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eminentissimi, &c., the latter on the other hand are designated as οι ελάττους, ευτελείς, minores.
35. The term Sophist, always employed somewhat vaguely, and at times bestowed upon those philosophers who aimed at combining literary elegance of expression with scientific accuracy of thought,a is henceforward used with reference to a class of teachers exhibiting many analogies with the Doctors and Masters of Arts in the academic schools of the middle ages. This circumstance is also indicated in the phrase professor artium by which the Sophists are known in Latin. 'It is worthy of notice how completely the invidious and contemptuous meaning once associated with the name was lost sight of in the third century.
Libanius declined the title of Prefect of the palace, an honor bestowed upon individuals of the very highest rank. External honors of every kind, statues, the citizenship, imperial edicts, honorary psephismata, were lavishly bestowed upon distinguished Sophists. Their calling was regarded as the steppingstone to the highest dignities of State, and conferred by a codex of Theodosius the social position of Vicarius, a grade equivalent to the rank of Duke or count.' In accordance with this estimate of the dignity of their office we find that the instructors of higher schools regularly appeared amongst the nobility and magistrates who went forth to welcome a viceroy on his arrival at the seat of provincial government. Every circumstance in short goes to prove that this expression was employed at that period with precisely the same eminently honorable meaning which attaches to the name of professor at the present day. In the fourth century we read of the public appointment at Athens of four Sophists (probably only the most eminent of the entire body) in a manner precisely similar to that of the philosophers previously mentioned.
36. The minor arrangements of the school of Athens at this stage 1. Cresoll. Theatr, Rhet. IV. 11.
2. Schol. Αristoph. Νub. 830. σοφισται, οι διδάσκαλοι, και όσοι των φιλοσόφων ρητορικώς έγραψαν. .
3. A. Schott. Eunapii vit. extr. See also an expression of Philostratus quoted by Cresoll. Theatr. Rhet. I. 1. where the sophistic art is described as moddin Kai troukian in its nature. Cresollius (IV, 6.) justly says of the sophists "partem omnium humaniorum literarum attigisso videntur quae excellenti et perfecto oratori sunt necessaria.” The proper meaning of the word is seen in the expression which connects tò TEXrekòv and rò OODLOTIKÒV as equivalent terms. That the name of Sophist was properly given to all who studied a subject as a profession, and discoursed upon it with fluency and eloquence is evident from the fact that not only physicians are so called by Eunapius, (compare the latposoblotai in Suidas) but that even at an earlier period those learned Soyers of antiquity whose artistic enthusiasm is such a favorite subject with the poets of later comody are known in Athenaeus as coplotai Mayelp.KOL. (Athen. III. c. 60. Compare also Clemens Alexandr. Strom. I p. 829. Potter.)
4. Cresoll. Theatr. Rhet. I. 8.
of its history no doubt corresponded in most respects with those of the learned institutions of Antioch concerning which such frequent and detailed accounts are furnished in the orations and epistles of Libanius. In the latter city, which is described as being at that period the academic counterpart of Athens in the east, the professors of rhetoric not only received an annual salary (oúvfašis) from the magistrates of the town,' but were also paid by fees from the class, and Libanius in pleading for an increase of allowance to his colleagues points to the fact that Zenobius, a teacher of eminence, had received an augmentation of his salary from the proceeds of the public domain. The sum paid for admission to each class appears to have varied greatly, and poorer students seem frequently to have been permitted to attend free of expense.' Philostratus, a writer of the third century, informs us that in the school of Proclus the payment of one hundred drachmae entitled the student to attendance upon the course as long as he thought proper, besides giving access to the use of the library. The fee for admission was paid on the first of every month, and could be recovered at law; the salary on the other hand was received annually. In this manner many of the Sophists are said to have amassed considerable fortunes. The lectures of Chrestus were attended by one hundred šppuco-fou arpoatai, and Heraclides purchased an estate of ten talents from the accumulated earnings of tuition in rhetoric. The desire to secure for themselves the glory and the profit resulting from a numerously attended class naturally gave rise to the most furious competition on the part of this class of instructors, a fact significantly attested in the terms karotat and arrivano fai employed with reference to Sophists professing the same subject. Every contrivance of force and fraud was unsparingly employed on these occasions, and the whole machinery of a contested election in England of the olden time was actively set in play to secure for themselves the attendance of the new comers to the University. Students were induced to pledge themselves before matriculation, and agencies formally established for that parpose in foreign countries. The fiercest part of the struggle commenced
their arrival in Attica. No expense seems to have been spared by the principals in the contest. A fictitious
1. Liban. 'AvTLoxwós. p. 333.
4. Vit. Soph. II. p. 600. Morell. 5. Philostr. vit. Soph. II. p. 588. Morell. 6. Sea also Liban, tepi tñs éavtoù túxns dóyos. p. 137.
