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lence be broad as the ocean, your candor brilliant as the sun, and your compassion and humanity extensive as the human race.
These sentiments are not confined to Mr. Howell. The charge of President Maxey, in 1793, breathes the same spirit of freedom and philanthropy. What are the advantages society may not expect, when principles like these are impressed with all the energetic force of precept and example, on the minds of the rising generation ?
This institution was first founded at Warren, in the county of Bristol, and the first commencement held there in 1769.
In the year 1770, the college was removed to Providence, where a large, elegant building was erected for its accommodation, by the generons donations of individuals, mostly from the town of Providence. It is situated on a hill to the east of the town; and while its elevated situation renders it delightful, by commanding an extensive variegated prospect, it furnishes it with a pure, salubrious air. The edifice is of brick, four stories high, one hundred and fifty feet long, and forty-six wide, with a projection of ten feet each side. It has an entry lengthwise, with rooms on each side. There are forty-eight rooms for the accommodation of students, and eight larger ones for public uscs. The roof is covered with slate.
From December, 1776, to June, 1782, the college edifice was used by the French and American troops for an hospital and barracks, so that the course of education was interrupted during that period. No degrees were conferred from 1776 to 1786. From 1786, the college again became regular, and is now very flourishing, containing upwards of sixty students.
This institution is under the instruction of a president, a professor of divinity, a professor of natural and experimental philosophy, a professor of mathematics and astronomy, a professor of natural history, and three tutors. The institution has a library of between two and three thousand voluines, containing a valuable philosophical apparatus. Nearly all the funds of the collere are at interest in the treasury of the State, and amount to almost two thousand pounds.
At Newport there is a flourishing academy under the direction of a rector and tutors, who teach the learned languages, English grammar, geography, &c.
CONNECTICUT. In no part of the world is the education of all ranks of people more attended to than in Connecticut; almost every town in the State is divided into districts, and each district has a public school kept in it a greater or less part of every year. Somewhat more than one-third of the moneys arising from a tax on the polls and rateable estate of the inhabitants is appropriated to the support of schools in the several towns, for the education of children and youth. The law directs that a grammar school shall be kept in every county town throughout the State.
There is a grammar school at Hartford, and another at New Haven, supported by a donation of Governor Hopkins. This venerable and benevolent man, in his last will, dated 1657, left in the hands of Theophilus Eaton, Esq., and three others, a legacy of one thousand three hundred and twenty-four pounds, “as an encouragement, in these foreign plantations, of breeding up hopeful youths both at the grammar school and college.” In 1664 this legacy was divided between New Ilaven and Hartford, and grammar schools were erected, which have been supported ever since.*
Academies have been established at Greenfield, Plainfield, Norwich, Wyndham and Pomfret, some of which are flourishing.
Yale College was founded in 1700, and remained at Killingworth until 1707; then at Saybrook until 1716, when it was removed and fixed at New Haven. Among its principal benefactors was Governor Yale, in honor of whom, in 1718, it was named Yale College. Its first building was erected in 1717, being one hundred and seyenty feet in length, and twenty-two in breadth, built of wood. This was taken down in 1782. The present college, which is of brick, was built in 1750, under the direction of the Rev. President Clap, and is one hundred feet long and forty feet wide, three stories high, and contains thirty-two chainbers, and sixty-four studies, convenient for the reception of one hundred students. The college chapel, which is also of brick, was built in 1761, being fifty feet by forty, with a steeple one hundred and twenty-five feet high. In this building is the public library, consisting of about two thousand five hundred volumes; and the philosophical apparatus, which, by a late handsome addition, is now as coinplete as most others in the United States, and contains the macbines necessary for exhibiting experiments in the whole course of experimental philosophy and astronomy. The college museum, to which additions are constantly making, contains many natural curiosities.
This literary institution was incorporated by the General Assembly of Connecticut. The first charter of incorporation was granted to eleven ministers, under the denomination of trustees, in 1701. The powers of the trustees were enlarged by the additional charter, 1723. And by that of 1745, the trustees were incorporated by the name of “ The president and fellows of Yale College, New Haven.” By an act of the General Assembly “for enlarging the powers and increasing the funds of Yale College," passed in May, 1792, and accepted by the corporation, the governor, lieutenant-governor, and the six senior assistants in the council of the State for the time being, are ever hereafter, by virtue of their offices, to be trustees and fellows of the college, in addition to the former corporation,
The corporation are empowered to hold estates, continue their suocession, make academic laws, elect and constitute all officers of instruction and government usual in universities, and confer all learned degrees. The immediate executive government is in the hands of the president and tutors. The present officers and instructors of the college are, a president, who is also professor of ecclesiastical history, a professor of divinity, and three tutors. The number of students, on an average, is about 130, divided into four classes. It
* For most authentic account, see Barnard's History of Education in Connecticut.
is worthy of remark, that as many as five-sixths of those who have received their education at this university, were natives of Connecticut.
The funds of this college received a very liberal addition by a grant of the General Assembly, in the act of 1792 before mentioned; which will enable the corporation to erect a new building for the accommodation of the students, to support several new professorships, and to make a handsome addition to the library.
The course of education in this university comprehends the whole circle of literature. The three learned languages are taught, together with so much of the sciences as can be communicated in
In May and September, annually, the several classes are critically examined in all their classical studies. As incentives to improve. ment in composition and oratory, quarterly exercises are appointed by the president and tutors, to be exhibited by the respective classes in rotation. A public commencement is held annually on the second Wednesday in September, which calls together a more numerous and brilliant assembly than are convened by any other anniversary in the State.
About two thousand two hundred have received the honors of this university, of whom nearly seven hundred and sixty have been ordained to the work of the gospel ministry.
