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mean time, the convention will be employed in enacting the most salutary decrees, and among those already passed are one declaring the commerce of this empire free to all nations; another doing away all the arbitrary taxes, impositions, and excises imposed by the former government; a third reducing the duties from sixteen to six per cent.; a fourth for the encouragement of the miners, relinquishing to them the quota of silver formerly paid to the king, with other imports, amounting to seventeen per cent., * so that many poor minerals, that could not be worked before, can now be used to advantage; and a fifth recognizing and making the new government responsible for the debt contracted by the old one, of thirty-six millions of dollars.'

How far it may be proper to class the hero of this revolution with Washington, time will show. At present, it may be regarded as at least premature to give him this exalted rank. His character has not yet been put to the test, which will enable us to pronounce upon it with confidence. We ought not to judge of his conduct by the standard of our republican notions, nor to forget that the people for whom he is called upon to act are not fitted by their education and character, and by the actual exercise of the privileges of freemen, either to govern themselves, or to be governed without the assumption of extensive powers in the chief magistrate. But the almost unlimited authority which Iturbide has reserved to himself, or what, under existing circumstances, is equivalent, which has been granted to him by a decree of the regency, can hardly be reconciled to the idea that he is influenced by no views of personal aggrandizement. He refused the crown, and insisted that the emperor should come from Spain;' but he has retained the powers of military dictator, yielding to the emperor but the shadow of sovereignty. In the decree above alluded to, founded on a law of the junta of provisional government, the powers granted to Iturbide as admiral-generalissimo, are enumerated in fifteen articles, the first of which is in the following words. • He shall have command of the forces by sea and land, comprehending in his government the economical and administrative, according to the laws; consequently, all propositions of office, in both branches, shall pass through his hand, of officers and chiefs, from those of brigadier, inclusive, downwards, in the land army, and the equivalents in the

* We are not able to say with what correctness the duties on the mines, given by Humboldt at eleven and a half per cent, are made to amount, by Mr Wilcocks, to over seventeep per cent.

other branches. He shall propose also for the governments, of garrisons, commanders of provinces, captains-general, and shall countersign the despatches of all these offices, receiving them from the emperor, and passing them to the secretary of war for their progress. He is besides to have the direction of military colleges, the inspection of the manufacture of gunpowder, arms, munitions and clothing; the charge of every thing relating to arsenals, artillerists, and manufactures belonging to the marine; to watch over the disbursement of the military treasury for sea and land, and the distribution of the funds of these branches; to be the protector of commerce, navigation, police, and the works of the ports; to grant passports and licenses for navigation, according to the orders of the emperor; he is to have the title of highness, and a guard of two companies of infantry with a banner, which shall present arms, and beat a march. His guard is only to do honors to the persons the imperial family. When he goes out, four body guards are to go before, and an escort of twenty men behind. In the court and residence of the emperor, the posts of the place are to do him correspondent honors. On his entrance to and departure from the fortresses and garrisons, the troops are to be drawn up, and the artillery to salute him with twenty-one guns, he having in every thing, by sea and land, supreme military honors. That with these powers, at the head of an army devoted to him, and with the tide of popular opinion in his favor, he will be the actual sovereign, and that the nominal emperor, a stranger, and without a single tie to bind the people to him, will be entirely dependent, is sufficiently evident.

This remark on the uncertainty of general Iturbide's character may be still farther extended. Nothing can be more futile, than to indulge in conjectures as to the final result of the individual measures, which have hitherto been taken. That the general consequence of the revolutionary movements will be the independence of Mexico, can scarcely be doubted by any one, who surveys the proceedings of the cortes at Madrid, or of the royal viceroy O'Donoju. Equally indisputable we hold it to be, that the independence of Mexico, and of the other South American colonies, in proportion as it shall be finally established and recognized by the leading powers of the world, will give a spring and animation to commerce, scarcely, if at all inferior, to that which resulted from the original discovery of this religion.

NOTE.

