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talent, at which men paused and wondered, whether as subjects of art or of moral labour.

(W. Scott's Rob. of Paris.)
Their sharpened ends in earth their footing place,
And the dry poles produce a living race.


1. TO AFFORD, 2. SPARE. 1. Zugestehen, gewähren, (bestreiten) ; 2. vergönnen, gestatten, gewäh

ren, entbehren. Einen Theil unseres Eigenthums zur Gemächlichkeit Underer geben, ist die Bedeutung beider Zeitwörter; doch afford bezieht sich nur auf Wusgaben, die mit unsern Einnahmen in genauen Verhältnissen stehen; spare wird von Dingen im Allgemeinen gesagt, von denen wir uns ohne fühlbare Verminderung unserer Bequemlichkeit trennen können.

There are few so destitute, that they cannot afford something for the relief of others, who are more destitute. He who has two things of a kind may easily spare one.

Accept whate'er Aeneas can afford,
Untouch'd thy arms, untaken be thy sword.

Dame Fortune has so many fools to feed,
She cannot oft afford, with all her store,
To yield her smiles where Nature smil'd before.

(Armstrong's Epistle.) How many men, in the common concerns of lise, lend sums of money which they are not able to spare.

Our greatest good, and what we least can spare,
Is hope; the last of all our evils fear.

(Armstrong's Art.)

1. To AIM, 2. ASPIRE.
1. Zielen, Absichten auf etwas haben ; 2. streben, trachten.

Die Absichten auf eine Sache, die erreichbar ist und die wir zu erlangen uns bemühen, drückt das erste Zeitwort aus; das Streben nach dem, wozu wir uns berechtigt glauben und das wir zu erreichen uns schmeicheln, nach dem Großen und ungewöhnlichen, bezeichnet das zweite Zeitwort.

Many men aim at riches and hopour; it is the lot of but few to aspire to a throne. Whether zeal or moderation be the point we aim at, let us keep fire out of the one, and frost out of the other.

(Addison.) By the experience which Columbus acquired, during such a variety of voyages to almost every part of the globe, with which , at that time, any intercourse was carried on by sea,

he was

now become one of the most skilful navigators in Europe. But, not satisfied with that praise, his ambition aimed at something more.

(Robertson's hist. of America.) Napoleon aspired after immortality:

His (Alexa nder the Great) ambition was not satisfied with having opened to the Greeks a communication with India by sea; he aspired to the sovereignty of these regious which furnished the rest of mankind with so many precious commodities, and conducted his army thither by land.

(Robertson's hist. of America.)


1. Allein ; 2. einsam, (allein); 3. einsam, (allein). Das erste bezeichnet den Zustand einer Person, a person walks alone; das zweite die Eigenschaft einer Person, oder eines Dinges, he takes a solitary walk; das dritte die Eigenschaft eines Dinges, this is a lonely place.

Whoever likes to be much alone is of a solitary turn: wherever we can be most and oftenest alone, that is a solitary or lonely place.

Then, dashing down a darksome glen,
Soon lost to hound and hunter's keo,
In the deep Trosach's wildest nook
His solitary refuge took.

(W. Scott's Lady of the Lake.) In the most lonely recesses of the mountains, the moorfowl shooter has been often surprised to find him busied in clearing the moss from the grey stones.

(W. Scott's Old Mort.)
But come where kindred worth shall smile,
To greet thee in the lonely isle.

(Lady of the Lake.)
Beide Eigenschaftswörter bedeuten: zweideutig, doppelsinnig.

Ambiguity entsteht aus einer zu allgemeinen Gestaltung des Uusdrucks, der den Sinn unbestimmt låßt, und kann auch nicht absichtlich sein; Equivocation, equivocal, liegt in den, eine doppelte Deutung zulassenden Ausdrucken oder Handlungen, ist jederzeit absichtlich, um zu hintergehen; Ambiguity, wenn absichtlich gebraucht, bezweckt, keine deutliche Nachricht geben zu wollen.

The histories of heathen nations are full of confusion and ambiguity; the heathen oracles are mostly veiled by some equivocation. An honest man will never employ an equivocal expression; a confused man may often utter ambiguous ones without any design.

