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boy of the best genius in the school, of those whose parents are too poor to give them farther education, and to send him forward to one of the grammar schools, of which twenty are proposed to be erected in different parts of the country, for teaching Greek, Latin, geography, and the higher branches of numerical arithmetic. Of the boys thus sent in any one year, trial is to be made at the grammar schools, for one or two years, and the best genius of the whole selected, and continue six years, and the residue

dismissed ; by this means twenty of the best geniuses will be taken from the mass annually, and instructed, at the public expense, so far as the grammar schools go. At the end of six years instruction, one-balf are to be discontinued, from among whom the grammar schools will probably be supplied with future masters, and the other half, who are to be chosen for the superiority of their parts and disposition, are to be sent and continue three years in the study of such sciences as they shall choose, at William and Mary college, the plan of which is proposed to be enlarged, as has been explained, and extended to all the useful sciences. The ultimate result of the whole scheme of education would be the teaching all the children of the State reading, writing, and common arithmetic; turning out ten annually of superior genius, well taught in Greek, Latin, geography, and the higher branches of arithmetic; turning out ten others annually, of still superior parts, who, to those branches of learning, shall have added such of the sciences as their genius shall have led them to; the furnishing to the wealthier part of the people convenient schools, at which their children may be educated, at their own expense. The general objects of this law are to provide an education adapted to the years, to the capacity, and the condition of every one, and directed to their freedom and happiness. Specific details were not proper for the law : these must be the business of the visitors intrusted with its execution. The first stage of this education being the schools of the hundreds, wherein the great mass of the people will receive their instruction, the principal foundations of future order will be laid here. The first eleinents of morality may be instilled into their minds; such as, when farther developed as their judgments advance in strength, may teach them how to promote their own greatest happiness, by showing them that it does not depend on the condition of life in which nature has placed them, but is always the result of a good conscience, good health, occupations, and freedom in all just pursuits. Those whom either the wealth of their parents, or the adoption of the State, shall destine to higher degrees of learning, will go on to the grammar schools, which constitute the next stage, there to be instructed in the languages. As soon as they are of a sufficient age, it is supposed they will be sent on from the grammar schools to the university, which constitutes the third and last stage, there to study those sciences which may be adapted to their views. By that part of the plan which prescribes the selection of the youths of genius from among the classes of the poor, the State will avail itself of those talents which nature has sown as liberally among the poor as the rich, but which perish without use, is not sought for and cultivated. But of all the views of this law, none is more important, none more legitimate, than that of rendering the people the safe, as they are the ultimate, guardians of their own liberty : for this purpose, the reading in the first stage, where they will receive their own education, is proposed, to be chiefly historical.


The legislature of Virginia, while Kentucky made a part of that State, made provision for a college in it, and endowed it with very considerable landed funds; and a library for its use was forwarded thither by the Rev. Mr. John Todd of Virginia, (after obtaining the consent of the Rev. Dr. Gordon) while an inhabitant of the Massachusetts State. This library was mostly formed in the following manner: An epistolary acquaintance having commenced between Mr. Todd and Dr. Gordon, through the influence of their common friend, the Rev. Mr. Samuel Davis, long since deceased ; a letter was received about the end of 1764, or beginning of 1765, from Mr. Todd, in which he expressed a desire of obtaining a library and some philosophical apparatus, to improve the education of some young persons, who were designed for the ministry. Dr. Gordon being then settled 'at London, upon application obtained a few annual subscriptions, with several donations of money, and of books, which were not closed till after March, 1769. During that period he received in cash, including his own subscription, eighty pounds two shillings and sixpence. The late worthy John Thornton, Esq., contributed fifty pounds of it, by the hand of the Rev. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Wilson, who also gave in books ten pounds. Among the contributors still living, beside Dr. Gordon himself, are the Rev. Mr. Towle, Messrs. Fuller, Samuel, and Thomas Statton, Charles Jerdein, David Jennings, Jonathan Eade, Joseph Ainsley, and John Field of Thames street.

Of the money collected, twenty-eight pounds ten shillings was paid to the late Mr. Ribright, for an air-pump, microscope, telescope, and prisins, thorough good, but not new. Cases, shipping, freight, insurance, &c., at four different periods, came to eight pounds eleven shillings and sixpence. The forty-three pounds one shilling was laid out to the best advantage in purchasing a variety of books, which, with those that were given, are supposed to make the main part of the Lexington Library. Schools are established in the several towns, and in general regularly and handsomely supported.

