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which has been ever since regularly continued. Of the sums annually drawn out of the treasury by the commissioners, from 1812 to 1820, our author has constructed a table ; from which it appears, that, for those eight years, 302,490 dollas had been expended by the state, upon this system of elementary education. But expended by the state' does not mean expended by the commissioners. That these latter did not expend the money, as they ought, our author does not take it upon him to say; but he proves, by a laborious investigation, that they have not, as they ought, accounted for the expenditure of upwards of 100,000 dollars. And it appears, indeed, from the results presented in the pamphlet before us, that this bountiful system of charity, like most bountiful systems of the same kind, must have been egregiously mismanaged, and has come to little good. In 1813, for instance, nearly 40,000 dollars appears to have been drawn out; and no account given of it whatever. Nearly the same sum was taken out in 1817; in which year there were no returns from thirty-one districts, and, with this large sum, there was no evidence, that the education of more than 2,237 children was paid for!
These are only specimens; and truly they furnish our author a fair opportunity of referring to some of those instances of gross abuse in charters, which Mr Brougham's investigations in England have recently brought to light, and which, from a case mentioned in p. 39, appear to grow up as well in this country as in England.
• I shall,' says our author, fatigue the reader no longer with instances of abuses in foreign nations, but will barely mention that I have been informed, that one of our sister states, north of us, is at present a striking example of the difficulty of succeeding in this kind of charity schools. It is said, that in that state, many of the commissioners have actually hired poor children, for a small reward, to enter the schools, have their names registered, and after a short attendance, to decamp. The commissioner and master understand each other; the account for teaching the year or quarter so many scholars is made out, and paid, and thus the money is accounted for, and the plan to the legislature seems to be succeeding most prosperously ;-—at least the money is well spent.' p. 39.
What has been the particular mode of management in South Carolina our author has not stated; but he appeals to results, as furnishing evidence of the imperfection of the system, either
in design or execution. Of its actual operation in some places, he has given us a glimpse, which, to our readers in this part of the country, will appear almost too ludicrous to be credible :
• I believe, in many instances, the teachers that have been employed, were as much in want of instruction as their pupils. I have heard that in some of the lower districts, they have actually converted the schools into a sort of gymnastic academies; where, instead of studying philosophy in the woous and groves, as the Druids did of old, they take delight in the more athletic exercise of deer and rabbit hunting ; and that it is a fine sight to see the long, lean, serpentine “ master," with his dial face and greasy rifle, looking like a very surveyor, at his stand, whilst the young. er peripatetics are scouring the woods, and hallooing up the game.?
Contrasted with these results of the free school system, our author displays the benefits, which the college has conferred upon South Carolinian society; and thence derives a strong argument, to convince the legislature how much wiser it would be to endow new professorships in the college, increase its library, and improve it in other respects, with a part of their 37,000 dollars, than to appropriate it all in a manner in which, at best, its utility is inferior, and in which it is so likely to be mismanaged. With regard to the influence on society of the institution of the college, our author makes the following remark, though it admits, perhaps, of question, whether all the effect should be ascribed to the college at Columbia alone, since it is well known that large numbers of the young men of Carolina are annually sent to Princeton, New-Haven, Providence, and Cambridge.*
• Some years ago, the middle and back country scarcely had a man who was well educated ; and to many of the good old folks, when the wonders of the college came upon them, it appeared that all these curious inventions of chemistry, Greek, Latin, &c. had just been discovered since the revolutionary war—the event from which every thing that is excellent is dated. Now there is not a neighbourhood that has not intelligent, well educated young men. The young men, who have received liberal educations in this state, have a spirit and vivacity in conversation, that is not very com
any other nation, save the French. This gives them considerable influence upon society, and its effects are only to be
* We observe even in the late catalogue of the flourishing university atLexington, Kentucky, the names of South Carolinians.
ascertained by comparing the present situation of South Carolina with its condition before the establishment of this college,-when all the refinement, all the influence and talents of the state were concentrated in Charleston; when the people in Charleston thought the upper country inhabited with savages, (some remnant of the same opinion remains still,) and those of the upper country thought the inhabitants of Charleston a womanish, enfeebled race of cits.'
