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of a nation, which lives and moves and has its being in the atmosphere of liberty and equality. But here, as elsewhere, men could not wholly separate in their imagination the past from the present; they could not forget at once that Bonaparte, in his earliest and best and happiest days, had been the asserter of the good cause against the Holy Alliance of his time; and that he had trampled upon many a diadem before he stooped to pick up one of them, and disgrace his manly brow with its childish finery. Even after he had assumed the disguise of an emperor, they could not help feeling that he was originally one of themselves; and when they saw him pouring out his fury upon other established governments, from whose abuses they had formerly suffered, they did not realise, in a moment, that his own was infinitely more tyrannical than any that preceded it. The very enormity of his treason against the cause of liberty prevented the people from viewing it, at first, in its true light. It seemed impossible in the nature of things, that the noblest of her champions should have sunk at once, from the loftiest heights of glory to the lowest depth of moral degradation. They could not help flattering themselves, although against the evidence of their senses, that there was some deception in this apparent apostacy, that the general good required that the cause of the people should be entrusted, for a time, to an arbitrary dictator, and that, after beating down all opposition and rooting out every where the last vestiges of ancient abuses, this mighty champion would resign his truncheon of office, return to the ranks from which he had emerged, and pay his vows again at the altar of freedom. Such, or similar to these, were the willing delusions of many true patriots in various countries. They were not wholly dissipated at the time of the fall of Bonaparte; and the compassion naturally inspired by so strange a reverse of fortune, contributed to sustain and even heighten this singular sort of interest: so that it continued to attend him even in his last lonely retreat. Liberty, remembering the ardent zeal and brilliant exploits of her youthful hero, did not disdain to cheer the dark hours of the wretched and fallen apostate from her cause, with a few lingering gleams of affection. Lord Holland, and some other enthusiastic partisans of popular principles, raised their voices in favor of Bonaparte in the British parliament, when every body else had deserted him except his own family and the faithful companions of his

exile: and the care and kindness of these generous souls contributed something to the comfort of his latter years. If a heart like his were susceptible of remorse and shame, such treatment would have been far more cutting to him than the persecution of his ayowed enemies.

We have been led into these observations in part by the occasional interest now attached to the name and character of Bonaparte, in consequence of his death ; an event, the very indifference of which, in a political point of view, makes it more remarkable, than it would have been under any other circumstances. We trust that we have not offended the spirit of Madame de Stael in devoting a few pages to the memory of her great antagonist, since she expresses a hope, in the commencement of her memoirs, that in speaking of herself she shall often be able to withdraw the reader's attention from her own affairs. However unfortunate for her peace may have been her connexion with the history of Bonaparte, we are not sure that it is not one of the circumstances which will contribute most powerfully to maintain her hold upon the attention of posterity:

She has indeed expressed this opinion herself, in a letter which she wrote to him upon the occasion of his first order of exile. She observes, You are giving me a sad celebrity-I shall occupy one of the pages in your history.

Art. IX.-Uebersicht aller bekannten Sprachen und ihrer

Dialekte.- A Survey of all the known Languages and their Dialects. By Frederick Adelung, Counsellor of State, &c. &c. &c. 8vo. pp. xiv-186. St Petersburg. 1820. This work has already been briefly noticed in a journal printed in another part of the United States ;* but the importance of the subject, as well as the value of the work itself, would render it inexcusable in us to omit giving some account of its contents, for the information of readers in this quarter of our country. We are the more induced to do this, as we have not yet seen any notice of the work in those English journals, which have the most general circulation among us. The subject of our article will, therefore, have the attraction

* The Rev. Mr Schaeffer's German Correspondent, Nos vii and vüi.

of novelty, if the reader should find no other inducement to follow us through our remarks upon it; and the present work will have the more importance in the estimation of an American reader, when he is apprised of the simple fact, that more than one third part of all the languages of the globe belong to our continent, in which this learned author enumerates the astonishing number of twelve hundred and fourteen native dialects!

If the present age is to be hereafter celebrated for its extensive and exact researches in those branches of physical knowledge, which had been before studied and in some sort digested into the form of sciences, it will be no less remarkable as the epoch of a new science also—the comparative science of languages. Until the present period, the languages of man have been for the most part studied singly, and merely with a view to an intercourse between nations for commercial or literary purposes.

