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the tools and materials may be put into his hands by the bounty of providence, but the workmanship must be his own. (Cumberland.)

A True critic is a sort of mechanic, set up with a stock and tools for his trade, at as little expence as a taylor. (Swift's Tale of a Tub.)

Moves our free course by such fixed cause,
As gives the poor mechanic laws ?

(Lady of the Lake.)

1. ASSOCIATE, 2. COMPANION. 1. Gefährte, Genoß, Gehülfe, Amtsgenoß; 2. Gefährte, Gesellschafter,

Genoß. Das erste þauptwort bedeutet eine Person, welche mit einer andern verbunden ist, mit ihren Gesinnungen und Bestrebungen übereinstimmt, die an ihrem Geschäfte und Urbeiten Theil nimmt und zu denselben mitwirkt; associates sind aus Gewohnheit zusammen; das zweite bezeichnet eine Person, welche begleitet, Gesellschaft leistet, an irgend einer unsrer Angelegenheiten Theil nimmt, unsere daraus entspringende Freude und unser Leið theilt; companions sind nur gelegentlich in Gesellschaft.

As our habits are formed from our associates we ought to be particolar in our choice of them : as our companions contribute much to our enjoyments, we ought to choose such as are suitable to ourselves. Many men may be admitted as companions, who would not altogether be fit as associates.

We see many struggling single abont the world, unhappy for want of an associate, and piniog with the necessity of confining their sentiment to their own bosoms.

(Johnson.) Addison contributed more than a fourth part (of the hast volume of the Spectator), and the other contributors are by no means unworthy of appearing as his associates.

(Johnson.) His (W. Cowper's) friends loved him with no ordinary tenderness; yet among these associates there were somc who molested him with fears that innocent gaiety was in itself sinful.

(Cunningh. B. L.) The woman, whose soul is in a ball-room, has a host of intimate associates, and congenial spirits.

(Bulw. Stud.)
But wherefore let we then our faithful friends,
Th' associates and co-partners of our loss
Lie thus astonish'd on th’oblivious pool ?

(Milton's P. L.) This companion of your pleasures, young and unexperienced, will probably, in the heat of convivial mirth, vow a perpertual friendship, and unfold bimself to you without the least reserve; but new associations, change of fortune, or change of place, may soon break this ill-timed connection, and an improper use may be made of it. (Chest. Lett.)

Thus while the cordagc stretch'd ashore may guide
Our brave companions through the swelling tide;
This floating lumber shall sustain them o'er
The rocky shelves, in safety to the shore.

How cheerless feels the heart alone,
When all its former hopes are dead;
Though gay companions, o’er the bowl,
Dispel awile the sense of ill.

(Byron's Poems.)


4. RETREAT. 1. Freiftätte, Zufluchtsort ; 2. Zufluchtstätte ; 3. Obdach; 4. Zuflucht,

Zufluchtsort; Freistätte. Die ersten drei Hauptwórter bezeichnen einen Sicherheitsort, asylum, einen bleibenden; die zwei andern, einen gelegentlichen; retreat, Ubgeschiedenheit, einen Ruheort eher, als einen Sicherheitsort. Wer keine Heimath hat, sucht ein asylum, wer Gefahr fürchtet, ein refuge; vor rauhem Wetter

chúßt ein shelter; die Mühseligkeiten und Beschwerden des Lebens erweden den Wunsch nach einem retreat.

It is the part of a Christian to afford an asylum to the helpless or. phan and widow; the French emigrants found a refuge in England, but very few will make it an asylum; the terrified passenger takes refuge in the first house he comes to; the vessel shattered in a storm, takes shelter in the nearest haven; the man of business, wearied with the anxieties and cares of the world, disengages himself from the whole, and seeks a retreat suited to his circumstances.

The adventurer knows he has not far to go before he will meet with some fortress that has been raised by sophistry for the asylum of error,

(Hawkesw.) The beast retires to his shelter, and the bird flies to its nest; but helpless man can only find refuge from his fellow-creature.

(The Vicar.) Superstition, now retiring from Rome, may yet find refuge in the mountains of Tibet.

Far in a wilderness obscure,
The lonely mansion lay;
A refuge to the neighbouring poor,
And strangers led astray

(The Vicar.) We are now, said he, half-way up the ascent of Vesuvius ; there ought to be some cavern, or hollow in the vine-clad rocks, could we but find it, in which the deserting Nymphs have left a shelter.

(Bulw. Pompeü.)
In rueful gaze
The cattle stand, and on the scowling heavens
Cast a deploring eye, by man forsook ;
Who to the crowded cottage hies him fast,
Or seeks the shelter of the downward cave.