7. Business of this description seems to have been transacted by a species of committee (xopós) composed of partisans of the respective Sophists under the guidance of a senior (fpoo. tárns, árpwpirns). Photius Bibl. cod. 80. Cresoll. Theatr. Rhet. IV. 10 extr. Bernhardy Gr. der Gr. Litt. I. p. 450.
appearance of popularity was sought to be obtained by paying students to attend and applaud at lectures' (ωνή των νέων.) Bands of academic partizans scoured the country in every direction, for the purpose of intercepting all who entered Athens by land ;' and all the mischievous activity of the commissionaires and hotel touters of the continent at the present day was indefatigably set in operation, in order to mislead and bewilder the inexperienced student on his first landing at the Piraeus. Libanius, in describing his own adventures, mentions that he was locked up by adherents of the opposition, and not released from captivity until he had bound himself by oath to attend the lectures of the professor whose cause they had espoused. The feuds between the rival candidates for popular favor and support were zealously entered into by their respective disciples—a result the more readily brought about from the fact that each of the leading Sophists officiated as proctor of one of the four Nations, into which the University was divided-and the writers of the day gave a most animated picture of the academic combats which raged between the admirers of the contending rhetoricians."
37. The general plan of instruction seems not to have been altered from that which prevailed at the time of the first endowment of the University by Aurelian. In the philosophical classes lectures were delivered, at the conclusion of which difficulties and objections (dropiai) were discussed by the professor. In the schools of rhetoric at Antioch public harangues (uedétai, Érideífers) were pronounced before the class by the occupant of the chair at certain stated intervals. This performance generally took place between ten o'clock in the morning and noon (πληθούσης αγοράς.) After such an Oration the remainder of the day was regarded as festival or half holiday. At the entrance of each lecture room (Tudúv) was suspended a tablet containing notices to the class. Students took copious notes of the lectures in books (dé tol)' kept for that purpose. Certain ancient authors (Demosthenes and Homer for the most part) were generally read as guides and models for original composition. The interpretation of these writers was preceded by a discourse (npótoyoc) delivered by the instructor. That in the philosophical schools a species of moral discipline was also aimed at is evident from the αρχή επί ευκοσμίας των επιχειρούντων which Athenaeus (XII, 69) describes as existing amongst the Peripatetics in the time of Lycon, the third from Aristotle (A. C. n. 269–226). This office of which we have already spoken seems to have been assigned to one of the seniors of the sect, who remained in authority for the space
1. Liban, περί της εαυτού τύχης λόγος, p. 45. 2. όρων άκρα, πέδια, έσχατίαι, ουδέν ότι μή της Αττικής μέρος, ή της λοιπης Ελλάδος, αυτών των οικητόρων οι πλείστοι, και γάρ τούτους μεμερισμένους ταις σπουδαίς έχoυσίν. Gregor. Nazianz.
8. της επιούσης τε ήν εσπέρας, και εν χερσιν ουχ ών έβουλόμην· έπειτα της ύστεραίας έν ετέρων αυ χερσίν, ων ουδε τούτων έβουλόμην. Liban. περί της εαυτού τύχης λόγος. p. 18. Compare also another passage in the same speech: εβοώμεν δε διεστηκότες, ο σοφιστής, μεν έμου, εκείνον δε εγώ στερόμενος, τους έχουσι δε λόγος ουδείς της βοής.
4. For an account of the Nations at Athens see $57.
5. Liban. περί της εαυτού τύχης λόγος, p. 16; τούς των χορών έν μέσαις ταις Αθήναις πολέμους, και ρόπαλα, και σίδηρον και λίθους, και τραύματα: κ. τ. λ. Compare also Epist. 527. Eunap. vit. Julian. et Proaeres. 6. Aul. Gell. Noct. Att. 20. II. 2.