Our strictures upon the Idle Man, Art. XVII, were already in the press, before the fifth number had made its appearance. It is but just to the author to mention this circumstance, as some objections, urged in that article, do not apply to this last number, which, nevertheless, forms a very considerable proportion of the whole work. It is true, the same affectation of manner, although probably from accident in a much slighter degree, is imputable to it; nor do we think it more fortunate in hitting the natural vein of light familiar dialogue. But it differs from the preceding numbers in the exhibition of various character, and in the animating bustle of its action. It abounds in rich description, and has moreover several scenes of considerable dramatic power; and (what is of importance to its success) we think it will fasten more strongly upon the sympathies of the reader, than any of the former narratives. We are pleased to learn from his advertisement, that he has projected a story upon a more extended plan, and we trust that he will neither force nor curtail it, in accommodating it to the arbitrary formalities of a periodical publication.

INDEX.

A.

formation, 225 et seq.-their progress
Adams, John Q. his report upon weights in improvement, 231-advantages of,

and measures reviewed, 190 et seq. for inland navigation, 232-benefits of
his remarks on the English system of the union, 249 et seq.-style of writers
weights and measures, 194 et seq.- in, 331, 349—academy of language
his remarks on the French system, 201 and belles lettres, 350 et seq.-early
et seq.-on American coins, 205—his history of, 385-manufactures of, 414
comparison of the advantages of the -machinery of, 416, 418-a rival of
French and English systems, 211 et England in mechanical invention, 418.
seq.-his remarks on American weights American academy of language and belles
&c. 225 et seq.

lettres, 351-defects in its organiza-
Adelung, his survey of languages review-

tion, 352 et seq.
ed, 128 et seq. -analysis of the intro- Ames, Fisher, 332.

duction to his Bibliotheca Glottica, 131. Arguelles, a Spanish orator, account of,
Alexander, of Russia, madame de Stael's 363.

interview with, 118_comments on her Aristophanes, Mitchell's translation of,
account of, 119.

reviewed, 273–opinions of Hurd, Gil-
Almamun, Greek authors translated in lies, La Harpe, Barthelemi, A. W.

to Arabic under his patronage, 58. Schlegel, 274 et seq.-F. Schlegel's
America, views of society and manners in, remarks on, 277—how esteemed by the

by an Englishwoman, reviewed, 15% Germans, 280 et seq. and by the Eng-
misrepresentations in this work, 16, 18 lish, 282 et seq.- Wieland's remarks
-number of languages in, 129, 133 on, 284-three reasons why he assail.
-list of North American languages, ed the Sophists in the character of So-
135 et seq.

crates refuted, 287 et seq.-remarks
America, South, Percival's ode on the on his personal character, 290 et seq.

emancipation of, 9-president's mes 294—his attack on Euripides, 294.
sage on the independence of, 420- Aristotle, method of induction used by,
progress of, towards independence, 420 130—singular fate of his writings,
et seq.-extent and governments of the 309.
Spanish possessions in, 422-geogra- Arkwright, his cotton machinery, 403,
phical advantages of, 423_amount of 408-account of, 408.
money shipped from, since 1492 up to Arts, transactions of the London and New
1803, 434—the mines, the property

York societies for the promotion of,
of individuals, but pay a per centage to

401. See Machinery.
government, 434. See Merico. Ashe, the traveller, 40, 42, 49.
America, United States of, poetry of, 3, Athens, 277—sophists of, 286 et seq.-

7-view of society and manners in, comedy and manners of the Athenians,
by an Englishwoman, reviewed, 15– 289 et seq.-language of, 397.
her misrepresentations, 16, 18—slavery Austria, speech of the emperor of, to the
in, 18-eagerness of the people for Hungarian deputies, 364 et seq.
news, 25-no observatory in, 33-du- Acores, remarks on the discovery and set-
ties on books and scientific instruments tlement of, 34 et seq.-character and
reprobated, 33-remarks on American condition of the inhabitants, 38 et seq.
travellers, 49 et seq.-system of coins, -climate, agriculture, and commerce,
205-remarks on the system of weights 39 et seq.-geology of, 41 et seq.-
and measures, with reference to a re earthquake and volcano in 1811, 46.
New Series, No. 10.

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