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Suspected, however, of secretly fa- Before this, the use of Marot's Psalms vouring Lutheran principles, for his had been interdicted the Catholics, safety he was forced to leave his na- under the severest penalties, till, at tive country, when he retired to Ge- last, psalm-singing and heresy became neva. There, after residing for some nearly synonymous. time, it is said, for a cause of a very At Calvin's request, the rest of the different kind, he was obliged to fly Psalms were translated in a similar rather hastily; he returned back to manner by Beza ;* when they were, France, and was again received into at length, appointed to be used in the favour. Marot did not live to finish exercise of devotion. On the entire the task he undertook, as he only version some writers have bestowed unadded other twenty to the number he qualified commendation, while others first published. The current belief have spoken of it with undue respect. is, that he first was directed to, and We cannot agree with the opinion, that assisted in, this employment, by his these “ Cantiques sont bizarrement friend Vatablus, Professor of Hebrew travestis.” Though it would be out in Paris, who furnished him with a of place to dilate much on the respecLatin translation. Be this as it may, tive merits of this, or any of the verit was no doubt an exercise of his sions hereafter to be mentioned, we powers, better fitting his advanced may be indulged in hazarding a few age, and more becoming his religious remarks. The French language is sentiments, than the subjects of his universally allowed to be unfit for exMuse in his earlier years. Baillet, pressing the grandeur and sublimity and other critics, imagine, that at this so characteristic of the Psalms of time he had renounced his gallantry; David. Marot and Beza's translation and they consider what he performed, possesses great freedom and ease of or intended to finish, as a token of re- versification, with not a small portion pentance, and an act of contrition for of beauty and elegance, but is too par. the follies of his youth, and the ex- aphrastic. And the objections urged cesses of his life. His death took against Sternhold's and Hopkins's come place in 1546 ; but, alas! he died as
with equal, or even additional force, he had lived-in the most unlicensed namely, the frequent use of low and debauchery.
unmeaning expressions,—the feebleThis version accorded with the sen- ness of diction, -the want of energy, timents of Calvin, who published an -as also, the occasional misconception edition, during Marot's life, (of the of the meaning of the Psalmist. In fifty Psalms, in 1543,) with a preface, Marot's portion, the pleasing naiveté addressed “ to all Christians and Lovers of his style is incompatible with the of the Word of God.” Indeed, it is subject, and a forced and inefficient supposed considerably to have aided in endeavour after the sublime is too offorwarding his views; and that by it he ten visible.* sought to effectuate a change in this part of divine worship, by introducing the practice of singing the Psalmody, This entire version is said, by Dr Burand in making it a stated portion of ney, originally to have been published at the Protestant Service.
Strasburgh, in 1545; while Senebier, in positions may be carried too far, but his life of Beza, informs us, his portion was still they may bear some truth. The not completed till about eighteen years after
that date. choral anthems (or musical compo- + The Psalms have at subsequent periods sitions, sung in different parts) of the been frequently put into a metrical form by Catholics, he considered as too com- other French poets. That of Phillippe des plicate and difficult for general use. Portcs, is among the most remarkable, It He finally adopted a practice, the sim- possesses merit, so far as metre is concerned, plicity of which corresponded with but is also much too paraphrastic; the very the rest of his ecclesiastical discipline. spirit and substance often evaporates in his ". For some time,” says Sir John Haw- attempts to fill up a stanza with smooth flowkins,
“ Calvin stood in doubt whether ing words. There was another paraphrase to adopt the Lutheran choral form of made by A. Godeau, Paris, 1648, 4to, of
which, according to Du Pin (not the most singing in consonance, or to institute impartial or best informed writer), “ les proa plain unisonous melody, in which testans n'ont pas fait difficulté de sen servir, all might join : at length he resolved à la place de la traduction de Maret, qui on the latter, &c. (vol. iii. p. 450.) paroissoit consacrée parmi eux."
