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the college to Princetown, in 1756, there have been but five or six deaths among the students. The view from the college balcony is extensive and charming.
The college has been under the care of a succession of presidents, eminent for piety and learning, and has furnished a number of civilians, divines and physicians, of the first rank in America.
The charter for Queen's College, at Brunswick, was granted just before the war, in consequence of an application from a body of the Dutch church. Its funds, raised wholly by free donations, amounted, soon after its establishment, to four thousand pounds, but they were considerably diminished by the war. The grammar school, which is connected with the college, consists of between thirty and forty students, under the care of the trustees. The college at present is not in a very flourishing state.
There are a number of good academies in this State; one at Freehold, in the county of Monmouth; auother at Trenton, in which are about eighty students in the different branches; it has a fund of about one hundred and fifty pounds per annum, arising from the interest on public securities; another in Hackensack, in the county of Bergen, of upwards of an hundred scholars; instruction and board are said to be cheaper here than in any other part of the State. There is another flourishing academy at Orangedale, in the county of Essex, consisting of nearly as many scholars as any of the others, furnished with able instructors and good accommodations. Another has lately been opened at Elizabethtown, and consists of upwards of twenty students in the languages, and is increasing. An academy, by the name of Burlington academy, has lately been established at Burlington, under the direction of seven trustecs, and the instruction of two preceptors. The system of education adopted in this academy is designed to prepare the scholars for the study of the more difficult classics, and the higher branches of science in a college or university. At Newark, an academy was founded in June, 1792, and promises to be a useful institution. Besides these, there are grammar schools at Springfield, Morristown, Bordentown, Amboy, &c. There are no regular establishments for common schools in the State. The usual mode of education is for the inhabitants of a village or neighborhood to join in affording a temporary support for a schoolmaster, upon such terms as are mutually agreeable. But the encouragement which these occasional teachers meet with, is generally such, as that no person of abilities adequate to the business will undertake it; and of course, little advantage is derived from these schools. The improvement in these common schools is generally in proportion to the pay of the teacher. It is therefore much to be regretted that the legislature do not take up this subject, and adopt such method of supporting public schools as has been practiced upon with visible good success in some of the New England States.
There is a medical society in this State, consisting of about thirty of their most respectable physicians. who meet twice a year. No person is admitted to the practice of physic without a license from the supreme court, founded on a certificate from this society, or at least two of its members, testifying his skill and abilities
It is remarkable, that in the county of Cape May no regular physician has ever found support. Medicine has been administered by women, except in some extraordinary cases.
From the enterprising and literary spirit of the Pennsylvanians, we should naturally conclude, what is fact, that these are numerous.
In Philadelphia is the university of Pennsylvania, founded and endowed by the legislature during the war. Professorships are established in all the liberal arts and sciences, and a complete course of education may be pursued here from the first rudiments of literature to the highest branches of science.
The college and academy of Philadelphia was founded by charter between thirty and forty years ago, and endowed by subscription of liberal minded persons. Though this institution was interrupted in its progress for several years during the late war, yet being re-established since the peace, it has rapidly recovered its former state of prosperity, and to the bench of professors has lately been added one of common and federal law, which renders it in reality, though not in name, an university. An act to unite these two institutions has passed the legislature. By their union they will constitute one of the most respectable seminaries of learning in the United States.
Dickinson College, at Carlisle, an hundred and twenty miles westward of Philadelphia, was founded in 1783, and has a principal, three professors, a philosophical apparatus, a library consisting of nearly three thousand volumes, four thousand pounds in funded certificates, and ten thousand acres of land ; the last, the donation of the State. In 1787, there were eighty students belonging to this college: this number is annually increasing. It was named after his excellency John Dickinson, author of the Pennsylvania Farmer's Letters, and formerly president of the Supreme Executive Council of this State.
In 1787, a college was founded at Lancaster, sixty-six miles from Philadelphia, and honored with the name of Franklin college, after his excellency Dr. Franklin. This college is for the Germans, in which they may educate their youth in their own language, and in conformity to their own habits. The English language, however, is taught in it. Its endowments are nearly the same as those of Dickinson college. Its trustees consist of Lutherans, Presbyterians, and Calvinists, of each an equal number. The principal is a Lutheran, and the vice-principal is a Calvinist.
The Episcopalians have an academy at Yorktown, in York county. There are also academies at Germantown, at Pittsburg, at Washington, at Allenstown, and other places; these are endowed by donations from the legislature, and by liberal contributions of individuals.
The schools for young men and women in Bethlehem and Nazareth, under the direction of the people called Moravians, are upon the best establishment of any schools in America. Besides these, there are private schools in different parts of the State; and to promote the education of poor children, the State bave appropriated a large tract of land for the establishment of free schools. A great proportion of the laboring people among the Germans and Irish are, however, extremely ignorant.
Washington academy, in Somerset county, was instituted by law in 1779: it was founded, and is supported, by voluntary subscriptions, and private donations, and is authorized to receive gifts and legacies, and to hold two thousand acres of land. A supplement to the law, passed in 1784, increased the number of trustees from eleven to fifteen.
In 1782, a college was instituted at Charleston, in Kent county, and was honored with the name of Washington College, after President Washington. It is under the management of twentyfour visitors of governors, with power to supply vacancies and hold estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed six thousand pounds current money. By a law enacted in 1787, a permanent fund was granted to this institution of one thousand two hundred and fifty pounds a year, currency, out of the moneys arising from marriage licenses, fines, and forfeitures on the eastern shore.