Note. - In the original distribution of lots within the town of Louisville, 14 out of 188 lots were to be given away for special objects, of which the follow. ing were educational: One lot to be free to the tirst schoolmaster, and his heirs, chosen and settled by the freeholders of the township and town. One lot free to the president of a college, and his successors.

NORTH CAROLINA. The General Assembly of North Carolina, in December, 1789, passed a law incorporating forty gentlemen, five from each district, as trustees of the university of North Carolina; to this university they gave, by a subsequent law, all the debts due to the State from sheriffs or other holders of public money, and which had been due before the year 1783; they also gave it all escheated property within the State. Whenever the trustees shall have collected a sufficient sum of the old debts, or from the sale of escheated property, the value of which is considerable, to pay the expense of erecting buildings; they are to fix on a proper place, and proceed in the finishing of them : a considerable quantity of land has already been given to the university, and the General Assembly, in December, 1791, loaned five thousand pounds to the trustees, to enable them to proceed immediately with the buildings.

* As this account of the library is essentinlly different from that given by Mr. Morse, and every other writer we have met with, the editor thinks it right to inform the public, that he inserts the above at the desire of the Rev. Dr. Gordon himself.

There is a very good academy at Warrenton, another at Williamsborough in Granville, and three or four others in the State of considerable note.

The Constitution of Dec. 18, 1776 provides (in Article XLI): That a school or schools shall be established by the legislature for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the masters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at low prices; and all useful learning shall be encouraged and promoted in one or more universities.



Gentlemen of fortune, before the late war, sent their sons to Europe for education. During the late war and since, they have generally sent them to the middle and northern States. Those who have been at this expense in educating their sons, have been but comparatively few in number, so that the literature of the State is at a low ebb. Since the peace, however, it has begun to flourish. There are several respectable academies at Charleston ; one at Beaufort, on Port Royal Island ; and several others in different parts of the State. Three colleges have lately been incorporated by law; one at Charleston, one at Winnsborough, in the district of Camden, and the other at Cambridge, in the district of Ninety-six. The public and private donations for the support of these three colleges were originally intended to have been appropriated jointly, for the erecting and supporting of one respectable college. The division of these donations has frustrated this design. Part of the old barracks in Charleston has been bandsomely fitted up, and converted into a college, and there are a number of students; but it does not yet merit a more dignified name than that of a respectable academy. The Mount Sion college, at Winnsborough, is supported by a respectable society of gentlemen, who have long been incorporated. This institution flourishes, and bids fair for useful

The college at Cambridge is no more than a grammar school. To put the literature of this state upon a respectable footing, nothing is wanting but a spirit of enterprise among its wealthy inhabitants.



The literature of this State, which is yet in its infancy, is commencing on a plan which affords the most flattering prospects. It seems to have been the design of the legislature of this State, as far as possible, to unite their literary concerns, and provide for them in common, that the whole might feel the benefit, and no part be neglected or left a prey to party rage, private prejudices and contentions and consequent ignorance, their inseparable attendant. For this purpose, the literature of this State, like its policy, appears to be considered as one object, and in the same manner, subject to common and general regulations for the good of the whole. The charter, containing their present system of education, was passed in the year 1785. A college, with ample and liberal endowments, is instituted in Louisville, a high and healthy part of the country, near the center of the State. There is also provision made for the institution of an academy in each county in the State, to be supported from the same funds, and considered as parts and members of the same institution, under the general superintendence and direction of a president and board of trustees, appointed, for their literary accomplishments, from the different parts of the State, invested with the customary powers of corporations. The institutions thus composed and united is denominated, “The University of Georgia."

That this body of literati, to whom is intrusted the direction of the general literature of the State, may not be so detached and independent, as not to possess the confidence of the State; and, in order to secure the attention and patronage of the principal officers of government, the governor and council, the speaker of the House of Assembly, and the chief justice of the State, are associated with the board of trustees, in some of the great and more solemn duties of their office, such as making the laws, appointing the president, settling the property, and instituting academies. Thus associated, they are denominated, “The Senate of the University, and are to hold a stated, annual meeting, at which the governor of the State presides.