Until the year 1754, there was no college in the province of New York. The state of literature, at that time, I shall give in the words of the state historian: * “Our schools are in the lowest order; the instructors want instruction, and through a long and shameful neglect of all the arts and sciences, our common speech is extremely .corrupt, and the evidences of a bad taste, both as to thought and language, are visible in all our proceedings, public and private.” This may have been a just representation at the time when it was written; but much attention has since been paid to education. There are eight incorporated academies in different parts of the State ; and we are happy to add, that the legislature have lately patronized collegiate and academic education, by granting a large gratuity to the college and academies in this State, which, in addition to their former funds, renders their endowments handsome, and adequate to their expenditures. The legislature have likewise appropriated the sum of 30,000 pounds per annum for the purpose of establishing schools throughout the State; a school at least to be kept within the limits of every four miles square.
Kings College, in the city of New York, was principally founded by the voluntary contributions of the inhabitants of the province, assisted by the General Assembly, and the corporation of Trinity Church ; in the year 1754, a royal charter (and grant of money) being then obtained, incorporating a number of gentlemen therein mentioned, by the name of “The Governors of the College of the Province of New York, in the city of New York, in America; and granting to them and their successors for ever, amongst various other rights and privileges, the power of conferring all such degrees as are usually conferred by either of the English universities.
* Smith's History of New York, London, 1757.
By the charter it was provided that the president shall always be. a member of the church of England, and that a form of prayer collected from the liturgy of that church, with a particular prayer for the college, shall be daily used, morning and evening, in the college chapel; at the same time, no test of their religious persuasion was required from any of the fellows, professors, or tutors; and the advantages of education were cqually extended to students of all denominations.
The building, which is only one-third of the intended structure, consists of an elegant stone edifice, three complete stories high, with four staircases, twelve apartments in cach, a chapel, hall, library, museum, anatomical theatre, and school for experimental philosophy.
The college is situated on a dry, gravelly soil, about one hundred and fifty yards from the bank of Hudson's river, which it overlooks; commanding a most extensive and beautiful prospect.
Since the revolution, the legislature passed an act constituting twenty-one gentlemen, of whom the governor and lieutenant-governor for the time being are members ex officiis, a body corporate and politic, by the name of “ The regents of the university of the State of New York.” They are intrusted with the care of literature in general in the State, and have power to grant charters of incorporation for erecting colleges and academies throughout the State, they are to visit these institutions as often as they shall think proper, and report their state to the legislature once a year.
Kings College, which we have already described, is now called Columbia College. This college, by an act of the legislature passed in the spring of 1787, was put under the care of twenty-four gentlemen, who are a body corporate, by the name and style of “The Trustees of Columbia college in the city of New York.” This body possess all the powers vested in the governor's of Kings college before the revolution, or in the regents of the university since the revolution, so far as their power respected this institution. No regent can be a trustee of any particular college or academy in the State. The regents of the university have power to confer the higher degrees, and them only.
The college edifice has received no additions since the peace. The funds, exclusive of the liberal grant of the legislature, amount to between twelve and thirteen thousand pounds currency, the income of which is sufficient for present exigencies.
This college is now in a thriving state, and has about one hundred students in the four classes, besides medical students. The officers of instruction and immediate government are a president, professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, a professor of logic and geography, and a professor of languages. A complete medical school has been lately annexed to the college, and able professors appointed by the trustees in every branch of that important
science, who regularly teach their respective branches with reputation. The number of medical students is about fifty, but they are increasing. The library and museum were destroyed during the
The philosophical apparatus is new and complete. Of the eight incorporated academies, one is at Flatbush, in King's county, on Long Island, four miles from Brooklyn ferry. It is situated in a pleasant, healthy village. The building is large, handsome, and convenient, and is called Erasmus Hall. The academy is flourishing under the care of a principal and other instructors.
There is another at East Hampton, on the east end of Long Island, by the name of Clinton Academy. The others are in different parts of the State. Besides these there are schools established and maintained by the voluntary contributions of the parents. A spirit for literary improvement is evidently diffusing its influence throughout the State.
There are two colleges in New Jersey; one at Princetown, called Nassau Hall, the other at Brunswick, called Queen's College. The college at Princetown was first founded by charter from John Hamilton, Esq., President of the Council, about the year 1738, and enlarged by Governor Belcher in '1747. The charter delegates a power of granting to "the students of said college, or to any others thought worthy of them, all such degrees as are granted in either of the universities, or any other college in Great Britain.” It has twenty-three trustees. The governor of the State, and the president of the college are ex officiis, two of them. It has an annual income of about nine hundred pounds currency, of which two hundred pounds arise from funded public securities and lands, and the rest from the fees of the students.
The president of the college is also professor of eloqnence, criticism and chronology. The vice-president is also professor of divinity and moral philosophy. There is also a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, and two masters of languages. The four classes in college contain commonly from seventy to one hundred students. There is a grammar school of about twenty scholars connected with the college, under the superintendence of the president, and taught sometimes by a senior scholar, and sometimes by a graduate.
Before the war, this college was furnished with a philosophical apparatus, worth five hundred pounds, which (except the elegant orrery constructed by Mr. Rittenhouse) was almost entirely destroyed by the British army in the late war, as was also the library, which now consists of between two and three thousand volumes.
The college edifice is handsomely built with stone, and is one hundred and eighty feet in length, fifty-four in breadth, and four stories high, and is divided into forty-two convenient chambers for the accommodation of the students, besides a dining-hall, chapel, and room for the library. Its situation is elevated, and exceedingly pleasant and healthful. It is remarkable, that since the removal of