St. Johns College was instituted in 1785, to have also twentyfour trustees, with power to keep up the succession by supplying vacancies, and to receive an annual income of nine thousand pounds. A permanent * fund is assigned this college, of one thousand seven hundred and fifty pounds a year, out of the moneys arising from marriage licenses, ordinary licenses, fines and forfeitures, on the western shore. This college is at Annapolis, where a building has been prepared for it. Very liberal subscriptions have been obtained towards founding and carrying on these seminaries. The two colleges constitute one university, by the name of “the University of Maryland," whereof the governor of the State for the time being is chancellor, and the principal of one of them vicechancellor, either by seniority or by election, as may hereafter be provided for by rule or by law. The chancellor is empowered to call a meeting of the trustees, or a representation of seven of each, and two of the members of the faculty of each, the principal being one, which meeting is styled, “The Convocation of the University of Maryland,” who are to frame the laws, preserve uniformity of manners and literature in the colleges, confer the higher degrees, determine appeals, &c.
The Roman Catholics have also erected a college at Georgetown, on the Potomac river, for the promotion of general literature.
In 1785, the Methodists instituted a college at Abingdon, in Harford county, by the name of Cokesbury College, after Thomas Coke, and Francis Ashbury, bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The college edifice is of brick, handsomely built on a healthy spot, enjoying a fine air, and a very extensive prospect.
The students, who are to consist of the sons of traveling preachers, of annual subscribers, of the members of the Methodist society and orphans; are instructed in English, Latin, Greek, Logic, Rhetoric, History, Geography, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy; and when the finances of the college will admit, they are to be taught the Hebrew, French, and German languages.
* Repealed by Legislature in 1804
The college was erected, and is supported wholly by subscription and voluntary donations.
The students have regular hours for rising, for prayers, for their meals, for study, and for recreation : they are all to be in bed precisely at nine o'clock. Their recreations, (for they are to be " indulged in notbing which the world calls play,"") are gardening, walking, riding, and bathing, without doors; and within doors, the carpenter's, joiner's, cabinet-maker's, or turner's business. Suitable frovision is made for these several occupations, which are to be considered, not as matters of drudgery and constraint, but as pleasing and healthful recreations both for the body and mind. Another of their rules, which though new and singular, is favorable to the health and vigor of the body and mind, is, that the students shall not sleep on feather beds but on mattresses, and each one by himself. Particular attention is paid to the morals and religion of the students.
There are a few other literary institutions,•of inferior note, in different parts of the State, and provision is made for free schools in most of the counties; though some are entirely neglected and very few carried on with any success : so that a great proportion of the lower class of people are ignorant; and there are not a few who can not write their names. But the revolution, among other happy effects, bas roused the spirit of education, which is fast spreading its salutary influences over this and the other Southern States.
The college of William and Mary was founded in the time of King Williain and Queen Mary, who granted to it twenty thousand acres of land, and a penny a pound duty on certain tobaccos exported from Virginia and Maryland, which had been levied by the statute of 25 Čar. II. The Assembly also gave it, by temporary laws, a duty on liquors imported, and skins and furs exported. From these resources it received upwards of three thousand pounds. The buildings are of brick, sufficient for an indifferent accommodation of perhaps one hundred students. By its charter it was to be under the government of twenty visitors, who were to be its legislators, and to have a president and six professors, who were incorporated: it was allowed a representative in the General Assembly. Under this charter, a professorship of the Greek and Latin languages, a professor of mathematics, one of moral philosophy, and two of divinity, were established. To these were annexed, for a sixth professorship, a considerable donation by a Mr. Boyle of EngJand, for the instruction of the Indians, and their conversion to Christianity: this was called the professorship of Brasserton, from an estate of that name in England, purchased with the moneys given. The admission of the learners of Latin and Greek filled the college with children; this rendering it disagreeable to the young gentlemen already prepared for entering on the sciences, they desisted from resorting to it, and thus the schools for mathematics and moral philosophy, which might have been of some service, became of very little use. The revenues, too, were exhausted in accommodating those who came only to acquire the rudiments of science. After the present revolution, the visitors having no power to change those circumstances in the constitution of the college which were fixed by the charter, and being therefore confined in the number of professorships, undertook to change the objects of the professorships. They excluded the two schools for divinity, and that for the Greek and Latin languages, and substituted others; so that at present they stand thus—a professorship for law and police; anatomy and medicine ; natural philosophy and mathematics; moral philosophy, the law of nature and nations, the fine arts ; modern languages; for the Brasserton.
Measures have been taken to increase the number of professorships, as well for the purpose of subdividing those already instituted, as of adding others for other branches of science. To the professorships usually established in the universities of Europe, it would seem proper to add one for the ancient languages and literature of the north, on account of their connection with our own languages, laws, customs, and history. The purposes of the Brasserton institution would be better answered by maintaining a perpetual mission among the Indian tribes; the object of which, besides instructing them in the principles of Christianity, as the founder requires, should be to collect their traditions, laws, customs, languages, and other circumstances which might lead to a discovery of their relation to one another, or descent from other nations. When these objects are accomplished with one tribe, the missionary might pass on to another.
The college edifice is a huge, misshapen pile;" which, but that it has a root, would be taken for a brick-kiln.” In 1787, there were about thirty young gentlemen members of this college, a large proportion of which were law students. The academy in Prince Edward county has been erected into a college by the name of Hampden Sydney college. It has been a flourishing seminary, but is now said to be on the decline.
There are several academies in Virginia ; one at Alexandria, one at Norfolk, and others in other places.
Since the declaration of independence, the laws of Virginia have been revised by a committee appointed for the purpose, who have reported their work to the Assembly; one object of this revisal was to diffuse knowledge more generally through the mass of the people. The bill for this purpose “proposes to lay off every county into small districts of five or six miles square, called hundreds, and in each of them to establish a school for the teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic. The tutor to be supported by the hundred, and all persons in it entitled to send their children three years gratis, and as much longer as they please, paying for it. These schools to be under a visitor, who is annually to choose the