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Resolved, That the Secretary cause a copy of the preceding resolution, together with a printed copy of the forms of reports which are to be used hereafter, to be transmitted to the several Academies in the State."

On the 10th of March, 1818, a committee composed of Mr. Van Buren, Mr. Young and Mr. Cochran, was appointed to consider and revise the former rule, and on the 24th of that month, Mr. Cochran, from this committee, reported:

"That they have had the same under consideration, and that in their opinion, the rule now in force as a general rule, distributing among the several Academies of the State the funds appropriated for that purpose according to the number of students studying classics, is more safe and salutary than any which can be devised. Inasmuch, however, as the particular situation and circumstances of some Academies may require some additional appropriation beyond the sum limited by the existing rule:

Your committee recommend the adoption of a rule which shall leave one-fifth of the whole sum annually given to the Academies, to be given to those under such particular circumstances, in such proportions as the Regents may see fit and proper.

Resolved, therefore, That the rule of distribution for the future be, that four-fifths of the sum annually distributed among the Academies of the State, be distributed in proportion to the number of students studying in the classics, in the respective Academies, and that the residue be distributed in proportion as the Regents may deem proper, among such of the Academies whose particular situation or wants may entitle them to any part of such residue."

This rule was adopted, but as might be foreseen, it gave opportunities for urgent solicitation, and as a necessary result for dissat isfaction, in cases where the petitions were not allowed. The Academies of low grade were the first to complain, while the change was regarded with approbation by others that found their revenues increased, and a strong motive presented for raising them still more.

As academic students in the lower English branches got no benefit from the Literature Fund, and lost what they might have got by attending the Common Schools, this measure had a tendency to turn back to the latter, a certain class of pupils, to the manifest advantage of both systems.

Still, the dissatisfied class found a way for a hearing of their complaints in the Legislature, and by concurrent resolutions, passed in March, 1819, the Regents were called upon to report annually the

state of their funds, the mode of investment, the revenue derived and the mode of distribution for the preceding year.

The Regents, in a reply dated March 2, 1819, in speaking of the apportionment of moneys among the Academies, said:

"The rule formerly practiced by the Regents in the distribution of their revenue was, to apportion the same according to the total number of pupils instructed in the several Academies, agreeable to the returns made by their respective Trustees. The course of instruction pursued by many of the teachers, consisting chiefly of the first rudiments of an English education, gave a character to their institution more consonant to that of a Common School than of an Academy, where more advanced studies should be attended to. The liberal endowments which the Legislature have wisely bestowed upon Common Schools are calculated to afford to every section of the State, an opportunity of instructing youth in those branches of an English education which it is essential should be attainable by all. The fund placed at the disposal of the Regents, is destined to support a course of instruction in the higher branches of learning than those taught in Common Schools, and with a view of preserving this distinctive characteristic, a rule has recently been adopted by the Regents,' for distributing their revenue in proportion to the number of scholars in the several Academies, who, during the preceding year, have received a course of classical instruction, usually pursued as preparatory to admission to a collegiate course. The adoption of this rule, the Regents conceive, was essentially necessary, to raise the reputation of the Academies, several of which, in their system of instruction, had sunk to the level of Common Schools. But the operation of the rule has been, to lessen the amount formerly distributed to some of the Academies and to aug ment it to the others. The Regents have great pleasure in stating, that from the reports of the present year, it appears that the system of instruction is rapidly improving in many of the Academies, and they entertain a well-founded expectation of continued advances in perfecting the academical instruction, to the attainment whereof it is essential that the present mode of distribution be rigidly adhered to."

This remained as a rule of the Regents, and upon their authority only, until April 13, 1827, when the Legislature defined by law, the terms upon which the apportionment should be made, as follows:

"The Regents shall distribute the whole income * ** in proportion to the number of pupils instructed in each Academy or Seminary, for six months during the preceding year, who shall have

1

1 Referring to a resolution offered by Mr. Cochran and adopted, repealing the rule of 1818, and reviving that of 1817. This was on the same day as that on which the report, above cited, was made.

pursued classical studies, or the higher branches of English education, or both, and that no pupil shall be deemed to have pursued classical studies, unless he shall have advanced as far at least as to have read the first book of the Eneid of Virgil in Latin; and no student shall be deemed to have pursued the higher branches of an English education, unless he shall have advanced beyond such knowledge of common, vulgar and decimal arithmetic, and such proficiency in English grammar and Geography, as are usually obtained in Common Schools.""

This requirement passed into the Revised Statutes of 1830, and remained in force until the substitution of the written examinations of the Regents in recent times."

The ages of students claimed as pursuing classical or higher English studies, were not limited either by the act of 1828, nor by the ordinance of the Regents.

In 1834, the committee on apportionment, in speaking upon this point, said:

"Where such students have been under the age of ten years, the practice has been heretofore to make every presumption against them, so as to require the most rigorous proof that they had pursued all the preliminary studies, and acquired all the preliminary knowledge required to make them such students, and the result of such practice has been that very few under the age of ten years, have been allowed as classical scholars. But as claims to have them so allowed are presented every year, the committee make a final decision on the subject; and they respectfully suggest that that decision be against allowing children under the age of ten years, to be ranked among classical scholars, or scholars in the higher branches of English education."

I Chap. 228, p. 237, Laws of 1827.