The Reformation in the Church of Whittyngham, Thomas Norton, and England for a time was productive of William Kethe. ' There were others a great alteration in the general sys- who furnished a quota, but it is not tem of study; and brought about a our wish unnecessary to dilate on this decided change in the character and point.* subjects of our poetry. Metrical trans- Hopkins would seem 10 have acted lations of parts of the Scriptures were as editor in the first complete edition the usual themes chosen; while en- that was printed by John Daye, in thusiasm and devotion usurped the 1562. Some that had previously been places of inspiration and genius. The printed in this, he revised and altered, Psalmody, was introduced into the or replaced with others. The early English Church after the example of editions are found to vary considerably that of Geneva. The timely appear- with each other, but nó full and acance of Sternhold's translation of part curate notice of these variations has of the Psalms, afforded the means of yet been given. In this edition, at getting a perfect version of the whole, length, like that of its French protoevery way adapted to general use. type, they received musical accom
Sternhold only lived to complete paniments,—the Psalms being set to about a third of the whole. His trans- simple or unisonous melodies, to renlations were printed by themselves in der them fit for public service, –and a separate form ; and, like Marot's, the entire version was joined as a nethe praise they received induced him cessary addition to the English Lito resolve on translating the rest ; as turgy. appears from his dedication of those The long and critical account of he did publish, inscribed to King Ed- Sternhold and Hopkins's Psalms, given ward. There, he says, “ Seeing that by Warton, has been highly praised. youre tender and godly zeale dooeth On this, as on almost every other topic, more delight in the holye songes of we have to lament his oversight and veritie then in any fayned rymes of want of accuracy, which would seem Fanytie, I am encouraged to trauayle to be the inseparable attendant of his further in the said booke of Psalms, otherwise admirable work.
His ac&c. And yf I maye perceyue youre count of this version is almost whol. maiestie wyllynglye to accept my wylly derived (and that without due acherein, where my doyng is no thanke knowledgment) from his predecessor, worthy, and to favour so this my be- Sir John Hawkins. Nor do we conginning, that my labour be acceptable sider his sentiments (judicious and in perfourming the residue, I shall sensible as they generally are) to deendeuoure myself with diligence, not serve over-much regard; for he is only to enterpryse that which better unduly prejudiced against, not only learned ought more iustlye to doe, but the translators of this version, but the also to perfourme that without faulte, whole class of those who imitated their which your maiestie will receyue with example; those, to wit, whom he iuste thanke."
speaks of as indulging " in a species The poets (if such a name they are of poetry, if it may be so called, which suffered to get) who chiefly contri- even impoverishes prose, or rather, by buted, besides John Hopkins, to com- mixing the style of prose with verse, plete the adopted version begun by and of verse with prose, destroys the Thomas Sternhold, were, William character and effect of both,”-or those
he designates as “ the mob of religious Before this time, some of the Psalms, most unfeigned piety, devoutly la
rhymers, who, from principles of the and other portions of the Scriptures, were translated by the Earl of Surrey, and his friend, Sir Thomas Wyatt. And about the * It might make a small but curious vosame time, various versions of the Psalter ap- lume, and not wholly destitute of interest, peared, by Robert Crowley, William Hun. to give a distinct history of this version, its nis, John Hall, and other English poets. authors, the changes it successively underSurrey and Wyatt's, however, are the only went, and the various multiplication of imthat merit much praise. And these have pressions that are known still to exist
. On lately become more accessible to the public this, nothing satisfactory has yet been done, in the hugely-ponderous edition of their if we except a partial attempt in an acworks, by Dr Nott. The Penitential count of three of the earlier impressions, to Psalms (as they are called), by Wyatt, be found in the pages of the Censura Lite were first printed in 1549.
raria, vol. X. p. 5. Vol. III.
boured to darken the lustre, and ener- merely as a contrivance to assist the mevate the force, of the divine pages.” imory. They were little studious of their Warton's dislike to this version, arose
numbers, or the elegance of their diction; not so much from contempt of its
but they were solicitous to give the full and etical merits, as from his disinclination precise sense of the Sacred text, according to the use of the Psalmody, or the in- judgment, with the exception of some few
to the best of their judgment; and their troduction of a version at all, into the passages, was very good; and at the same service of the English Church. The time they adhered scrupulously to the letfollowing are some of his reflections, ter, they contrived to express it in such which are followed by a few extracts, terms as, like the original, might point to establish the truth of his assertions. clearly the spiritual meaning. It was a
“ It is certain (Wharton remarks) that change much for the worse, when the pedevery attempt to clothe the Sacred Scripture antry of pretenders to taste in literary comin verse will have the effect of presenting position, thrust out this excellent translaand debasing the dignity of the original ;
tion from many of our Churches, to make but this general inconvenience, arising from
room for wliat still goes by the name of the the nature of things, was not the only diffi- New Version, thať of Tate and Brady, culty which our versifiers of the Psalter had which, in many places where the Old Verto encounter, in common with all other sion is just, accurate, and dignified by its writers employed on a similar task, allowing simplicity, is careless and inadequate, and, for the state of our language in the middle in the poverty and littleness of its style, conof the sixteenth sentrey, they appear to temptible. The innovation, when it was have been but little qualitied either by genius first attempted, was opposed, though in the or accomplishments for poetical composition.
