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$90 per ton, in the cost of conveyance.

The effects are more palpable in the state of Illinois. Merchandise from Philadelphia or New Orleans, pays for carriage $130 per ton, but when the caval shall be finished, and a road of sixty miles made from the head of lake Michigan, a difference of $50 or $60 will immediately be felt. From all these considerations it will seem probable, that Philadelphia and Baltimore must yield a large portion of their present trade to their more fortunate rival.

The time must soon arrive, when that extensive territory from the Ohio to the great lakes, and from the Missouri to the borders of Pennsylvania, a country fertile and healthful, inhabited by a race of hardy and vigorous men, capable of supporting a population of enormous magnitude, a country, in comparison with which the fairest kingdom in Europe is almost sterile, will hereafter receive all which may supply its wants or add to its luxuries through New York, and will in return transmit, by the same channel, the rich fruits of an exuberant soil, owned and cultivated by a free population. New Orleans, great as she inevitably must be, will find her influence contracted, and will be obliged to bow to those great physical and moral causes, which have constituted New York the emporium of North America. If the contemplated canal across the state of Ohio (and what may we not expect from that young but powerful member of the republic) should be made, even the tobacco of Kentucky would find a cheaper passage on the smooth waters of the canal, than on the Ohio, obstructed by the falls of Louisville, or the Mississippi, at all times a tedious and dangerous navigation. The United States will feel the benefit of the canal in the improved value of the public lands in that quarter. Population will rapidly increase, and the Indian, ameliorated by the benign policy of the government, will be enclosed with the cordon of the white settlements, there we trust to enjoy the blessings of civilized life. The protecting force and paternal energy of the same power will then be extended to our frontier with ease and economy. On the seaboard we have nothing to fear; the fortifications now erecting, the perfection to which our navy is brought, and the characteristic gallantry of our seamen, afford an ample defence in that quarter. On our northern frontier we are more exposed; and that owing to the very difficulty of supplying the materiel of war. A piece of ordnance during the late contest with

England, delivered at lake Ontario, cost the country $2000, when its original price was only $400. These canals, therefore, while they will save thousands to the individual and the nation, are calculated to protect our borders from invasion, to secure the safety of our citizens, and guaranty the general welfare of the republic.

The state of New York, already one of the most powerful in the confederacy, is destined to become yet more so. Situated in a healthy climate, and in a commanding geographical position, with a hardy population of 1,300,000 souls, she has before her a most noble career. The profits of agriculture will be increased, the resources of the state improved, all its parts brought nearer to each other, * its population extended, and its power concentered and consolidated. She possesses great mineral riches; the beds of gypsum in Onondaga are not only extensive, but of the purest quality. It is an article of prime necessity in her agriculture, and will hereafter afford a regular source of profit, by exportation to the south. Already the lake fisheries have become a matter of importance, while the Champlain canal has led to the establishment of numerous forges in a country where the iron ore is said to be of an excellent quality.

The salt works at Salina are particularly deserving of attention. They already yield sixty or seventy thousand dollars to the state, the duty being twelve and a half cents per bushel. A single gallon of the water yields twenty-six ounces of salt, and the supply is inexhaustible. The Virginia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Illinois salt is sold at the works, from four dollars to $7,50 per bushel; at Salina it can be sold at two dollars per

bushel. What will be the future value of the salt springs to the state cannot be accurately foreseen; but already has this commodity been carried by land to Buffalo, and thence distributed along the banks of the lake. Hereafter it will supply the valley of the Ohio and Mississippi, and be exchanged for the fine marble and agricultural products of Ver

As it is an article of the first necessity, the revenue to be derived from it will be a fund constantly increasing with the exigencies of a growing population.

The Champlain canal, though a considerable work, has been


* It was well remarked in the report of 1812, that 'the proposed canal would to every useful purpose produce the same effect, as if lake Erie were brought within forty miles of Hudson's river.'

lost in the magnitude of the other. It is, however, of no small importance. It diverts a valuable trade carried on from the northern part of Vermont to Montreal, and opens a market for the country, lying on the banks of lake Champlain. The im· mense forests of the North, which never yet felt the axe of the husbandman, will soon bow before his arm, and exchange their gloomy shades for the clear sunshine of the open field. The revenue of this canal, it is said, will produce enough to pay the interest of the capital employed in its construction, and to establish a sinking fund for extinguishing the principal. Thus, after some years, the state will enjoy a new income, to be expended in objects of public utility.