The love of change, that lives in ev'ry breast,
Genius and temper, and desire of rest,
Discordant motives in one centre meet,
And each inclines its vot’ry to retreat.

(W. Cowper's Poems.)


4. ESSAY, 5. EFFORT. 1. Versuch ; 2. Versuch, Probe; 3. Bestrebung, eifrige Bemühung ;

4. Versuch; 5. Anstrengung, Bemühung. 1. Ein Versuch in der Absicht, etwas zu bewerkstelligen; geistreiche Personen machen attempts ; 2. um den Erfolg zu sehen, geistreiche und beharrliche Personen machen trials. Das erste betrift die sandlung mit ihrem Object, das zweite die Ausübung der Kraft. 3. Ein fortgesegter Versuch; 4. wird oft in der Bedeutung von attempt und endeavour, aber größtentheils für geistige uebung gebraucht; 5. ist ein Versuch als ein Mittel den Zweck zu erreichen, immer mit größter Bemühung.

Men attempt to remove evils; they try experiments. Players attempt to perform different parts; and try to gain applause. People attempt to write books; they try various methods; and endeavour to obtain a livelihood. The first essays of youth ought to meet with indulgence, in order to afford encouragement to rising talents. In attempting to make an es cape, a person is sometimes obliged to make desperate efforts. I afterwards made several essays towards speaking.

(Addison.) A natural and unconstrained behaviour has something in it so agreeable, that it is no wonder to see people endeavoring after it. To do whatever you do at all to the utmost perfection, ought to be your aim at this time of your life: if you can reach perfection, so much the better; but, at least, by attempting it, you will get much nearer, than if you never attempted it at all.

(Chesterfield's Letters.) He ordered me to be presented to him at a ball; and after some sayings peculiarly pleasing from royal lips, as to my own attempts, he talked to me of you and your immortalities: he preferred you (W. Scott) to every bard past and present, and asked which of your works pleased me most.

(Byron's Lett.) 'Tis (the strait of Costantinople) so narrow, 'tis not surprizing a young lover should attempt to swim, or an ambitious king try to pass his army over it.

(Montague's Lett.) I attempted to seize him, he glided from my grasp · I flung myself on the ground, and pressed my face to the sod. I lay down on my bed, and the man lay down by me; and I frowned and tried to seize him as before, but I could not.

(Bulwer's Student.) At length, as if tired of attempting to escape, the lion crept with a moan into its cage, and once more laid itself down to rest.

(Bulw. Pomp.) Though Boccaccio and Petrarca followed Dante, they did not employ themselves in cultivating the ground which he had broken up, but chose each for himself a new and an untried field, and reaped a harvest not less abundant.

(Roscoe's life of Lorenzo de' Medici.) In the same manner, efforts have been made by the mighty of the earth to transplant large cities, states, and communities by one great and sudden exertion.

(W. Scott's Robert of Paris.)

1. TO ATTEND to, 2. MIND, 3. REGARD,

4. HEED, 5. NOTICE. 1. Achten, aufmerken; 2. beachten, aufmerken; 3. beachten; 4. beobach

ten, beachten ; 5. etwas bemerken, darauf achten. Alle diese Zeitwörter bezeichnen, seine Sinne und Gedanken auf etwas richten, es mit Aufmerksamkeit wahrnehmen. Da dieses die Kennzüge der Aufmersamkeit, attention, sind, jo ist attend der geschlechtliche, allgemeine Ausdruck. To mind ist beachten, attend, damit es nicht vergessen werde; to regard, einer Sache Wichtigkeit beilegen und sie als eine solche ansehen, beachten; to heed, auf etwas, der Vorsicht wegen, merken, to attend to; to notice, auf etwas achten, das in die Sinne fåut.

We attend to a speaker when we hear and understand his words ; we attend in minding , regarding, heeding, and noticing ; it is a part of

our own

politeness to attend to every minute circumstance which affects the comfort and convenience of those with whoin we associate.

We mind what is said when we bear it in mind. We regard what is said by dwelling and reflecting on it; men who are actuated by any passion seldom pay any regard to the dictates of conscience.

Heed is given to whatever awakens a sense of danger; he heeds not the unfavourable impressions which his conduct makes on others.

Notice is taken of what passes outwardly; in fact, he seldom thinks what is said of him to be worth his notice.

Children should always attend when spoken to, and mind what is said to them; they should regard the counsels of their parents, so as to make them the rule of their conduct, and heed their warnings so as to avoid the evil, they should notice what passes before them so as to apply it to some useful purpose.