end unsuccessfully, by the soundest divines, It is for this reason that they have produced the most accomplished scholars, and the a translation entirely destitute of elegance,
men of the truest taste, at that time, in the spirit, and propriety'; the truth is, that they seat of authority in the Church of England. undertook this work not so much from an
It will be an alteration still more for the ambition of literary fame, or a consciousness worst, if both these versions should be made of abilities, as from motives of piety, and in to give place to another of later date, decompliance with the cast of the times.
I parting still farther from the strict letter of presume I am communicating no very new
the text, and compensating its want of accriticism, wlien I observe, that in every part curacy by nothing better than the meretriof this translation, we are disgusted with a
cious ornaments of modern poetry.” languor of versification, and a want of com- Sternhold and Hopkins' version, as mon prosody ; the most exalted effusions of remarked by Bishop Horsley, was disthanksgiving, and the most sublime ima- placed by what is still called the New geries of the divine Majesty, are lowered by Version. This was the joint produca coldness of conception, weakened by frigid interpolations, and disfigured by a po- hain Tate, and received the royal li
tion of Dr Nicholas Brady and Naverty of phraseology." However forcible these opinions of churches, December 3, 1696.*
cense, appointing it to be used in Warton, and strong his objections may seem to be, we can oppose them * It would be a hopeless task, and unprofitwith those of another critic, who, it able, to undertake a specification of the vawill be allowed, was as fully compe- rious attempts to render the Psalms into metent, from his learning and judgment, tre. Portions, indeed, occur in the collected as well as his labours on this very
works of almost all the English poets, and, portion of the Sacred Scriptures, to
wonderful to say, are usually attended with appreciate its merits with fairness and
a similar want of success. We may, how. candour.
er, cursorily notice those who, in the verThe following are the just and suit- original Hymns and Sacred Songs, have had
sification of certain Psalms, or in composing able remarks of Bishop Horsley : the best success, and are most worthy of
“ The metrical version of the old Singing praise. These are, Surrey and Wyatt, Sir Psalms, by Sternhold and Hopkins, is not Philip Sidney, Lord Bacon, Sir Edward (he says) what I believe it is now generally Sandys, Withers, Dodd, Habington, Slatsupposed to be, nothing better than an awk- yer, Ravenscroft, Milton, Cowley, Blackward versification of a former English tran- more, Addison, and Logan. And of the slation; it was an original translation from more remarkable translations of the entire the Hebrew text, earlier, by many years, Psalter, which ought not to be passed over than the prose translation in the Bible ; and in silence, we may mention those by Bishop all that are in any degree paraphrastic, as Parker, Bishop King, George Sandys, Sir all in verse in some degree must be, it is John Denham, Rouse, and Dr Watts, the best and most exact we have to put in. Bishop Parker's is chiefly remarkable for its to the hands of the common people. The curiosity and great rarity; it was printed authors of this version considered the verse for private use, and is characterised by a de.
We should now proceed to the more since the Reformation. This must be immediate intention of this paper, to deferred for the present, but we shall consider the versions that have hither- resume the subject in the next Numto been used in our National Church ber.
But fraile man, daily dying, must
He by thy Torrent swept from hence ;
An empty Dreame, which mocks the Sense,
And from the Phansie flies;
Which in the dewy Morning blows,
Then hangs the head and dies.
Thus in thy wrath our yeares we spend ;
Nor but to seventy last :
Cut off with winged haste.
Who knowes the terror of thy wrath,
Proportion'd his due feare ?