Whatever may be the force of the considerations we have urged in favor of these canals, we think that they are merged and lost in one which is paramount and superior to all, which is intimately connected with the character and conservation of our civil institutions, and our freedom and happiness as a nation. The government under which we live is emphatically a government founded on public opinion; it is an association which depends for its existence on the breath of the people. This constitutes one of its great distinguishing features; and though it is one of which we are justly proud, it is not without its perils. We cherish this pride, because it implics, nay more, requires an intelligent and patriotic population to support and defend such a system, to protect it from its own inherent weakness, to guard it against the attacks of an insidious lust of power, to maintain our fellow citizens in all the plenitude of legitimate and deputed command, but instantly io crush the man, like the reptile who crawls into our dwellings, who dares to usurp the fasces of authority which were never’delivered to him by the people. But we are not only republics, but federated republics. We are bound together by a common charter, 'to promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.' This association was voluntary, and dictated by an experience of benefits under a previous confederacy. This union then depends upon the affections of the people, and it would be found, if they were once subtracted from it, how weak and ineffectual were the laws which bound us together.

Whatever, therefore, in addition to the civil ligaments of our union, superinduces those physical bonds which are ever most tangible to the minds of ordinary men, confers an infiNew Series, No. 9.


nite benefit on the country, and a new vigor upon those institutions whose great object is the maintenance of the right of self-government. It is in this view then that we consider the great western canal of paramount importance. It connects the east with the west by a reciprocal and advantageous commerce, it brings the citizens of widely extended communities into frequent and regular intercourse. By it, the commodities of the one are transferred in a just and equitable exchange into the limits of the other; and thus a strong but mutual interest will ultimately unite them with a chain, which neither the fervors of party nor the mutual jealousy of states will ever be able to destroy. We rejoice that the prayers of good men seem to have been heard, and that the prophecies of those ignorant of our laws and the character of the people, or those unable to appreciate the excellence of both, are already shown to be false. The union of the states is our only safety. It protects and defends us, it secures respectability at home and abroad, it has raised the American name to an honorable elevation, and affords its invisible but omnipotent shield to every citizen, whether he navigates his bark upon the billows of the trackless ocean, or prosecutes his adventurous way among the naked and ferocious savages of the Missouri or Columbia. Every where may it be felt, surrounding us with its magic influence, till we almost lose the perception of its invaluable favors, in the regular and ample flow of its varied blessings. Remove it-give an absolute independence to every state, and the promise of our youth is blasted, and with it the world's best hope laid low.

Influenced by these views, the state of New York has carried on those great improvements, in which certainly she has far outstripped any other member of the union. They will be a monument of her talent and her vigor, when contemplated by other generations. They are the noblest objects of a people's ambition, and the most permanent sources of their glory. When those transitory interests, which animate opposition, shall have passed away, when those miserable jealousies, which 100 often separate good and honorable men, shall all have been forgotten, these noble canals will remain to bless the memory of their authors, and distribute their benefits upon their posterity. In all human probability we do not yet perceive the full and complete advantages, which they are ultimately to produce. The changes they may cause, the aspect

they may give to our country, and the character they may impress upon our people are concealed beneath the mantle of time. These subjects will hereafter afford room for the research of the historian; at this moment they are hidden even from those who almost witness the close of the experiment, and the animating recompense of a patriotic and intelligent people. It is the prerogative of great minds to strike out those improvements, whose excellence, though appreciated at the time, is destined to be fully enjoyed in another age. The cloaca marima is to this day the common sewer of Rome, and the acqueducts of the Campagna still supply to the eternal city, as they did centuries ago, the luxuries and the comforts of life. Their founders have long since ceased to exist, but these proud memorials of their genius remain ; and when the statesmen who conceived the project of the Erie and Champlain canals, and that generation who completed them, shall have passed away, the tides of the Hudson will meet in fraternal accord with the waves which wash the shores of Chicago, or beat against the cliffs of Mackinaw the most powerful testimony to the force of an enlightened government, supported by a free and educated people.*

Art. XIII.Boylston Medical Prize Dissertations for the

years 1819 and 1821. Experiments and observations on the communication between the stomach and urinary organs, and on the propriety of administering medicine by injection into the veins. By E. Hale, jun. M. D. M. M. Š. S. Boston, O. Everett and J. W. Ingraham, 1821. pp. 135. Dr Hale is already very favorably known to the public by a work, which he published some years since, containing a valuable account of the spotted fever, as it prevailed in the

* Since this article was sent to the press, and of course too late to be of service to us, we have seen a pamphlet, entitled “the Canal policy of New York.' It consists of a series of letters published sometime since in the Statesman, under the signature of Tacitus, and now republished, with an introduction. We observe, moreover, in the reports of the proceedings of congress, that the assembly of Minois have applied for national assisiance toward constructing a canal from the river Illinois to lake Michigan, an enterprize which we have intimated to be practicable.

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