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TABLE. — Population, Taxable Property, Schools, Illiteracy, &c.

STATE STATISTICS OF 1872.
Schools of all kinds.

School.
Square
Property in

Persons No. of Permanent houses, Cost of Pub.
Miles.
1870.
1870. Number. Teachers. Pupils. Cost.

between 5

Public School ground, lic Schools
Cau not Can not and 18. Schools. Fund.

and

in 1879.
read.
write.

equipments.
50,722 996.992 $156,770,387 2.969 3,364 75,866 $976,351 349.771
52,198
484.471 94,168,847 1.978

383,012 342,976 2,500 $2,000,000
2,297

$500,000
81.526

$700.000
681,962 111.799
188,981 560.247

133,339 165,492
269,644,068 1,548

1.900 500,000 2,444

400,000 600,000 85,507

137, 129 1,917

1.400 3,000,000
2,926

2,000,000
98,62)

2.000.000
1,856,279 19.680
125,015

138.962
64,787,223 375

1,600 2,800 000 510 19.577

3,000,000 212,712

1,503.617

39.807 330 32,480,843 377

300.000 200.000 200,000
14,670 154.569

400
227 219,519 1,880

63,897

300,000 2.432 66, 150 1,253,299

200,000
418,553
468.593

80,000
55,410 2.539,891 482,899,575
11,835

407,516 300 300,000
24,056

200,000 700,000
767,775 9,970.009 86,368
1.680,637
33,809

133,584 818,766 11.156
663,455,044 9,073 11,652

6,382,248 | 18.373.880 7,000,000
464.477 2.499,511 86,634
55,045 1,194.792

567,175

7.282.639 7,496

8,759

8,000,000 9.319

4.000.000 217,654 364.399

394,696 1.689

7,716 3.174,578 1,955

6,764.551
59,882

3,265,000
787.226 16.369
1,321.011
37,680

3,400
5,149

104.710 6,346

1,000,000 2,845,226 1,700,950 41,346

454,539 5.068 592

2.500,000 500,000
1.902

1.000,000
60,171
35,000

276,158 226.114 600
4,723

1,340,000
6,986

500,000 800,000
162,636 1.106.203 13,486
11,124 780,894 • 423.834,918
1,779

19,052 175,588
3.287

4,000 317,902 2.644,264 1,112.373
107.384 1,998,215 114.100
7.800 1,457,351

244,454
7,561

1,500

1,000,000 2.000.000 1.200.000 269,337 4.817,939 74.935 56.451 1,184,059

371,820 5,076 9,559

2,182,419 11.559.718 3,594.686
266,627
83,531

358,530
2.479

5,500 2.700.000
2,886

6.234,797 4.000.000
107,266 1,011.769 12,747
47,156 827.922

142,665
1,564

2,700 2.831,000
1,728

1,700,000 4,000,000
43,451 780,339
65,350 1,721,295

291,718 313,310 278 999
566,129.969 6,750

3,450 1,000,000 9,028 370,337

500.000 4,340,805

200,000

577.-03 7,547 3,271,581 796

4,000,000
840

2,000,000
17,614 270,560 2,365 4,861
104.125 42.491

34.523
25,740,973

1,050 53

1,000,000 500.000 84 2,373 110,493 727

363.600

5,337 53

500,000 3,355

200,000 64,677

100,000 574.898 7,618 8,320 906.096

78,766 2,452 300,000 1,870.000 468.000

262.862 13,020

2.597 1,556,8650 28,918

500,000 2.003,000 862,022 15,936,783 163.501 239.27) 50,704 1,071.361 130.378.622

1,230.988 2.16)

12.500 7.000.000 23,168.266
2,692

9,000,000
64.958 635,892 339.789
2,665,260

359.930
1,167,731,097 11,952

1,398 1,632.000 23,589

200,000 800.000 790.795 10,244,6148 92.720 173.172 95,274 90,923

845.971 14,201 31,798.510 637

4,000,000 17,168, 196
826

5,293, 221
32,593 248,022 2.609
46.000 3,521.951

29.400

600 19,522

1,000,000 100.000 811.863

150.000 9,628,119 1,306 217,353

1,076.040 213,570,353

16,000 561

18,689.624 951 32,596

8,345,0172
565.012
705,606

720
183,913,337

55,775

250,000
750 1,103

1,000,000
34,249

465.263 577.953 265.892 45,600 1.258,520

290,379 233 915 257,673,792

700 2,794

200,000
3,587 125 831

500 000
1,650,692
274.356

364,697 429,592
149,734.792 548

2,000 2.400,000 500,000
706 23.076

800 000
414,840 169.423 221.703
330.551
10,212
102,548.528

284.851 500
3.084 5,160

2,267,971 100.000 300.000
32.913
1,225.163

3.000
2,697

89,831

1,2F5.387 526.000

396,812 2.445

3,695 1,595,069 387.672 993,318 104.949 694.061 48.802 53,924 1,054,670

2.303 150,844

250.000 2,527.744 333,447.568 4,943 7,965

600.000 344,014 2,600,310 35.031 55,44) 354,016 5.300 2,482,771 3.295 268 2.174.771 1,984,467 38,115,332 13,646,348,450 141,629 | 220,022 7,178,737 95,533,170 | 4,438,206 5,552,488 12,045,443 144,971 70,417,038 150,194,573) 72,438,471

[graphic]

States.