7. Lucian. Hermotim. p. 750. 8. Liban. epòs toùs où déyovras, p. 293.
of thirty days, when a banquet was celebrated and a successor appointed.
38. The design of the University as an initiation to all the most liberal, honorable, and important forms of life has seldom been recognized with greater distinctness than at this period. Libanius speaks of those who attended the school of Antioch as looking forward to becoming occupants of municipal offices (Bovlai), appointments in the imperial service (douKNOEIC TÓNewv), chairs in some of the various Universities (Spóvol), and to the practice of jurisprudence, Roman or provincial (2éjus, dikai).' The general principle of all higher study is no where more clearly announced than in the words of Gregory of Nazianzus," who describes it as a prosecution of all subjects as one, and of each as equivalent to all (τα πάντα ως εν εξασκήσας, και αντί πάντων έκαστον).
). 39. By a practice dating from the times of Aristotle, and bor. rowed apparently in the first instance from the Pythagoreans, the undergraduate population of the University, in addition to the distinctions arising out of national origin, and subjects of study, was divided into two classes, one of which was entitled to the full rights of studentship, while the other was regarded as merely preparing for entrance into the academic body. The latter, who are designated as belonging to the povotlov,' were taught in the earlier part of the day, and subjected to all the coercive discipline of an inferior school, though the vicious indulgences and outrageous feats of physical force ascribed to them by Libanius prove that they must have attained to the age of the pelléonßo at least. Both classes of students are mentioned as being present at the public orations (μελέται, επιδείξεις) of the Sophists.' Lectures seem to have been delivered in a public building, either wholly set apart, or simply granted for the temporary use of the University." Instruction was also given at the residence of the professors (rà ièrwrina Séarpa).' This however was probably only the case with those who wished to add the advantages of private tuition to the ordinary teaching of the University. At Antioch, Libanius gave instruction in the senate house, in the temple of Calliope, or in that of Apollo which was situated in the suburbs of the city.' At Athens, in the siege of the city by Sylla during the Mithradatic war (A. C. n. 80), the Academy and Lyceum were iaid waste in common with the other suburbs ; and, though doubtless restored afterwards as far as possible to their original condition, were never again regularly employed for purposes of instruction ; in consequence, as Zumpt' supposes, of the advance of malaria occasioned by the declining population. Henceforward philosophers delivered lectures in the town. The odeum was used for purely epideictic purposes.
1. Liban. προς τους του παιδαγωγού βλασφημίας, p. 273.
4. Orat. X. 5. Aul. Gell. Noct. Att. XX. 5.
6. Aul. Gell. Noct. Att. I. 9. 7. Liban. Ep. 407. 1019.
8. Liban. repi toŮ TÁTntos, pp. 255, 256. 8. Such as blanketing pedagogues, a performance magniloquently described by Libanius in his oration περί του τάπητος. .
40. Of the mutual coördination between the various parts of which the school of Athens was composed little is known with certainty. The Praesas of Achaia® is described by Eunapius and Libanius as in a manner discharging the functions of the Chancellor of the University, though mainly, it would appear, with a view to the maintenance of public order, which had been disturbed beyond endurance by the factions into which the academic world was divided. The Proconsul Carbonius is extolled by Himerius for having restored the disci. pline of the University, and suppressed the tumults for which it had at one time been so notorious. The individual appointed by the emperors to the Proconsulate was himself in many cases a cidevant Sophist (arò tūv GOPLOTūv), and therefore abundantly qualified by personal acquaintance with its circumstances and conditions to superintend the government of the University.' At Antioch Libanius speaks of himself as presiding over four professors of rhetoric without specifying his relation to those who gave instruction on other subjects.
41. Hopelessly as the graceful and elegant thought of antiquity
1. Philostr. vit. soph. II, p. 600.
2. Liban. υπέρ των ρητόρων. 3. Eunap. p. 96. 4. Liban. περί της εαυτού τύχης, p. 7. πρός Ευστάθιον, p. 165. 6. Zumpt über den Bestand der Phil. Schulen in Athen, pp. 12, 15.
6. Eunap. vit. Julian, p. 97. Líban. repà this èavtoũ Túxns dóyos, p. 19. Bernhardy Grandriss der Gr. Litt. I, p 450. 7. Orat. IV. 89.
8. υπέρ των ρητόρων λόγος.