On the 18th of March, 1818, an ordinance was passed by the Regents defining at large and more precisely, the studies required in a classical and in a higher English course, entitling Academies to a share of the moneys distributed from the income of the Literature Fund. In classics, they were to be equal to half of Corderius, half of Historia Sacra, a third of Viri Romæ, and two books of Cæsar's Commentaries in Latin prose, and the first book of the Æneid of Virgil. In higher English, besides reading and writing, they were to have acquired such knowledge of the elementary rules, compound numbers, fractions, reduction, practice, single rule of three and simple interest, as is commonly taught in District Schools. In grammar, they were to be able to parse correctly any common prose sentence, and correct examples of bad grammar. In geography, they must have studied to the extent of the duodecimo edition of Morse's, Cummings', Woodbridge's or Willett's geography. They must have attended at least four months during the year, with exercises in composition and declamation, at convenient and ordinary intervals.

This recommendation was adopted February 26, 1834, as a rule, in the distribution of the Literature Fund.

In noticing the chapter of the Revised Statutes which continued the law of 1827, we should especially indicate a new provision then introduced, which operated most unequally and unjustly while it remained in force. We refer to

The Apportionment of Moneys to Academies by Senatorial Districts.

The Revised Statutes (which in this respect took effect at the be ginning of the year 1830), contained the following provision :'

"The Regents shall have the control of the whole income arising from the Literature Fund, and shall annually divide such income into eight equal parts, and assign one part thereof to each Senate District. They shall annually distribute the part so assigned to each District, among such of the incorporated Seminaries of learning, exclusive of Colleges, within such District as are now or shall become subject to their visitation. by a valid corporate act.”

This rule of equal division among Senatorial Districts, thus introduced, afterward became a subject of grievous complaint among those who suffered from its unequal operation, and it may be well to here notice some of the statistics of distribution for some years previous, in order to enable the reader to judge, as to how far it was justified, at the time of its adoption, adding the apportionment of 1830 to further show how the rule operated during the first year after it took effect:

Distribution by Academies and Senatorial Districts, from 1823 to 1830, inclusive.

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1 Section 23, article 1, title 1, chapter 15, part 1 of Revised Statutes.

$205 5

31246

148 15 164 4 172 65

$814 49 $1,250 00

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TABLE (Continued).

$378 04

158 52

146 34

164 62

121 95

$969 47

$124 14
164 62

60 97

67 10

$73 20
109 78

$97 58

182 92

42 67

121 95

128 04

$573 16 $640 39

335 35
195 11

1824.

79 26

Orleans.

Genesee $195 11
Monroe.

Monroe.
Niagara.

$399 50 $529 00

76.50

135 121

123 37

94 12
76 50

$426 83 $611 23

180 00

141 00.

$88 12

129 25

82 28

170 37

170 37

$146 87
170 37

141 12

Cayuga $67 10 $164 50
Cayuga. 164 62
Ontario. 195 11
Ontario. 274 38 229 12
Onon...

128 04

70 50

Seneca.
Ontario.
Onon....

Yates....

$111 63
182 12

$713 44 $710 37

$277 18

360 68

115 50

232 71

34 64

257 20

129 93

355 16

199 25

177 42

153 10

75907

51 08! 153 19

80 64

110 23

57 75

$940 12 $1,294 00 $1,232 43 $1,012 70 $2,540 28 $2,541 31 $1,250 00

158 62
258 00

1825.

99 88

90 00

147 00

300 00
228 00

$17 00

97 00

138 00

171 00

106 001

$529 00

$195 00
155 00

$163 00
155 00
74.00
244 00
98 00

$57 00

90 00

196 00

366 00

114 00

1826.

82 00

$908 51 $705 12 $905 00

$589 00 $450 97

117 81

190 31

$88 12 $253 00

108 75
226 56

$734 00 $879 25

$253 75
163 12

$135 93

$110 65

172 18

255 32
76 601

90 62

$398 73 $442 57

$190 31
190 31

63 63
362 50
72 50

1827.

$99 68
145 00

145 00

108 75

126 87

187 24

170 22

$314 89
170 22

$271 87

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$212 77
170 22

59 57

1828.

$161 71
102 14
153 19

102 14

$604 83
725 80

102 14

298 38

241 93
411 28

$129 02

$238 29

$104 83
209 67

322 58

233 87
120 96
419 35

1829.

$625 30 $621 32 $1,075 71

$489 87

661 34

281 70

$221 45

241 13

59 10

120 96

98 47

162 40

314 51

349 03

359 24

64 58

134 73

108 26

$629 07 $1,194 11 $1,250 00

$358 06
120 96
161 29

120 96

201 61

112 89.

$318 41

183 72

85 74

122 48

$201 61

403 22

$281 70

67 36 300 05 232 71

$298 38

$199 20 388 44

282 25

177 42

99 60

212 77

169 35
185 48

159 36
139 44

76 60

140 85

149 40 114 56

187 24

185 48

214 34

$919 17 $1,298 36 $1,457 45 $1,250 00

202 09

116 35

410 26

1830.

$416 39

189 841
146 97
202 09

146 97

$202 09

73 49

165 35

97 98

300 07

110 23

$83 16

52 92

126 00 95 76

83 16

$208 21

428 62

110 23

$195 11 $88 12 $253 00 $271 87 $238 29 $604 83 $747 06 $1,250 00 |$5,000 00|$5,000 00 $5,590 00|$6,000 00|$6,000 00 $10,099 93 $9,993 88 $10,000 00

$226 60

87 72 146 20

102 34

197 37

182 75

87 72

219 30

$949 21 $1,250 00

$266 94

123 70

253 90

364 57

240 89

$625 00 $625 00 $698 75 $698 75 $698 75 $1,262 48 $1,249 21 $1,250 00

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