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Recapitulation of the Number of Pupils and Graduations by Years and Terms.

[graphic]

1845-45.....

3

1846-47...... 74 15 1847-48...... 16 57 78

1818-49......

1849-50......

1850-51.....

1851-52.....

1852-53......

1853-54......

18

19

1854-55...... 120

21

1855-56......

22

23

1856-57.....

24

270

1857-58.....

25 126

242

$27 233 1858-59...... 128

211 $29 241

1859-60..

30

250

31

253

1860-61......

246

1861-62.....

215 212 208 212

1862-63......

198

1863-64.....

219

1864-65.....

210
202

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CHAPTER XXXVI.

EXAMINATIONS AND DEGREES.

Under the law establishing the Board of Regents, they were authorized to confer any Academic degree above that of Master of Arts. Under this authority they have conferred the honorary degrees of Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Civil Law, Doctor of Literature, Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of Medicine.

By chapter 366 of the Laws of 1840, they were authorized to confer the degree of Doctor of Medicine on persons nominated by the State Medical Society, not to exceed four in any one year. The practice, however, dates back to a period anterior to this law, begin

ning in 1827, when Jonathan Eights, and five others, received the degree on the recommendation of the State Medical Society. This degree was an honorary degree, however, and in the law of 1840 it was specially provided that the diploma should not constitute a license to practice medicine. By various resolutions of the State Medical Society, it was determined that their candidates must possess moral and professional standing, must be of the age of thirty-five years or upwards, and must receive not less than two-thirds of the votes of the members present. An open nomination was first made, and afterward the names of the candidates, or such of them as each member should vote for, not exceeding four, are voted for in one ballot. So many as appear to have received two-thirds of all the votes of the members present, and those only, are presented to the Regents

By chapter 268 of the Laws of 1862, the same privilege was conferred on the State Homœopathic Medical Society, and under this authority the honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine has since been conferred on persons nominated by that society.

Under chapter 746 of the Laws of 1872 the Regents of the University were empowered to appoint one or more boards of medical examiners, who were required to examine candidates referred to them by the Chancellor. On the favorable report of the examining board the Regents conferred the degree of Doctor of Medicine, and this degree constituted a license to practice medicine. The number of applicants for this examination has been very small, and only eight persons in thirteen years have received the degree.

By an act passed, May 29, 1880,' all practicing physicians were required to register their names in the county clerk's office of the county in which they resided, and to indicate in this the time and place of their graduation. This act gave to those holding medical diplomas of corporated Colleges the right of practicing, and repealed all foriner powers to license, excepting by the Board of Regents upon examination, as provided in chapter 746 of the Laws of 1872 Persons coming from another State were required to submit their diplomas to the faculty of some incorporated College in this State for approval, with evidence of good moral character, and of proper qualifications, as the faculty might require. The indorsement of the Dean of the Faculty was to be a sufficient license, and the sum of $20 was to be paid for examination and indorsement.

Chap. 315, Laws of 1880.

This act did not apply to those who at the time of the passage of the law had been ten years or more in practice, nor to those then in their studies who might graduate within two years thereafter.

Under the original charter of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the city of New York the Degrees were conferred by the Regents of the University on the recommendation of the Faculty. In 1860 an amendment to its charter was made, which transferred this right to confer degrees to the trustees of the College. During the fifty years between 1811 and 1860 the degree was conferred by the Regents on 1, 815 persons.

A similar provision existed for conferring the degree of Doctor of Medicine on candidates recommended by the College of Physicians and Surgeons for the western district. This College, located at Fairfield in Herkimer county, continued in operation from 1812 to 1840 and during that time the Regents conferred the degree on 577 persons.

Law Students' Examinations.

By a rule of the Court of Appeals, adopted under sanction of law May 4, 1882, for the admission to the bar of attorneys and counselors, it was required that no person should be allowed to enter upon a clerkship or substituted course of study, without passing the Regents' Examinations in certain studies specified, in accordance with the regulations observed in the examinations in Academies. Up to the end of the year 1884 314 certificates have been issued.

By an act passed June 6, 1877, the Legislature enacted as follows:

Scholastic Examinations.

"§ 6. The Regents of the University shall establish in the Academies and Academic Departments of Union Schools, subject to their visitation, examinations in such branches of study as are commonly taught in the same, and shall determine the rules and regulations in accordance with which they shall be conducted; said examinations shall be prescribed in such studies, and shall be arranged and conducted in such a manner, as in the judgment of the Regents will furnish a suitable standard of graduation from the said Academies and Academic Departments of Union Schools, and of admission to the several Colleges of the State; and they shall confer such honorary certificates or diplomas as they may deem expedient upon those pupils who satisfactorily pass such examinations. And the said Regents are hereby authorized to establish exammations as to attainments in learning, of any person applying for admission to the same, to prescribe rules and regulations for the ad

Chap. 425, Laws of 1877.