Just as man, in the early periods of his history, contented himself with studying the properties and phenomena of his native planet, with a view to his immediate necessities, comfort, or pleasure; and did not once think of extending his inquiries even to the other parts of the planetary system, much less to the worlds beyond those worlds. By degrees, however, he dared to venture beyond the narrow bounds of this little globe, and began to observe the other bodies in the system, and to compare their phenomena with those of his own planet; and at length, under the direction of the powerful minds of Newton, La Place, and their illustrious pupils, he has been enabled to unravel their countless irregularities, and arrange them into that wonderful science, which such names alone would be sufficient to immortalize.

In the same manner, since the impulse given by that extraordinary princess, Catharine the Great (for we pass over the original hints which were given by the great Leibnitz, because they lay unheeded till our own times,) —since that impulse, we say, the science of comparative philology has grown up and advanced with no less rapid a pace than even chemistry or any other part of physical science. Man is no longer satisfied with studying the peculiarities of two or three languages of his immediate neighbors, with the limited views we have mentioned; but he now takes a wider range, and studies the phenomena of language (if we may so speak) as he investigates the phenomena of any other part of his own nature or New Series, No. 9.

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of the physical world in general. The prosecution of these inquiries has been attended with the more brilliant success, as the learned of the present day, instead of speculating a priori upon what languages ought to be, have, after the example of the great masters in other sciences, been endeavoring to ascertain the simple factwhat they are; or (to adopt the fashionable language of the day) are following the method of induction that much vaunted method, which has of late been so often forced upon our attention as the peculiar discovery of modern times; when, in truth, it had been applied centuries ago by that most universal genius of antiquity, that very philosopher, Aristotle, whom the wisest, brightest, meanest of mankind' and other moderns have most unjustly (but, we ought in candor to hope, unintentionally) treated as if he were a stranger to it, and indeed as the patron of the opposite method of attaining knowledge. Well would it have been, if these philosophers had themselves always followed the same method in forming their judgments of that extraordinary man, and, before they ventured to condemn his supposed opinions, had first carefully examined his works to ascertain what his opinions were.

The learned, as we have remarked, are now studying languages, as we study other parts of human knowledge-by collecting facts—by ascertaining what languages there are on the globe, and collecting vocabularies, or specimens, of them all, The work now before us, though small in bulk, must have been the result of great labor, and is of the first importance in the inquiries which are now making in comparative philology. It is a catalogue of all the languages of the globe, as far as it has been possible to ascertain them; and, that the author has made a very near approximation to the true number, seems in the highest degree probable, when we consider the numerous regions over which his Survey carries us, and the prodigious sum total which his list exhibits; as the reader will be able to judge for himself from the general view that will presently be laid before him.

We should, however, first apprise those readers, who have not particularly attended to the investigations which are now going on in Europe, that the present work constitutes but a very small part of the grand and extensive plan of the learned author; it is, in fact, a mere index or prospectus, though a most valuable one, to the intended BIBLIOTHECA GLOTTICA;

and that the reader may have some conception of the proposed work and its great importance to the learned world, we shall here insert the analysis of the author's general introduction to the great work. This introduction alone, (as has been justly observed,) will of itself form a most important and interesting work."

• Introduction to the Bibliotheca Glottica.
I. HISTORY OF THE GENERAL SCIENCE OF LANGUAGES.
II. EARLY ATTEMPTS AT A BIBLIOTHECA GLOTTICA.
III. OF LANGUAGE IN GENERAL:
1. The faculty of speech in man; considered

a. Physiologically.
b. Psychologically; with an Appendix, on the language of

brutes.
2. The origin of language:

a. Divine; by direct communication,
b. Human :

a. Arbitrary.

B. Accidental. S. 'On the original (or primitive) language. 4. Question, which is the oldest of the known languages? 5. The language of signs. 6. On the diversity of languages, and their physical, histori

cal, and moral causes.
7. History of the attempts at a universal language.
IV. GENERAL GRAMMAR.
V. OF WRITING :
1. The origin of writing:

a. Pictures.
b. Hieroglyphics :

a. Egyptian,
B. Mexican,

g. Various others.
c. Alphabetic writing.

d. Arrow (or Babylonish) characters.
2. Account of all the known alphabets.
S. History of the attempts at a universal character.
4. Short-hand writing:

a. Stenography.
b. Tachygraphy.
c. Pasigraphy
d. Abbreviations (or contractions :)

a. Notæ Tironianæ.

B. Monograms. 5. Secret writing :

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