Library, $6,000 in Educational Collections, and $12,000 in property of other kinds.

The Register for 1884 shows a list of 19 Professors and Instructors, and an attendance of 204. There is now but a single course of instruction, which all regular members of the Institute pursue, and the degree conferred is that of Civil Engineer. This includes Mechanical or Dynamical Engineering, Road Engineering, Bridge Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Steam Engineering and Mining Engineering. The studies of the course, which extends through four years, are designed to secure to all graduates a professional preparation at once practical and thorough, for the following specialties of engineering practice: The location, construction and superintendence of public works, as railway, canal, water-works, etc.; the design, construction

and management of mills, iron works, steel works, chemical works and pneumatic works; the design and construction of roofs, arch bridges, girder bridges and suspension bridges; the survey and superintendence of mines, the design, construction and use of wind motors, hydraulic motors, air engines, and the various kinds of steam engines; the design, construction and use of machines in general, and the determination of their efficiency; the survey of lakes, rivers, lakes and harbors, and the direction of their improvement; the determination of latitude, longitude, time, and the meridian in geographical exploration, or for other purposes, together with the projection of maps; the selection and tests of materials used in construction; the construction of the various kinds of geometrical and topographical drawings.

In addition to the regular course there are now summer courses in Chemistry and Assaying in vacation, continuing six weeks, where classes can be formed of not less than eight members.

Number of Graduates at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, under its Present and Former Organization, since its beginning.

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* None graduated in this year on account of an extension of the course.


St. Francis Monastery, in the city of Brooklyn, was incorporated June 2, 1868,' the declared object being the education of children,

1 Chap. 851, Laws of 1868.

as well those able to pay as those who were not, and for visiting and assisting the poor. By an act passed May 8, 1884, the limit of property allowed was raised from $50,000 to $250,000, and the trustees were empowered to establish a literary College upon accumulating $50,000, and upon further organization as specified, to confer honors and degrees the same as other Colleges and Universities, but only upon completion of studies equivalent to those of other Colleges. It was to be subject to the rules of the Regents. Proceedings are understood to be in operation for perfecting the organization of this institution as a College, but no reports have as yet been made to the Regents.



In order to render our account of Literary Colleges of the State complete, we have presented in alphabetical order such as have been undertaken without full organization, or that could not be included in the foregoing list, and a few others that have been recognized by law, or that have otherwise come under official notice.


The city government of Albany and many of its influential citizens endeavored to secure the location finally determined in favor of Schenectady, when the incorporation of Union College was granted in 1795. The facts of most importance in this movement are noticed in our account of Union College, and may be traced more fully in the sources of information there cited.


Incorporated April 14, 1858, for the economical and scientific. development of the mineral wealth of the United States, and for giving instruction in mining. Corporators: Isaac Ferris, Horace Webster, Peter Cooper, Charles M. Wheatley, Robert Pumpelly, Thomas W. Olcott and James H. Armsby. Not located in the act,

'Chap. 258, Laws of 1884. 'Chap. 220, Laws of 1858,

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