The Senate appoint a board of commissioners in each county, for the particular management and direction of the academy, and the other schools in each county, who are to receive their instructions from, and are accountable to the Senate. The rector of each academy is an officer of the university, to be appointed by the president, with the advice of the trustees, and commissioned under the public seal, and is to attend with the other officers at the annual meeting of the Senate, to deliberate on the general interests of literature, and to determine on the course of instruction for the year, throughout the university. The president has the general charge and oversight of the whole, and is from time to time to visit them, to examine into their order and performances.

The funds for the support of their institution are principally in lands, amounting in the whole to about fifty thousand acres, a great part of which is of the best quality, and at present very valuable. There are also nearly six thousand pounds sterling in bonds, houses, and town lots in the town of Augusta. Other public property to the amount of one thousand pounds in each county, has been set apart for the purposes of building and furnishing their respective academies.


Table I.- Historical and statistical data of the United States.
(Compiled from Report of the Commissioner of the Land Office for 1867.)

States and Territo


Act organizing Territory. Act admitting State.

Area in sq. Populat'n

miles. in 1860.0 U.S. Statutes. Vol. Page. U. S. Statutes. Vol. Page.

Original States.

New Hampshire.
Rhode Ikland.
New York
New Jersey
Virginia_East and

North Carolina
South Carolina

9, 280 396, 073 7, 800 1, 231, 066 1,3076 174, 6:20 4,750 460, 147 47,09 3,880, 735

8,320 67, 035 46,000 2,906, 115

2, 120 112, 216 11, 124 687, 049 61, 352 | 1, 596, 318 50, 704

992, 622 34,000 703, 708 58,000 1,057, 286

States admitted.

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Feb. 4, 1791 1
Feb. 18, 1791 1
June 1, 1796 1

Apr. 30. 1802 2
331 A pr. 8, 1812 2

58 Dec. 11, 1814 3 549 Dec. 10, 1817 3 514 Dec. 3, 1818 3 371 Dec. 14, 1819 3

Mar. 3, 182) 3 743 Mar. 2, 1821 3 493 June 15, 1836 5 309 Jan. 26, 1837 5 654

Mo": 3, 1845 5 235

5 Dec, 29, 1845 9 10 Mar. 3, 1847 9

Sept. 9, 185) 9 403 Feb. 26, 1837 11 323 Feb. 14, 1859 11 277 Jan. 29, 1861 12

Dec. 31, 1862 12 209 Mar. 21, 1864 13 172

13 277 Mar. 1, 1867 13

189 37, 680 1, 155, 604 191 *10,212 315, 098 491 45, 600 1, 109, 801 173 39. 964 2, 339, 502 701 *41, 346 708, 002 399

33, 809 1, 35, 428 672 17, 13 791, 305 536 *55, 410 1,711,951 603 5), 722 964, 201 544 *35,000 628, 279 645

*65, 350 1, 182, 012 50 52, 198 435, 450 141 *56, 451 749, 113 742 59, 268 140, 425 742 55, 045 674, 948 . 108 *274, 356 604, 215 178 53, 924 775, 881 452 *188,981 305, 439 166 83, 531 173, 855 383 95, 274 52, 465 126 81,318 107, 206 033 23,000

30 112, 090 16,857
32 *104, 500 134, 277
75, 995

28, 841


Apr. 20, 1836


Mar. 3, 1849
Aug. 11, 1848
May 30, 1851

9 9 10

Mar. 2, 1801
Feb. 28, 1861
May 30, 1854

12 12 10

[blocks in formation]

July 16, 1790
Mar. 3, 1791

130 214


110 m. sq.

126, 990 70,000

Russian purchase .

577, 390

* Area taken from geographical authorities and pot from public surveys.
+ Total population in 1860 was 31,500,000 ; estimated in 1867 to be 38,500,000.

To the white population in Nevada should be added 10,507 Indians; and in Colorado, 2.261 Indians.

$ As estimated January 1, 1865. || That portion of District of Columbia south of the Potomac river was retroceded to Virginia July 9, 1816, (Stat. vol. 6, p. 35.)

! By census of 1867.

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