(Blair's Lect.) With Tertullian may be said to have commenced that change in the public language of the Falhers on this subject that circumlocution, and, dot unfrequently, ambiguity, in their notices of this mystery:

(Th. Moor's Trav.)
Wilfried ambiguously replied,
(For Mortham's charge his honour tied).

Bertram is gone the villain's word
Avouched him murderer of his lord !“

(W. Scott's Rokeby.) All that is rustic is to be shunned all that is rude abhorred; a word out of joint with the settled language of bigh life, forfeits caste, and cannot be retrieved and a lady had better be found in an equivocal situation than make an equivocal speech.

(Cunningham's Brit. Lit.)
Alone, forsaken, faint,
Kneeling beneath his sword, falt'ring, I took
An oath equivocal, that I ne'er would
Wed one of Douglas' namie.

(Home's Douglas.)


1. Freundschaftlich; 2. freundlich, freundschaftlich. Dem ersten liegt ein negatives Gefühl zum Grunde: frei von Mangel an Uebereinstimmung; dem zweiten hingegen ein positives Gefühl der Uchtung, frei von Gleichgültigkeit.

We make an amicable accomodation, and a friendly visit. Neighbours must always endeavour to live amicably with each other.

Who slake his thirst; who spread the friendly board
To give the famish'd Belisarius food?

(Phillips.) As I acknowledged this, I felt a suffusion of a finer kind upon my cheek more warm and friendly to man, than what Burgundy (at least of two livres a bottle which was such as I had been drinking) could have produced.

(Sent. Journey.)



4. RESPONSE. 1. Antwort ; 2. Gegenantwort, Erwiederung; 3. Antwort (Erwiederungs

fchrift); 4. Antwort, Erriederung (Responsorium). 1. Answer wird auf eine Frage gegeben, entweder um zu bejahen, bestätigen, Nachricht zu geben, oder zu widersprechen; sie kann schriftlich oder mündlich sein.

2. Reply, auf eine Behauptung, um zu erläutern, oder zu widerlegen, ist nur mundlich.

3. Rejoinder wird mündlich auf reply gemacht, der Erläuterung oder der Widerlegung wegen.

4. Response, in Uebereinstimmung mit den Worten (Gefühlen) eines Undern, als Beipflichtung oder Bestätigung; sie wird entweder gesprochen oder gesungen.

It is unpolite not to answer when we are adressed.

I liave not time to answer your letter, being in the hurry of preparing for my journey.

(Montague's Letters.)

Is this all ?
Hast thou no gentler answer ? yet bethink thee,
And pause ere thou rejectest.

(Byron's Manfred.)
The blackbird whistles from the thorny brake,
The mellow bulfinch answers from the grove.

(Thomson.) Arguments are maintained by the alternate replies and rejoinders of two parties; but such arguments seldom tend to the pleasure and improvement of society. He again took some time to consider, and civilly replied »I doa » If you do agree with me,, rejoined I, »in acknowledging the complaint, tell me if you will concur in promoting the cure.

(Cumberland.) The"dispute was managed with proper spirit on both sides : he asserted that I was heterodox ; I retorted the charge: he replied, and I rejoined.

(Goldsmith's Vicar.) But all this well - laboured system of German antiquities is annihilated by a single fact, too well attested to admit of any doubt, and of decisive a nature, lo leave room for any reply.

(Gibbon's Fist.)

Nydia had not answered his first question she had not been able to reply.

(Bulwer's Pompeii.) Lacedaemon, always disposed to controul the growing consequence of her neighbours, and sensible of the bad policy of her late measures , had opened her eyes to the folly of expelling Hippias on the forged responses of the Pythia.

(Cumberland.) The responses in the liturgy are peculiarly calculated to keep alive the attention of those who take a part in the devotion.

We are hence led to observe, that the principal object of Mackenzie, in all his novels, has been to reach and sustain à tone of moral pathos, by representing the effect of incidents, whether important or trifling, upon the human mind, and especially on those which were not only just, ho. nourable, and intelligent, but so framed as to be responsive to those finer feelings, to which ordinary hearts are callous. (W. Scott's Lives.)

The dash
Phosphoric of the oar, or rapid twinkle
of the far lights of skimming gondolas,
And the responsive voices of the choir
of boatmen answering back with verse for verse.

