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Professor Morse and his assistants had expended twenty-two thousand dollars, and all in vain. Measures were taken to reduce the expenses, and Mr. Cornell was appointed assistant superintendent, and took entire charge of the undertaking. He now altered the design, substituting poles for the pipe. This may be regarded as the commencement of “air lines of telegraph. He commenced the erection of the line between Baltimore and Washington on poles, and had it in successful operation in time to report the proceedings of the conventions which nominated Henry Clay, and James K. Polk for the presidency.
Although the practicability of the telegraph had been so thoroughly tested, it did not become at once popular. A short line was erected in New York city in the spring of 1845, having its lower office at 112 Broadway, and its upper office near Niblo's. The resources of the company had been entirely exhausted, so that they were unable to pay Mr. Cornell for his services, and he was directed to charge visitors twenty-five cents for admission, so as to raise the funds requisite to defray expenses. Yet sufficient interest was not shown by the community even to support Mr. Cornell and his assistant. Even the New York press were opposed to the telegraphic project. The proprietor of the New York Herald,' when called upon by Mr. Cornell, and requested to say a good word in bis favor, emphatically refused, stating distinctly, that it would be greatly to his disadvantage should the telegraph succeed. Strauger still is it, that many of those very men, who would be expected to be entirely in favor of the undertaking, viz., men of scientific pursuits, stood aloof, and declined to indorse it. In order to put up the line in the most economical man. ner, Mr. Cornell desired to attach the wires to the city buildings which lined its conirse. Many house-owners objected, alleging that it would invalidate their insurance policies hy increasing the risk of their buildings being struck by lightning. Mr. Cornell cited the theory of the lightning-rod, as demonstrated by Franklin, and showed that the telegraphic wire would add safety to their buildings. Some persons still refused. but informed him that could he procure a certificate from Professor Renwick. then connected with Columbia College, to the effect that the wires would not increase the risk of their buildings, they would allow him to attach his wires. Mr. Cornell thought the obtaining of such a certificate a very easy matter, as certainly all scientific men were agreed upon the Franklin theory. He therefore posted off to Columbia College, saw the distinguished savan, stated his errand, and requested the certificate, saying it would be doing Professor Morse a great favor. To his utter consternation, the learned professor replied, “No, I can not do that,' alleging that 'the wires would increase the risk of the buildings being struck by lightning. Mr. Cornell was obliged to go into an elaborate discussion of the Franklin theory of the lightning-rod, until the professor confessed himself in error, and prepared the desired certificate, for which opinion he charged him twenty-five dollars. This certificate enabled Mr. Cornell to carry out his plans.
In 1845, he superintended the construction of a line of telegraph from New York to Philadelphia. In 1846, he erected a line from New York to Albany in four months, and made five thousand dollars profit. In 1847, he erected the line from Troy to Montreal, by contract, and was thirty thousand dollars the gainer by it, which he invested in western lands. He also invested largely in telegraphic stock generally, other lines baving been put up by other parties, being confident in the ultimate success of the magnetic telegraph. These investments have so increased in value as to make Mr. Cornell one of the solid men' of the country.
Mr. Cornell took an active interest in the efforts to improve the farming interest of the section of the State in which he resided, and in 1862 was made president of the State Agricultural Society. In the same year he was elected to the Assembly, and in 1864, to the State senate. Here he distinguished himself by his steady and intelligent support of all measures calculated to advance the cducational interests of the State.
29 (To be continued.)
(1.) Condition of Productive Property, Aug. 31, 1872.
LAW SCHOOL FUNDS.
13.837.92 Insurance and Gunranty Fund (so called). 74,7:30.61 SAMUEL D. BRADFORD Fund..
7.943.63 15,000 00
Total... ISRAEL MUNSON Fund....
836,781.55 LEONARD JARvis Fund.
MEDICAL SCHOOL FUNDS.
13,579.64 WARREN Fund for Anatomical Museum 7.441 80 COLLEGE FUSDS.
BOYLsrox Fund for Medical Prizes.. 3,529.76
1.167 90 ALFORD Professorship.... $26,427.28 Medical Library Fund.
21,200.00 (J. Pilillips's gift). 10,000.00
DIVINITY SCHOOL FUXDS. ERVING 333.3.34 General Fund..
827,487.58 FISHER 34,277.13 BUSSEY Professorship.
35,794 04 HERSEY 16,677.13 PARKMAN
15.253.15 HOLLIS (Mathematics). 3,518 N9
5,722 31 McLEAN 41,01231 Dexter Lectureship.