Alnbama.
Arkansas.........
California........
Connecticut......
Delaware........
Florida..........
Georgia.......
Illinois.
Indiana..
Jawa......
Kansas ......
Kentucky..
Louisiana
Maine.....
Mnryland..
Massachusetts.
Michigan..
Minnesota ........
Mississippi.
Missouri..
Nebraska,
Nevada.
New Hampshire..
New Jersey
New York.......
North Carolina...
Ohio...
Oregon
Pennsylvania...
Rhode Island
South Carolina.
Tennessee.......
Texas........
Vermont.......
Virginia
West Virginia..
Wiscousin........

NATIONAL CENSUS or 1870.

Number of Persons A Tea in Population Taxable

over 10 years of

age, who

2,946,308
4,750

24,877 31,216
537,454 322.553,488

29,616
2,120

19.350 23,100
59,268 187.748

66,238
58,000 1,184,109

71,803

127.124
302.515,418

3,570,093
81,318

24.115 45,671 92.125,861

24,550 407,544,294

249.567 726.915

245,139 2,538,429

332,176
254,371,830

1,199,1 84 257,184
626.915 204.253.780

185.499
1,417,127,376 5,726

97,742
272,242,917
5,595

34,613

2.550,018
439 706

53.127
84,135,332

24.413 177.288,892

146,771 75,995

222.411
122.993 56,584,656

872
9,280 318,300

2,542
149,065,200

9.926 624,868,971 1.833 3,889

129 800 2.982,250 37,057 54 687 47 000 4,382,759 1,964.001,185

397,690 39.964

4.427 1,243,367,852 14,872

131,728 222,356

15,416 21.92)
34,000

290,549
818,579

707.292 15,185 38.348 365,439,917 2,1124

17,706

390.913 23,000 442,014 140.538,273

60,019 1,155,385

445,893 2,88

81.490

Total..

IOWA.

Iowa was organized as a territory in 1838 and admitted into the Union in 1846, with an area of 55,045 sq. m., and a population in 1850 of 192,214, which has increased to 1,191,792 in 1870, with taxable property valued at $302,515,418. The constitution of 1846 provides for the inviolability of the school and university funds, and the election by the people of a superintendent of pul lic instruction, to hold his office for three years, directs the General Assembly to encourage intellectual, scientific, moral, and agricultural improvements, and provide a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and supported in each school district at least three months in every year. The amended constitution of 1857 goes into much detail, respecting the powers of a • Board of Education for the State of loua,' to which was given full power to legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to common schools, and other educational institutions aided from the school or university funds, subject to the revision and repeal of the General Assembly.' Power was reserved to the General Assembly to abolish or reorganize the Board of Education at any time after 1863, and provide for the educational interests of the State in such mavner as shall seem to them best and proper. The action of the Board, instituted according to the provisions of this constitution, did not prove acceptable to the people, and in 1864 the school system was reorganized by the General Assembly.

By the act of 1863 and its subst quent amendments the school authorities are: (1) State Superintendent, elected by the people for two years; (2,) County Superintendents, one for each county, elected for two years; (3) Township Board of Directors, made up of three or more sub-directors for each township, who have the management of the township school fund; and (4) Sub-director for each sub-district, for the local management of the school.

According to the report of 1871, there were 1,260 district townships, 344 independent districts (cities and villages), and 7,716 sub-districts, with 7,8-23 schools, of which 289 are graded, in which were 40 high schools; ont of 460,629 sehool population (between 5 and 21 years) 341,938 attended school during the year, under 14,070 different teachers, at an aggregate salary of $1,900,893, in 7,594 school houses, erected at a cost of $6,764,551, in which was school apparatus to the value of $104,359. In 1871, 7,500 teachers met, in 76 teachers' institutes. According to the census of 1870 there were 24,115 persons over 10 could not read, and 45,671 (24,979 natives) could not write.

i

KANSAS.

Kansas organized as a Territory in 1854, was after many tribulations, admitted as a State in 1859, with an area of 91,318 sq. m., and a population in 1860 of 107,206, which had increased in 1870 to 364,399, and a taxable property of $92,125,861. Total value of farms and live stock in 1870 was $126,992,538.

The constitution adopted in 1858, provides for a superintendent of public instruction for the State, and one for each county, and directs the legislature to encourage the promotion of intellectual, moral, scientific and agricultural improvement by establishing a uni form systm of common schools, and schools of higher grade, em bracing normal, preparatory, collegiate and university departments. "The proceeds of lands donated by the United States or the Stat for the support of schools, and the 500,000 acres granted to the new State in 1841, and all estates of persons dying without heirs or will, and such per cent. as may be granted by Congress on the sale of lands in this State are made a perpetual school fund, which shall not be diminished, the interest of which with such other means as the legislature may furnish by tax or otherwise, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools.' Provision shall be made by law for a State University for the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences, including a normal and agricultural department,' and 'no religious sect or sects shall ever control any part of the common school or university funds of the State.'

