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establishments, and also to the numerous mines, &c., in order to extend their practical kuowledge.
The conditions of admission to the second year's course, and the final examination, are similar to those in force at the general staff academy.
The officers, on leaving, are attached to the guard for one year.
The cross of the academical. order is conferred on those who specially distinguish themselves.
(3.) The Nicholas Engineer Academy. This academy established at St. Petersburgh, admits 75 officers, the course of instruction extending over a period of two years.
All officers of engineers of the rank of staff captain in the army, downwards, (sub-lientenants of the guard), who have served two years with their regiments, and have passed with honor through the engineer war school, or the physico-mathematical course at one of the universities, and who pass an entrance examination, are eligible for admission.
The entrance examination is conducted on the same conditions as that of the artillery academy. The subjects of examination are as follows:1. Elements of field and permanent fortification, 5. General history. snpping and mining.
6 Geography. 2. Elements of integrai cnlculus. 3. Infantry drill regulations.
8. French or German (optional). 4. Study of the arins in use.
The course of instruction, the subjects of which are divided into two groups embraces the following: Principal Subjects.
7. Higher mathematics. 2. History of fortification.
8. Geometrical drawing. 3. Building 4. Construction of military buildings, water- 10. Chemistry and mineralogy works, and roads.
II. Military history.
12. Mil tary administration. 6. Applied njechanics.
13. Artillery. During the summer months the students are sent to the fortifications and other engineering works, in order that they may acquire a practical knowledge of their duties.
The regulations in force at the general staff academy, as regards admission to the second year's course of study, and the final examination, apply also to the engineer academy.
The highest on the list are appointed to the engineer corps, those specially distinguishing themselves being decorated with the cross of the academical order; the remainder return to their regiments.
Extra students are admitted to the engineer and artillery academies on the same conditions as to the staff academy.
1. Permanent furtification.
(4.) The Military Law Academy. This academy is at St. Petersburg; the number of students admitted is 50, and the length of the course of instruction is two years.
Adinission is open to officers who have obtained a certificate from some military or public school, and who pass an entrance examination. The academy educates officers for the highest post in the judicial department of the army. The subjects of instruction embrace :Principal Subjects.
Secondary Subjects. 1. Russian criminal law.
7. Criininal law. 2. Military coiles of foreign countries.
& Police law. 3. Russian judicial pr cedure.
9. Military ndministration. 4. Judicin organization.
10. History of Russian law. 5. Encyclpailin of legal science.
11. Civil luw. 6. Russian and international law.
The regulations in force at this academy, as regards admission to . the second year’s course and the final examination are the same as those of the general staff academy.
Officers who pass a good examination receive appointments in the judicial department of the army; if there are no immediate vacancies, they return to regimental duty until vacancies occur. The cross of the academical order is given to them.
The total nụmber of pupils in the military, educational, and training institutions of Russia amounts to 13,665. About 1,460 young men, on an average, pass into the army yearly from these institutions, and are fitted by their education, both general and military, to obtain the rank of officer.
The sons of the Russian nobility have always considered it one of the duties of their exalted position to give their personal service to the army; a large number of young men also, sons of the educated classes, are desirous of entering the army and of obtaining commissioned rank; the result of this is, that the body of officers is recruited from amongst the best elements of the whole population.
The area of Russia in Europe is 98,503 geographical square miles; of the Caucasus, 7,972; of Siberia and Turkestan, 272,679 -a total of 379,161 geographical square miles.
The population of Russia in Europe is 71,200,000; of the Caucasus, 4,540,000; of Siberia and Turkestan, 6,260,000—total 82,000,000
The revenue in 1871 amounted to $379,258,680. The expenditure in the same year was $393,655,225. The army estimates amounted to $121,128,230; and the navy estimates to $14,190,890.
IL NAVAL EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS.
1. NAVAL WAR SCHOOL.
This school, established at St. Petersburgh, has a four years' course of instruction, and admits 240 government pupils, who are trained for officers of the navy. Sous of noblemen, and of all officers and officials, between the ages of 15 and 18 are eligible, if physically fit, on passing an examination in religion, Russian, arithmetic, algebra, and geometry, general and Russian history, geography, and French.
Candidates are allowed to make an experimental cruise in one of the ships of the marine artillery school squadron, before entering the war school, if there is accommodation in the ship.
The examination takes place at the school in the beginning of · September. The candidates are admitted in order of merit, a min
imum of six units being required in each subject, and an average of seven in the whole number of subjects.
The course is divided into a preparatory and a naval course.
The preparatory course occupies one year and embraces :1. Religion.
4. Natural phil-sophy. 2. Russian.
5. Mathematics (including plane trigonometry). 3. Histury.
The naval course lasts for three years, and comprises the following subjects : 1. Spherical trigonometry.
9. Physical geography and meteorology. 2 Analytical go metry.
10. Návul survey og. 3. Geometrical drawing.
II. Astronomy. 4. Mechanics. 5. Ship-buj ding.
13. Coust fortification,
12 Naval duties.
6. Naval architecture.
14. Naval gunnery.
Three months during the summer are given up to practical instruction under the direction of the commandant of the school, a special squadron being formed for this purpose from the training ships.