19.314.05 PERKINS 20,000 05 DEYRY LIENow Fund..
8.747.32 PLUMMER 23,228 75 Mary P Townsend Fund.
5,000.0.) Pope 50,0:0109 WINTHROP WARD
2.000.000 RUMFORD 51,31.5.46 SAMUEL HOAR
1.000.00 SMITH 22,037.90.3 ABRAHAM W. FULLER "
1.000 00 Fund for Permanent Tutors 15.467.03 CAROLINE JERRIAM
1.000 00 LEE Fund for the Hersey Professor.. 11.92: 66 JACKSON Foondition.
18.20) 39 CLASS SUBSCRIPTION Fund
50,000 00 CLAPP. POMEROY, and ANDREWs Funds.. 5487.33 Hollis Professurship of Divinity 17,630 10 J. HENRY KENDALL Fund..
2,000.00 PAUL DUDLEY Fund for Lectures.... 1.040.55 NANCY KENDALL
2.000.00 JONATHAN PHILLIPS Fund (unrestricted) 30,000 10 LE118 GOLD
867.94 HENRY FLYNT's Bequest... 3:35.44 ADAMS AYER
1.000.00 John THORNTON KIRKLAND Fellowship.. 6.313.30 Total
$152,374,71 HARRIS Fe lowship
10.576.72 ABBOT Scholarship...
2,338 14 LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL FUNDS. ALFORD
2,724.29 Bow DITCH
58,606.12 Class of 1802 Schularship. 6,518.36
51,750.00 Gray Fund for Zoological Museum. 1*14
$200,039.62 (KIRKLAND)... 4,345 4.5 1817
Bow PITCH Fund..
FARRAR MOREY 7,37581
9.349.96 SALTONSTALL " (Mary & Leverelt) 4.J03.47
5 032.61 (Dorothy)..... 326 70 HOLLIS
4.983.16 GORIAM THOMAS
5.065.63 Tow SEXD
474 87 WALCOTT
$112,912.61 B. D. GREENE 9 Bequest for Scholarship.. 1,775.96 Exhibitions...
8104,292.13 SAMUEL WARD Fund..
20.000.00 Jonx GLOVER
15,595.45 REBECCA A. PERKINS Fund..
10.748.28 Lex Prizes for Reading 14.124 H9
Anonymons Observatory Fund.
$160,635.86 Bow DOIN Dissertations.
7,937.62 Hopkins Gift for “ Deturs,
FUNDS FOR THE ALUMNI HALL. Botanic Garden Fund... 20,237.83 CHARLES SANDERS Gift..
$20,000.00 Mass. Fund for Botanic Garden..
33,417.20 Herbarium Fund. 12.550.07 Gift of CLASS or 1807...
7.817.01 Total...... $833,227.04
FUNDS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES. BUSSEY Trust (1 Bussey Inst.)...... .$410,709.18 BUSSEY Institution..
2,654.10 Bussey Building Fund..
28.456.07 JAMES ARNOLD Fund (Arboriculture)... 101,022.68 Gray Fund for Engravings.
19.068.84 GORE Annuity Fuud..
19.882.54 Osgoop Fund (charged with an Annuity) 6.247.75 Gospel Church Fund...
1,295.17 Foster Fund (Low, Div., Med, in turn) 3,020 48 Sundry Special Purposes..
8614,639.44 FUNDS FOR YOX-COLLEGE PURPOSES. WILLIAMS Fund, conversion of Indiong.. $15,657.85 Winslow Fund, Minister at Tyngshoroigh 4.698.30 Total....
.820,356.15 GRAND TOTAL. .$2,508.254.01
(2.) Expenses for year ending Aug. 31, 1872. 1. President's Salary, &c..
$22,185 2. Professors' Salaries..
93,399 Scholarships, Prizes, &c..
24,020 Botanic Garden, &c...
1,345 3. Divinity School..
19,007 4. Law School..
27,286 5. Medical and Dental,
42,626 6. Lawrence Science School..
36,227 7. Observatory
13,419 8. Library:
22,738 9. Busses Institute, building, &e..
52,165 10. Gray Engraving Cubinet..
1.823 11. Arnold Arboretum...
265 12. Annuity.
9.953 13. Repairs
22,243 TOTAL EXPENDITURE.. $392,939
7. General Find, used for any purpose.. 8308,036.13
87.182.20 1. Endooed Profesor hips.
-$220,853.93 Professorship of Divin ty..
$50,000 00 STREET Professorship
II. SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. of Modern Languages...... 31,390.47 General Fund.
8132,925.00 CLARK Professorship of Murul Philoso
Trust Fund, held by the Sunte of Conphy and Metaphysics... 20,000.00 necticut.
135,000.00 Munson Professorship of Nuturni Phi
12,000.00 losophy and Astrono:ny..
15,000 00 Benner Fund, Agricultural Museum.... 300.00 SILLIMAN Professorship of Geology, etc. 10,486.25 Scholarship Fund.