Conversation will naturally furnish us with hints which we did not attend to, and make us enjoy other men's parts and reflections as well as

(Addison.) Our voice and manner of speaking too, should likewise be attended to. Nobody can attend with pleasure to a bad speaker.

(Chesterf. Lett.) Cease to request me, let us mind our way, another song requires another day.

(Dryden.) The voice of reason is more to be regarded than the bent of any present inclination.

(Addison.) A particular regard to the cleanliness of your mouth, teeth, hands, and nails, is but common decency. - A gentleman has ever some regard also to the choice of his amusements.

(Chest. Lett.)
Ah! why was ruin so attractive made,
Or, why fond man so easily betrayed?
Why heed we not, while mad we haste along,
The gentle voice of peace or pleasure's song ?

(Collins.) From this very reason it was, that Miss Walton frequently took more particular notice of him than of other visitors. (Man of Feeling.)

Attend to the compliments of congratulation or condolence that he pays; and take notice of his address to his superiors, his equals and his inferiors.

(Chest. Lett.) I believe that the knowledge of Dryden was gleaned from accidental intelligence and various conversation, by vigilance that permitted nothing to pass without notice.

(Johnson.) of our evil feelings, there is one in especial which is the usual characteristic of morbid literary men, though, hitherto, it has escaped notice as such.

(Bulwer's Student.)

1. AVAIL, 2. USE, 3. SERVICE. 1. Vortheil, Gewinn, Nußen; 2. Nußen, Vortheil; 3. Dienst, um einen

Nußen zu befördern. 1. Wird gebraucht, zu bezeichnen, daß eine Handlung zweckdienlich ist; daß Worte, oder Bitten ihren Zweck erreicht haben; 2. daß Bemühungen den gewünschten Nugen erwirkt; 3. wenn etwas dienlich ist und Nugen verleiht.

These words are of no avail; pradeuce forbids us to destroy any thing that can be turned to a use; whatever is of the best quality will be found most serviceable. Wath does it avail, though Seneca had taught as good morality as Christ himself from the mount? (Cumberland.)

Much has been said about the right of an author to avail himself of his predecessors' labours; and, certainly, in a general sense, he that revives the wit and learning of a former age, and puts into the form likely to captivate his own, confers a benefit on his contemporaries.

(W. Scott's Lives.)
His new-born tameness nought availd,
My limbs were bound; my force had failid

(Byron's Mazeppa.) A man with great talents, but void of discretion, is like Polyphemus in the fable, strong and blind, endued with an irresistible force, which for want of sight is of no use to him.

(Addison.) The Greeks in the heroic age seem to have been unacquainted with the use of iron, the most serviceable of all the metals. (Robertson.) 1. AVARICIOUS, 2. MISERLY, 3. PARSIMO

NIOUS, 4. NIGGARDLY. 1. Geizig, karg ; 2. geizig, kniderig ; 3. sparsam, karg ; 4. karg, filzig,

geizig. Das zweite drůdt eine größere Liebe zum Gelde aus, als das erste ; das dritte und vierte sind die untergeordneten Bezeichnungen des Geizes, sie befriedigen die Wünsche desselben und unterhalten diese Leidenschaft.

The avaricious man indulges his passion for money by parsimony, that is by saving out of himself, or by niggardly ways in his dealings with others. The miser is dead to every thing but the treasure which he has amassed. It was on old miserly priest, who cared for nobody but himself.

(W. Irwing's Alhambra.) That frugality in a sovereign is a virtue deserving the highest praise, could not be denied; but they contended that, in their mistress (Elizabeth), it had degenerated into parsimony, if not into avarice.

(Lingard's hist. of England.)
And yet the jealous niggard grudge
To pay the forester his fee!

(Lady of the Lake.)
Be not a niggard of your speech; how goes it?

Not short Heav'n's bounty; boundless our expense ;
No niggard Nature ; men are prodigals.

(Young's Night Th.)
1. Rächen, ahnben, bestrafen ; 2. rächen, ahnben, ftrafen.

Das erste Zeitwort bedeutet bestrafen zum Nußen eines Undern, es ist oft eine Handlung der Menschlichkeit, und jederzeit eine der Gerechtigkeit; das zweite bezeichnet bestrafen zum Nugen seiner selbst, es ist Rache, die niedrigste aller Handlungen und den Grundsågen unserer Religion durchaus zuwider.

» Bene vobis ! (your health!) my Glaucus«, said he, quaffing a cup to each letter of the Greek's name, with the ease of the practised drinker, will you not be avenged on your ill - fortune of yesterday? see, the dice

(Bulwer's Pompeii.) The day shall come, that great avenging day, When Troy's proud glories in the dust shall lay. (Pope.)

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