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uable as this of Dr Webster, it would be some compensation, and the only one which they can make, for the wrong they do their country by their absence. It will not, we hope, be thought, that however valuable this work may be on account of its own intrinsic worth, it is still of but little interest to us, in respect of the country, which it describes; and it certainly will not, by those who recollect that St Michael is an island with which we have considerable trade, from which we receive one of our choicest luxuries, and to which our invalids resort to find a balmier air and a milder sky than can be had in our climate during winter. We leave it, with many thanks to the writer for the entertainment and instruction it has afforded us.

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ART. V.—Dissertations on the importance and the best method

of studying the Original Languages of the Bible, by Jahn and others, translated from the originals and accompanied with notes, by M. Stuart, Associate Professor of Sacred Literature in the Theological Seminary at Andover. 8vo. Andover. 1821. We can say of the present work, as of the Hebrew Grammar, noticed in our last number, that it bodes well to the cause of oriental learning, not only in the Theological Seminary, with which its author is connected, but, as we hope, in other similar institutions in our country. The prominent object of this publication is to urge the necessity of studying the original languages of the bible, especially the Hebrew and its related dialects, to point out the best method of studying them, and, if we look at the tendency of some of the notes, appended to it, we may add, to excite the attention of the public to the important subject of a well educated and faithful ministry, These are objects, we are sure, which are calculated to interest the feelings both of the scholar and the christian ; and which necessarily involve the literary respectability and intellectual progress, as well as the religious well-being of the community. The dissertations, which are embodied in the publication, appear in three parts, and are followed by the notes, just now alluded to, from the spirited pen of the translator.

The principal author of part first, as we are informed in the preface, is Dr J. Jahn, an archbishop in the catholic church

rocks, sometimes imbedded in the masses of pumice, which in many parts of the island cover a great extent of surface. These two volcanic products are observed constantly passing from one into the other, leaving it scarcely possible to distinguish the line of separation, still less to doubt that they were at one time the same identical substance. All the other marks by which the mighty effects of the agency of fire are recognized, such as scoriæ, volcanic sand, ashes, tuff, breccias, and lava in every state of decomposition and new combination, are spread over the whole island, so as to leave no doubt which of the elements has exercised dominion there. A farther resemblance to the volcanos heretofore known is observed in the minerals found by Dr Webster among the rocks of St Michael, which had undergone either but a slight or no change by the action of fire. Those mentioned by him are felspar, augite, hornblende, olivine, mica, hauyne, leucite, arragonite, and oxidulous iron, but he does not appear to have found either meionite, nepheline, or pleonaste, which are thus far the peculiar characteristics of Vesuvius. In many respects, however, the masses, which contain these minerals from St Michael, have a striking resemblance to those from Vesuvius, particularly a semivitrified kind of felspar, which we doubt not is the eisspath of Werner and the German mineralogists. We trace also an almost perfect similarity to the solfatara of the

Campi Phlegræi, in his description of the country around the Caldeiras:

*As we pass along the narrow road from the village to this spot,' says our author, the gradual change from a fertile to a barren soil is observed, and within a few yards of the hot springs, nearly all traces of vegetation are lost. At the extremity of the road, the ground is almost snow white, and then acquires a reddish tinge; this increases in intensity and brightness, and finally passes through an infinite variety of shades to a deep brown. The vicinity of the springs is indicated by the increased temperature earth, a sulphureous odour, and the escape of vapour or steam from every crack and fissure in the ground. The volumes of smoke and steam rolling upwards from the surface to a great height, till they are gradually diffused through the atmosphere, or mingle with the heavier clouds that crown the summit of the mountains, produce a striking effect.

A few yards from the principal Caldeira is an elevation of about fifty feet in height, and probably as many in extent, composed of alternate layers of a coarser variety of sinter and clay, including grass, ferns, and reeds in different states of petrifac

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tion. Not many years since, the side of this hill fell in, and dis-
covered a deep and frightful chasm ; smoke and steam at present
issue from it in vast quantities, accompanied by a tremendous
noise. Looking down through this opening, a body of water is seen
boiling with great violence. An appalling roar is incessantly re-
verberated from side to side within the dome, and is increased at
short intervals by sudden and violent explosions. The surface
of this hill, the sides of the cavern, and the innumerable crevices
in the ground are coated with sulphur. Every stone has been
more or less changed, while not a shrub or plant flourishes for
many yards around.''
There is not a little in this description to remind one of the

"Locus exciso penitus demersus hiatu
Parthienopen inter magnæque Dicarchidos arva

Cocyta perfusus aqua,
of Petronius.