Schools are organized on the basis of cities (incorporated by general law), and of the congressional township distribution of territory. Each city by general law has a board of education somewhat differently constituted, but all with full powers to establish and maintain public schools according to its population, while each congressional township, embracing an area of six miles square, is constituted one school district. Each district is divided into sub-districts of any convenient size, by the county superintendent. Each sub-district elects a director, and all the directors of sub-districts constitute a school district board for the township, with power to levy taxes, locate, and erect school-houses, employ · teachers for the schools of the township, and with power to erect a higher school for the older children of all the sub-districts.

The school authorities are: (1.) State Superintendent, elected for two years, with the usual powers; (2.) County Superintendents, one for each county, elected for two years, with power to divide the congressional townships into districts, examine (when associated with two competent persons appointed by the County Commissioners, who together constitute a County Board of Examiners,) teachers, bold institutes, and generally administer the system for the county; (3,) Township Buards, composed of a director from each sub-district into which the township district is divided; (4,) District Boards, composed of the director, clerk, and treasurer; (5) City Boards of Education, charged with full powers of local management of public schools in the several incorporated cities.

According to the report of the superintendent for 1872 there were 3,419 sub-districts, containing 165,982 persons between the , ages of 5 and 21 years. Of this number 106,663 were enrolled in the public schools, with an average daily attendance of 61,538 pupils under 3,835 different teachers (2,048 females), to whom was paid for their services $596,611, The entire expenditure on account of public schools in 1871 was $1,701,950, of which $217,810 was received from the State (interest from the permanent fund and taxes), $22,680 from county funds, $822,644 from district tax, and $431,382 from tuition and other sources. The total number of school-houses for 3,419 organized districts was 2,437, valued, with lots and apparatus, at $2,845,262. Beside the public schools there are two State Normal Schools (at Emporia and Leavenworth), with buildings erected at a cost of $140,000.

Out of section 16, and 36 in each township, and the 500,000 acres (total nearly 3,000,000 acres), only $759,095 has yet been converted into a permanent school fund. The university received 46,000 acres, out of which only $10,000 has yet been realized as a permanent fund. The grounds and improvements have cost $164,000, mainly contributed by the city of Lawrence. The Agricultural College receives $90,000 from Congressional grants, out of which $189,745 have been realized, leaving land unsuld estimated at $180,797, or a total of $378,542. The State University was crippled at the start by the incorporation of two denominational institutions (Baker University and Washburne College), on which $200,000 have already been expended.

The census of 1870 returns a school attendance of 63,183, out of a school population (between the ages of 5 and 18) of 108,710, with 16,369 persons

who could not read, and 24,550 who could not write. In the table of schools there were 1,663 public schools (1 normal, 4 high, 1 grammar, 118 graded, 1,539 ungraded), with 1,955 teachers ; 2 universities with 13 teachers (1 female), and 292 students ; 5 special schools (1 agricultural, 2 commercial, 1 blind, 1 deaf mutes), with 277 pupils.

10 years

of age

KENTUCKY. Kentncky was settled from Virginia, of which it was part antil 1791, when it was admitted as a State, with a population of 73,077, which in 1870 had increased to 1,321,011. In its educational and economical policy it followed the mother State—relying on colleges, academies, and private tutors for families who could pay, and making no general provision for common schools until 1821, when a Literary Fund was established out of one-half of the clear profits of the Bank of the Commonwealth.

From 1783 to 1798, upward of thirty academies and seminaries, including Transylvania Seminary, were incorporated, and in the year last named, a general law appropriating all vacant and unappropriated land in a large section of the State to the endowment of these higher institutions was passed, with a preamble setting forth that .it is expedient for the public happiness that those persons whom vature hath endowed with genius and virtue should be rendered by liberal education worthy to receive and able to guard the sacred deposit of the rights and liberties of their fellow-citizens, and to aid and accelerate this most desirable purpose, by institutions for their education, is one of the first duties of every wise government.' By this and subsequent acts, creating at least one such seminary of liberal education in each county, 6,000 acres of public lands, and in 1820 all fines and forfeitures in the several counties, were appropriated to these institutions.

In 1821, in the act to create the Literary Fund, the county courts were instructed to lay off their respective counties into any number of school districts, not less than four, por more than sixteen, in each; and the tax commissioners were directed to take down in their book of taxable property the number of all children in each school district as above established, and communicate the same to the county anditor. The clerks of the county courts and the auditors were instructed to communicate the boundaries of the districts and the number of children to a State Board, consisting of six commissioners, to enable them 'to digest a plan of schools of common education suited to the condition of the State.' This Board presented, in 1822, a report drawn up by Amos Kendall, at that tiine a teacher in Frankfort, and containing valuable letters from Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison, Robert Y. Hayne, and others, respecting common schools in their respective States. The plan was not adopted, and in its stead, in 1825, a system of private schools was established by incorporating any

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