(Byron's M. Faliero.) 1. APPAREL, 2. ATTIRE, 3. ARRAY 1. Das Gewand, Kleidung, Anzug ; 2. Anzug, Kleidung, Puß ;

3. Kleidung, Anzug. Alle drei Substantiva sind auf Kleidung oder äußere Verzierung anwends bar. Das erste bedeutet den Unzug Jedermanns, das zweite den der Vor: nehmen, das dritte den besonderer Personen bei besondern Gelegenheiten.

The church and the state have been very severe against luxury in apparel. This was once Helen's rich attire. It may be proper for those who are to be conspicuous to set themselves out with a comely array.

Onward came the cavalcade, illuminated by two hundred thick waxen torches, in the hands of as many horsemen, which cast a light like that of broad day all around the procession, but especially on the principal groupe, of which the Queen herself, arrayed in the most splendid manner, and blazing with jewels, formed the central figure.

(W. Scott's Kenilworth.)
guess, by all this quaint array,
The burghers hold their sports to day.

(Lady of the Lake.)


1. Schwer, schwierig, fteil ; 2. schwer, schwierig. 1. Bezeichnet einen hohen Grad von Schwierigkeit, und erfordert die åußerste physische und geistige Unstrengung; dagegen 2. eine solche, welche die Bemühungen gewöhniicher Kräfte überwinden können.

This child has a difficult exercise, which he cannot perform without labour and attention: the man who strives to remove the difficulties of learners, undertakes an arduous task.

Yet the task, though arduous, seemed to me worth attempting; and in the time and the scene I have chosen, much may be found to arouse the curiosity of the reader, and enlist his interest in the descriptions of the author.

(Bulwer's L. days of Pomp.)

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1. ARMS, 2. WEAPONS. Beide Substantiva bedeuten Waffen, doch das erste eigentliche Waffen zum Angriff, auch solche, die absichtlich dazu gemacht worden, und nur dann hat es eine andere Bedeutung, wenn es in der Poesie für armour, Rüstung, Harnisch, gebraucht wird, während das zweite sowohl auf Waffen zum An: griff, als auch zur Vertheidigung, also auch auf Dinge, die zufállig in dies fer Eigenschaft gebraucht werden, anwendbar ist. Es wird auch in uneigentlicher Bedeutung gebraucht, man sagt fire arms, aber nicht fire weapons ; ebenso weapons offensive oder defensive, aber nicht arms offensive oder defensive.

Guns and swords are always arms; stones, and brickbats, and pitchforks, may be occasionally weapons.

Here the pavement is upturned here the torch is planted here the weapon is prepared every where you may see the women mingling with the men now sharing their labours now binding up their wounds.

(H. Bulwer's France.) The native Greeks had that mark of a civilized people that they never bore weapons during the time of peace, unless the wearer chanced to be numbered among those whose military profession and employment required them to be always in arms.

(W. Scott's Rob. of Paris.) But in person, features, and address, weapons so formidable in the court of a female sovereign, Leicester had avantage more than sufficient to counterbalance the military services, high blood, and frank bearing of the Earl of Sussex.

(W. Scott's Kenilworth.)
The cry of Talbot serves me for a sword;
For I have loaded me with many spoils,
Using no other weapons than his name.

Then weapon-clang, and martial call,
Resounded through the funeral hall.

(Lady of the Lake.) Touch me with noble anger! 0, let not women's weapons ,

water - drops, Stain my man's cheeks !

(Shakesp. King Lear.)


4. MECHANIC. 1. Künstler ; 2. Handwerker; 3. Handwerker, Werfmeister ; 4. Handwerker.

Der erste bedarf zur Ausführung seiner Runft geistige Verfeinerung, die legtern bedürfen nur die Kenntniß der allgemeinen Regetn ihrer Handkünfte.

The musician, painter and sculptor are artists; the carpenter, the sign painter, and the black-smith, are artisans. The artificer is an intermediate term betwixt the artist and the artisan: manufacturers are artificers; the mechanic works at arts purely mechanical: a shoemaker is a mechanic.

If ever this country saw an age of artists, it is the present; her painters, sculptors, and engravers, are now the only schools properly so called.

(Cumberland.) The merchant, tradesman, and artisan, will have their profit upon all the multiplied wants, comforts, and indulgencies of civilized life.

(Cumberland.) Man must be in a certain degree the artificer of his own happiness;

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