That we our hearts to thee may raise,
Lord, O how long ! at length relent !
And of our miseries repent;
That we may unknowne comfort taste :
As long of joy bestow.
Thy chcarefull beames reflect.
Bless our attempts with aide divine,
And by thy Hand direct."
“ When Israel left th' Ægyptian Land,
The little Hils like frisking lambs.
Recoyling Seas, what caus'd your dread ?
Why, Iordan, shrunk'st thou to thy Head ?
Why, Mountaines, did you skip like Rams?
And why, you little Hils, like Lambs ?
Earth, tremble thou before his Face;
Who turn'd hard Rockes into a Lake ;
When Springs from finty intrailes brake."
ABSTRACT OF THE PROPOSED BILL
tled to give a discharge to the bank, Protection of BANKS notwithstanding their disability in law FOR SAVINGS IN SCOTLAND, WITH to act for themselves.
5th, That treasurers and other of
fice-bearers through whose hands the [The greater part of this statement origin. money belonging to the society may ally appeared in the Dumfries and Galloway pass, shall be obliged to find security Courier, one of the best conducted provin- for their introinissions, to such amount cial newspapers in this kingdom. It was, as the regulations of the institution we believe, drawn up by the Rev. Henry require, and that on this security leDuncan, Ruthwell, a gentleman whose
gal diligence may be done. name will for ever be honourably associated with the establishment of Banks for Savings
6th, That the persons appointed by in Scotland. This gentleman is now in the society to act as trustees for the Edinburgh, preparing the bill alluded to time being, may bring or defend acfor Parliament, with the advice of some tions in name of the institution in a of our most respectable professional men. court of law, and that such actions, We expect to furnish our readers with an for sums not exceeding £20, shall be argumentative article on the same important brought before the Justice of Peace subject in our next Number.)
7th, That no friendly society shall Our readers are probably aware, that have a power to expel any of its memMr William Douglas, M. P. for the bers on account of such members Dumfries district of burghs, has ob- having lodged money in a bank for tained leave to bring in a bill for the savings. protection and encouragement of Banks 8th, That depositors may bequeath for Savings in Scotland. We have now their deposits by any written docubefore us a copy of the proposed bill, ment, however informal, provided it and, conceiving the measure to be of be executed in presence of the minister great importance, as connected with or an elder of the parish in which they the welfare of the lower orders, we reside. are happy in having an opportunity of 9th, That the deposits of bastards laying before the public an abstract of may be bequeathed; but, if not beits provisions as follows:
queathed, shall belong to the mother 1st, That persons who are desirous or her relatives. of obtaining the benefit of the act, Toth, That the managers of each savshall have it in their power to do so, ing bank shall be the sole judges of by forming themselves into a society, the evidence of propinquity in cases of and getting their rules sanctioned by unbequeathed deposits, having it in the quarter-sessions, a copy of which their power to apply to the sheriff for rules (either printed or transcribed) advice; and that a schedule shall be being to be deposited with the clerk of carefully drawn up, exhibiting the dethe quarter-sessions, by whom it shall scent of personal property by the rules be filed and preserved ;—which rules of common law, according to the differshall be binding until they be altered ent degrees of propinquity; which scheby the society, and the alteration also dule shall be annexed to the regulabe deposited with the said clerk. tions of every society taking the benefit
2d, That persons having control and of this act, and shall be the rule by direction in the management of these which managers shall be guided in institutions, shall not be entitled to paying over unbequeathed money to any pecuniary benefit on account of the heirs of deceased depositors. their services; but this prohibition is 11th, That no confirmation shall be not to extend to operative persons em- required to be expede on account of ployed in conducting the business, who unbequeathed deposits, and that the tax may receive such salaries and emolue on succession shall be dispensed with. ments as the rules shall prescribe. 12th, That unclaimed deposits shall,
3d, That no depositor shall be en-' after a certain period and due advertitled to claim the benefit of this act tisement, become the property of the for more than a limited sum.
institution, and be applied in defray4th, That all persons who shall ing its expenses, &c. have deposited money in a bank for 13th, That all bills, bonds, and savings, on their own account, shall, other transactions of the society, shall on withdrawing their money, be entia be exempted from stamp duty.