Dr Webster suspected that sulphuret of iron in the act of decomposition was the cause of the phenomena observed about these hot springs, and on digging, he had the satisfaction of finding large quantities, several feet below the surface, under loose masses of basaltic fragments, which contained, without doubt, microscopic portions of the sulphuret. Breislak found the same at Solfatara, and regards its operations in the same light. There is nothing unreasonable in supposing it to be the cause of such partial and confined effects, but we do not see how it could ever have been thought adequate to the production and enkindling of volcanic fires.

It would be thought unreasonable perhaps to complain of our author for not doing more, when he has done so much, and been so faithful in what he has done, but we should have been pleased if he had furnished us with a few more means of judging of the antiquity of these volcanos, and of the number.

eruptions they have poured out. The depth of the currents of lava might in many cases be exactly ascertained, and the fact determined whether they flowed over others more ancient, or whether the whole surface of the island above water is the effect of one mighty convulsion. We are inclined to believe, from all that we gather from his accounts, that it is the production of repeated volcanic eruptions, but that none of them ever burned for any considerable time. It is not improbable even that a process has been employed in its formation similar to that which produced the recent submarine vol

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rocks, sometimes imbedded in the masses of pumice, which

tio in many parts of the island cover a great extent of surface. These two volcanic products are observed constantly passing from one into the other, leaving it scarcely possible to distinguish the line of separation, still less to doubt that they were at one time the same identical substance. All the other marks by which the mighty effects of the agency of fire are recognized, such as scoriæ, volcanic sand, ashes, tuff, breccias, and lava in every state of decomposition and new combination, are spread over the whole island, so as to leave no doubt which of the elements has exercised dominion there. A farther resemblance to the volcanos heretofore known is observed in the minerals found by Dr Webster among the rocks of St Michael, which had undergone either but a slight or no change by the action of fire. Those mentioned by him are felspar, augite, hornblende, olivine, mica, baüyne, leucite, arragonite, and oxidulous iron, but he does not appear to have found either meionite, nepheline, or pleonaste, which are thus far the peculiar characteristics of Vesuvius. In many respects, however, the masses, which contain these minerals from St Michael, have a striking resemblance to those from Vesuvius, particularly a semivitrified kind of felspar, which we doubt not is the eisspath of Werner and the German mineralogists. We trace also an almost perfect similarity to the solfatara of the

Campi Phlegræi, in his description of the country around the Caldeiras:

* As we pass along the narrow road from the village to this spot,' says our author, the gradual change from a fertile to a barren soil is observed, and within a few yards of the hot springs, nearly all traces of vegetation are lost. At the extremity of the road, the ground is almost snow white, and then acquires a reddish tinge; this increases in intensity and brightness, and finally passes through an infinite variety of shades to a deep brown. The vicinity of the springs is indicated by the increased temperature of the earth, a sulphureous odour, and the escape of vapour or steam from every crack and fissure in the ground. The volumes of smoke and steam rolling upwards from the surface to a great height, till they are gradually diffused through the atmosphere, or mingle with the heavier clouds that crown the summit of the mountains, produce a striking effect.

A few yards from the principal Caldeira is an elevation of about fifty feet in height, and probably as many in extent, composed of alternate layers of a coarser variety of sinter and clay, alas including grass, ferns, and reeds in different states of n.

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tion. Not many years since, the side of this hill fell in, and dis.
covered a deep and frightful chasm ; smoke and steam at present
issue froin it in vast quantities, accompanied by a tremendous
noise. Looking down through this opening, a body of water in scen
boiling with great violence. An appalling roar in incessantly re-
verberated from side to side within the dome, and is increased at
short intervals by sudden and violent explosions. The surface
of this hill, the sides of the cavern, and the innumerable crevices
in the ground are coated with sulphur. Every stone has been
more or less changed, while not a shrub or plant flourishes for
many yards around.
There is not a little in this description to remind one of the

'Locus exciso penitus demerus hiatu
Parthenopen inter mangue Dicarchidos arva

Cocyta perfasas aqua,
of Petronius.

Dr Webster suspected that sulphuret of iron in the art of decomposition was the cause of the phenomena omrud about these hot springs, and on dizzing fac bad tur sauslaran of finding large quantities, several fakt blir la fuok, with de loose masses of bassite fraget., kita cintuitus, in det doctt, microscopic porta di tha eshtet, Bentziak inct the same a Starz, 200 rede is A ne te thare same la Tiere is esse contains i tot, un

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