The third year's students of the naval course are examined in April, in the presence of all the instructors, and are appointed naval cadets, according to their precedence on the list.
II. NAVIGATION AND ARTILLERY SCHOOL. This school at Cronstadt, trains cadets for the navigating corps and for the marine artillery; it admits 140 pupils, who go through a four years' course.
Candidates for admission must have passed a middle class school, undergo a preliminary examination, and be between the ages of 13 and 17. The entrance examination comprises the following subjects :
4. General history. 2. Mithematics (including plane trigonometry. 5 Geography. 3. Russian language and literature.
6. Freach, It is optional to candidates to make an experimental cruise on board one of the training vessels belonging to the school, previous to being examined, in order to test their physical fitness for naval service. The followiug subjects form the programme of instruction at this school :1. Religion,
7. Ship-building. 2. Mathematics (including spherical trigonom- 8. Artillery (fur marine artillery candidates.) etry.
10. Geography 4. Nnturni philosophy.
11. Topographical drawing.
III. NAVAL ENGINEER SCHOOL.
This school, at St. Petersburgh, admits 80 pupils, and trains cadets for the naval engineering and ship-building corps.
Candidates are admitted between the ages of 15 and 18 on the same conditions as to the school of navigation.
The education committee of the admiralty was employed in 1870 in considering the subjects of instruction, but the results of their labors have not yet been published.
At the termination of the course, the students are appointed as cadets to the various corps.
MARINE ARTILLERY SCHOOL SQUADRON. This squadron was formed in connection with the Baltic fleet, for the purpose of training naval officers and non-commissioned officers in gunnery. It is attached to the fourth division, and comprises à staff, a permanent and variable establishment.
The permanent establishment includes the lectures, drill instructors, &c.; the variable establishment includes officers and men of all the squadrons who are undergoing a course of instruction.
The course lasts for two years, half the variable establishment leaving the squadron annually.
The officers and non-commissioned officers are required to pass an entrance examination before a commission appointed by the harbor commandant at Cronstadt.
A preparatory school for marine artillery non-commissioned officers is connected with the squadron.
Those who distinguish themselves receive promotion and an increase of pay.
GREEK LITERATURE IN ENGLAND. In England, Greek literature had neither died out so soon, nor was so slow to revive, as in other countries. The question between Latin and the mother. tongue was coinplicated for a time by the rival claims of Norman and Saxon, Latin being construed in grammar schools into French till about 1350. The Norman conquest also tended to mark strongly the contrast between the gentleman and the scholar. Hallam supposes that .in 1400, or a generation later, an English gentleman of the first class would usually have " a slight tincture of Latin." But about the earlier date Piers Plowman bitterly complains that
every cobbler's son and beggar's brat gets book-learning, and such wretches become bishops, and lords' sons and knights crouch to them.” He thinks that lords should make bishops of their own brothers' children. Probably nowhere did the Christian religiou do more than in England to exalt them of low degree; and nowhere were gentlemen less disposed to humble themselves to be scholars, that they might be exalted to be bishops. The universities were much frequented by the sons of yeoman; and in the monastery and cathedral schools, and large parish-schools, any peasant boy of good capacity might learn Latin free of expense.
In the reign of Richard II., indeed, a petition was presented to Parliament by certain lords, praying that children of serfs and the lower sort might not be sent to school, and particularly to the schools of monasteries, wherein many were trained as ecclesiastics, and thence rose to dignities in the state. But the clergy were strong enough to defend the cause of the poor. One of the most disgraceful acts for making agricultural labor compulsory, ends with the proviso that "every man and woman of what estate or condition that he be, shall be free to set their son or daughter to take learning at any manner school that pleaseth them within the realm."
Gentlemen took care that their sons should learn "courtesy," to ride, sing, play upon the lute and virginals, perform feats of arms, dance, carve, and wait at table, where they might bear the conversation (sometimes French or Latin), and study the manners of great men. In some of the great houses there were masters of grammar to teach Latin to the “young gentlemen of the household.” Also many gentlemen studied at the inns of court, and some at foreign universities.
A letter from Pace to Colet, about the year 1500, shows the tone of another class of gentlemen. One is represented as breaking out at table into abuse of letters. “I swear," he says, “ rather than my son should be bred a scholar, he should hang. To blow a neat blast on the horn, to understand hunting, to carry a bawk handsomely, and train it, that is what becomes the son of a gentleman: but as for book-learning, he should leave that to louts."
It is stated by a recent historian, that, as late as the reign of Edward VI. there were peers of Parliament unable to read. Well might Roger Ascham exclaim, “The fault is in yourselves, ye noblemen's sons, and therefore ye de. serve the greater blame, that commonly the meaner men's children come to be the wisest councilors, and greatest doers, in the weighty affairs of this realm."
The two great schools founded before the revival, Winchester (1386), and Eton (1440), were on one model, being intended to lay a grammatical foundation for the studies of New College, and of King's. No record of the course of