Before closing this article, we beg leave to say a word of the judicious address of president Cooper, which we have named at the head of the article. It contains, in plain and perspicuous language, a series of very valuable remarks, addressed to the young gentlemen about to become graduates at the last commencement. We sincerely rejoice that the state of society is such, we will not say in South Carolina alone, but in any part of our country, that so liberal and ample a field of professional study, as this address prescribes, can any where even be recommended. We do not suppose that the mass of candidates who crowd into any of the professions, will allow theinselves to be delayed by the noviciate which president Cooper marks out. But it augurs well to the cause of education, that a thorough course of reading in civil and continental law is enjoined on the student of law; and an acquaintance with the original language of the Old Testament and with the writings of the fathers of the four first centuries declared essential to the theologian; and classical literature to all engaged in these or any other professional pursuits. If we were to take any exceptions to the opinions of this judicious address, it would be to those which are expressed in disparagement of the art of oratory. While we unite with president Cooper in reprobating all abuses of that art, and every application to wrong ends of the power which it confers, we cannot allow that “the whole history of ancient oratory shows that it was little else than the art of cheating the understandings of a gaping populace, by amusing their imaginations and exciting their passions; and that all modern oratory is to be held in the same estimation. This seems to us at once an incorrect and a superficial view.—By public speaking in legislative, judicial, political, and religious assemblies, the highest temporal and eternal interests of men are most powerfully affected. Laws are made and abrogated, governments administered, preserved or overturned, justice dispensed, wrongs inflicted or redressed, the opinions men cherish on the highest points of moral and
religious concernment decided, and the whole complex social system in all its relations affected, by public speaking. Why then the art of doing this, the art of speaking well, should be a cheat in ancient or modern times, we see not. Does the president mean that to possess one's faculties before a formidable assembly, to speak the right word in the right place, to feel the intellectual and moral pulse of a mingled crowd of politicians, of citizens, or moral agents, and address them seasonably, judiciously, and effectually; to accompany what you speak with proper corresponding movements of the wonderful bodily organization which nature has made to act in sympathy with the soul,-does the president mean that this is that studied premeditated oratory which savors either of vanity or fraud ?' Is it not the hardest thing which man can attempt, to do all this in perfection, without affectation, witbout extravagance ? • He who studies to be eloquent, will never study to be wise; a dealer in tropes, metaphors, allegories and similes, is seldom a dealer in facts. Did not Pericles and Demosthenes study to be wise; did not Cicero, did not Chatham and Burke study to be wise? Eloquence is not one thing and wisdom another. Eloquence is wisdom speaking or wisdom writing; and as for tropes and metaphors, to which the president testifies such aversion, there are not many sentences in his own well written address, that do not contain a tropical or metaphorical expression :-there are two such expressions in the sentence of four lines, in which their use is condemned. Most language is tropical ; and if the meaning of the president's precept is, that impertinent, unseasonable use of figurative language should be avoided, it is one part of the art of oratory, to teach the speaker to avoid it. The president approves that eloquence of the heart, which arises naturally
, spontaneously from warmth of feeling in the course of debate.' We approve it too, but what is to give this eloquence of the heart, the power of modulating the voice, perhaps a feeble voice, so that it shall be heard through a vast hall by a crowd; what shall give it a happy ease and command of language,
what shall furnish it with illustrations, instances, arguments, replies, ready distinctions against plausible objections, and furnish these too, in the hurry and press of a passionate debate? Put down an eloquent savage in congress, Logan or Red Jacket himself; would he be able to keep the house to the question, in the whirlwind of amendments, commitments, previous ques
tions, and personalities? Put him down again in a court of justice; would he be able to lay a complicated train of facts intelligibly before the minds of a common jury, or direct the bench through a maze of almost equally balanced analogies, in a question of law? The heart is very honest, and must furnish, we grant, the orator's inspiration, and must itself be warmed by nature. But words, speech, action, debate, these are things, which nothing but the most laborious study, and the longest practice can enable the heart to command to best advantage. It is some consolation that this is no new theory, though a theory more reasonable we cannot imagine ; for the greatest orators of ancient and modern times have united genius and study in equal degrees.
form 4 L ART. XVII.-1. The Club Room. 8vo, Boston, 1821.
2. The Idle Man. New York.
It is so generally esteemed a violation of critical etiquette, for one periodical publication to enter into a formal examination of the merits of another, that we should not have ventured upon the works before us, which in this respect, have somewhat of the same generic character with ourselves, had we not farther considered, that it is the only point in which they do resemble us, and that to criticism in particular, they make no pretensions.
But before we commence our strictures, our readers will excuse us for making some reflections on the history and the value of a species of fine writing, which once acquired a high name in our mother country, and which, in a new and not less attractive dress, has grown into deserved favor in our own.
The only sample of essay writing, purporting to be such, and bearing any resemblance to a modern miscellany, that has come down to us from the ancients, is, we believe, the Attic Nights of A. Gellius, who flourished in the reign of Trajan, the declining days of Roman literature;-it is a farrago of independent facts, criticisms, and loose speculations. He enumerates in his preface several Grecian works of a similar nature, none of which have reached us; and it is much to be