1.000,00 KENT Professorship of Law
$281,225.00 DUNHAM Professorship
III. UNIVERSITY FUNDS. $145,137.58
Professorship of Sanskrit and Compar2. Funds, the income of which is payable as Prizes
850,000.00 ar Scholarships. Professorship of Botany..
24,000.00 Family Scholnrships. $24,167.51 Sulter Fund...
3,700.00 Beneficiary Funds, for aid of deserving
IV. THEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT. students of smnll menns.
54.652.12 Undergraduate Prize and Scholurship
1. Endored Professorships. Funds, in reward of excellence. 20,597.80 Dwight Prof. of Didactic Theology.. $27,049.45 Graduate Scholarship Funds, payable
Professorship of the Pastornl Charge... 21.906.37 after graduation.
6,800.00 Professorship of Sacred Literature... 13.819.67 Total
$106,217,43 Holmes Professorship of Hebrew.. 25,000.00 3. Fellowship Finds.
LYMAN BEECHER Lectureship.. 10.000,00 Douglas Fellowship Fund.... $6,000.00
-$97,775.49 4. Fund for the increase of the Library 838,852.33
2. Scholarship Funds for aid of Students, $37.97.03 3. Library Fund,
$500.00 5. Miscellaneous Finds.
4. Titus STREET Professorship Fund, For musical instruction. $10.000 110 income not now available...
$47,865.00 For religivus objects.
8.300.00 5. General Fund, the income for any
purpose of the Department.... $ 126,576.55 6. Accumulating F nds. the interest of which is added to the principal.
V. MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. Ellsworth Fund $13.450 00 General Fund..
$21,332.57 Building Fund (for a new Chupel)... 64.902.63
VI. ART SCHOOL,
$11,017.70 (2.) Income and Expenditures of Academical Department—1872–3. Income froin ternı bills of students....... $64,801.11 | Expended for instruction, continued. General fund...
15,000 53 Maintaining and increasing Library. 3,325.30 Professorship funds. 9.104.12 Music in Chapel..
1,002.11 Scholarship and gratuity funds .. 11.623.58 Commencement...
1,689 11 Library fund.. 2,204.68 Physics
2.328.63 Rending Room... 1,362 82 Printing...
1,519.66 Gvinnasium 717 57 Reading Room...
1.137 22 Other suurces.. 2.612.79 Gymnasium.
995.95 Total.. $107,427.20 Fuel and light.
Flagging, and street assessments. 3,035.91 Expended for instruction, viz:
Boiler House, pipes and radiators, 11,457.25 Salaries of President and Professors, . $32.691.75
6,010 66 Salaries of Tutors...
3.730.03 Sweeping and cleaning.
1,676.50 Special outlays..
Care of College square..
J.994.01 Salaries of Treasurer, Librarian, etc.. 9.428 00
12. 134.02 Gratuitous aid, scholarships and prizes 10,5:18 91
Total.... Natural history. $5,168.71
1. The paramount importance assigned to the subject of education in all the noblest states of antiquity, and the earnestness with which their most celebrated lawgivers exerted themselves to carry out the principle of mental and moral advancement to the utmost conceivable perfection, are everywhere conspicuous at the earliest period at which Hellenic genius and culture assume their distinct historic character. The existence of a complete, and minutely organized system of educational arrangements, is from the first observable in those communities which exhibit the most strongly expressed, and consistent examples of the Greek conception of the state. The education of the youth of the country was considered as the basis of all the future influences of the state, the ground and warrant of its best anticipations from the citizen. Far from abandoning this subject to the possible inattention, or excentric fancies of individuals, the state conceived that, as the common parent, its most sacred duty, and most vital interests, would be equally neglected, if the highest mind of the whole community were not directly, and constantly, brought to bear upon a question of such inconceivable importance to the individual, and the nation. In Sparta the workings of the whole educational machinery were placed under the supervision of an especial minister of state, the maidovópoc, and the individual appointed to this office was selected from amongst those who had previously been invested with the highest political dignities. A similar degree of attention was directed to this subject by the Pythagorean statesmen of the Greek cities in Italy, and even in Athens as we learn from Plato, parents were compelled to provide for the instruction of their childrenin gymnastics, and uovoikń—a subject including what we
1. This sentiment is most emphatically expressed in Plato's Euthyphron, p. 2. See also Legg. VI, p. 765 etc.
2. Xenoph. de Rep. Lac. II, 2. 8. Crito, p. 50, cited by Graefenbahn, Geschichte der Class. Litterat. im Alterthum. See also passage from the Comic Poet Alexis in Meinecke, Fragm. Com. LXXXI. “Qui Athenienses ait ideo oportere laudari, quod omnium Graecorum leges cogunt parentes ali a liberis, Atheniensium non omnes, nisi qui liberos artibus erudissent.”