1

mission of candidates to said examinations, and for conducting them, and to confer and award such degrees, honorary testimonials or diplomas, to persons who satisfactorily pass such examinations as the said Regents may deem expedient. They shall audit and certify to the Comptroller all accounts for the expenses of establishing and conducting such examination and all contingent expenses attending the same, and the amounts thereof shall be paid from the appropriation for this purpose, made in the first section of this act.”

Under this law the Regents have established and conducted examinations in subjects pursued in academies under their visitation. An examination in the preliminary subjects of arithmetic, English grammar, geography and spelling had already been in operation since 1866,' undertaken for the purpose of establishing a proper standard for the apportionment of the Literature Fund among the Academies. Under the act of 1877 the same system was extended to advanced subjects. By chapter 514 of the Laws of 1880, a portion of the Literature Fund, not to exceed the one-fourth part, is distributed on the basis of the number of pupils passing the advanced examinations. No measures have yet been taken under the authority conferred by the last part of the foregoing section, to establish examinations as to attainments in learning outside of the Academies.

The following statement exhibits the list of studies and the conditions on which certificates and diplomas are granted in the examinations held in the Academies :

Preliminary Examinations.

The Preliminary Examination includes Arithmetic, English Grammar, Geography, Reading and Spelling, as requisites for the Regents' Preliminary Certificate. Pass-cards are issued on passing in one or more of these subjects, and the preliminary certificate when all are passed.

Advanced Examinations.

These examinations are arranged for two courses of study; the College Entrance Course and the Academic Course. In the College Entrance Course, a diploma is granted on the completion of the entire group of subjects given in the fourth column. In the Academic Course a diploma is granted for Algebra (through quadratics). American History, Physical Geography, Physiology, Rhetoric and Plane Geometry, together with eight additional subjects, four to be chosen from Group I, and four from Group II. In each course a certificate of progress termed an Intermediate Certificate is granted, viz.: in the College Entrance Course for Algebra (through quadratics),

1 See p - supra.

American History and Cæsar's Commentaries, and in the Academie course for Algebra (through quadratics), American History, Physical Geography, Physiology and Rhetoric. The substitution of language studies for others in the Academic Course is allowed as follows, viz,: Cæsar's Commentaries and Xenophon's Anabasis for three subjects, Virgil's Eneid, French translation, or German translation, for two subjects, and Sallust's Catiline, Virgil's Eclogues, Cicero's Orations or Homer's Iliad, for one subject: except that for at least two subjects in Group I, and two in Group II, and for Algebra (through quadratics), Geometry and American History, no substitution will be allowed. Pass-cards are issued to the candidate on passing in one or more of the subjects, and when they show a sufficient number of subjects passed, a claim, including the date of preliminary certificate must be sent by the principal, and the certificate or diploma, to which the holder is entitled, will be issued.

SUBJECTS OF THE ACADEMIC COURSE.

Intermediate.

Algebra (through quadratics).
American History.

Physical Geography.

Physiology.
Rhetoric and English Comp.

Algebra(through quadratics.)
American History.
Plane Geometry.

Cæsar's Com, bks. 1-4.
Sallust's Catiline.
Virgil's Æneid, bks. 1-6.
Virgil's Eclogues.
Cicero, six orations.
Latin Composition.
Xenop. Anab., bks. 1-3.

German translation at sight. Plane Geometry required for either diploma. Homer's Iliad, bks. 1-3.

Substitutes in Academic
Course.

Group I.

Latin and Greek, col. 4.
French translation at sight.

Book-keeping.

Civil Government.
English Literature.
History of England.
History of Greece.
History of Rome.
Mental Philosophy.
Moral Philosophy.
Political Economy.

Group II.

Robert R. Livingston, 1792.
William Patterson, 1792.
William Alexander Duer, 1829.
Benjamin Franklin Butler, 1834.
William Learned Marcy, 1844.
Alexander H. Stevens, 1849.
Harvey Peet Prindle, 1849.
Salem Town, 1849.

Algebra (higher)
Astronomy.
Botany.
Chemistry.
Drawing.
Geology.
Physics.
Plane Trigonometry.
Solid Geometry.
Zoology.

HONORARY DEGREES CONFERRED BY THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY.
1. Doctor of Laws (LL. D.).
Joseph Henry, 1850.
Valentine Mott, 1851.
John McLean, 1854.
Mark Hopkins, 1857.
Peter Cooper, 1878.
Thurlow Weed, 1879.
Martin Brewer Anderson, 1881.
Aaron Lucius Chapin, 1882.

William Beach Lawrence, 1873.

College Entrance Course.

2. Doctor of Civil Law (D. C. L.).

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