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MODIFICATIONS IN PLAN FOR 1873.

SINCE the issuing of the Number for June (National Series No. 30, Entire Series No. 75), and indeed since the printing of the greater portion of the present Number (for October, 1873,) we have found it necessary to modify the plan of publication as announced in the Prefatory Note on page 5, and in the Contents of the Volume on page 8. We have found it impossible to revise and print the entire series of volumes which constitute the American Library of Practical Education, or to make out the GENERAL INDEX, based on the Special Indexes of the twenty-four volumes of this Journal—the Contents of the entire series, and the Indexes, special and General, it was calculated, would occupy the volume (xxiv.) after page

544. The Indexes, special and general, together with the Contents and Indexes of the separate treatises which have been, or may be made up of chapters first published in the American Journal of Education, will be issued in a Supplementary Volume in 1873. This Volume (XXV) will be issued in parts of the usual number of pages, at $1.25 each, or $4.00 for the year, payable on delivery.

HENRY BARNARD. HARTFORD, Oct. 15, 1873.

..... 439

PAGE. Number 31 (Entire Series No. 76), for October 15, 1873.

417-640 1. THE ENGLISH UNIVERSITIES.

401-416 1. The College in the English Universities ....

401 2. The College in the o’der Continental Universities.. 3. The Domestic Side of University Life....

410 II. MILITARY SYSTEMS AND SCHOOLS in Russia...

417 1. Military Schools.....

418 2. Naval Schools.......

431 III. LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF ANCIENT GREECE IN ENGLAND.

433-436 IV. BENEFACTORS OF AMERICAN EDUCATION.......

433-450 WILLIAM ROBINSON—Robinson Female Seminary, Exeter, N. H.. SAMUEL WillkT8-Swarthmore College, Delaware County, Peno...

446 EZRA CORNELL-Cornell University, Ithica, N. Y... V. ENDOWMENTS OF AMERICAN COLLEGES.

451-432 1. Harvard. 2 Yale....

451 VI. SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION-HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED...

453-512 1. Higher Education in Greece........

573
Schools of Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Museum of Alexandria.
2. Higher Education among the Romans...

Athenæum of Rome-University of Athens...
3. Christianity and Academic Study....
Tetradirion of Constantine-Law School at Rome.

487 4. Origin and Organization of Faculties...

495 VII. THE EARLIEST CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS.

315-136 1. Catechetical School at Alexandria and Berytus.

515 Origin—Subjects and Methods of Teaching...

516 2. St. Benedict and His Rule.....

523 The Benedictine Convents and Schools.

583 VIII. MODIFICATION OF PLAN OF PUBLICATION FOR 1873.

545-546 Contents of Numbers for October and December... IX. SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE..

647-656 Plans in Report of U.S. Commissioner for 1867-8...

647 Number 32 (Entire Series No. 77), for December 15, 1873..

657-848 I. ELEMENTARY NATIONAL EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN..

659-698 1. England-Parliamentary Action in 1870 and 1873.... 2. Ireland-English Policy Respecting Irish Populas Education..

679 3. Scotland-Elementary School Act of 1872.

693 II. AMERICAN PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.....

697-794 1. School Legislation of Massachusetts-Colonial and Slate...

697 2. Constitutional Ordinances Respecting Schools and Education since 1867........ 713 III. REFORMATORY SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION.......

725-736 Barnard's Reformatory Schools.......

725 Principles and Results of M. Demetz's System at Mettray.. IV. Early CHRISTIAN Schools-Continued.....

737-740 Columbanus and Luxueil-Columba and lona....

737 V. TEACHING ORDERS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCI..

742-744 VI. ANCIENT UNIVERSITY OF Paris....

745-758 Merging and Association of Individual Schools.

745 Dominicans and other Religious Orders ......

775 VII. SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES.

1. Spain-University of Salamanca-Alcala........
2. The Netherlands-Louvain.........
3. Scandinavian States-Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

787 4. Great Britain Scotland Ireland.

791 ANNOUNCEMENT FOR 1874.. INDEX to Volume VII., National Series—(xxiv., Entire Series).

835

546

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PARLIAMENTARY ACTION IN 1870. The objects of the act 'to provide for public elementary education, Aug. 9, 1870,' which applies only to England and Wales, are the supply of elementary schools in districts, which have not a sufficient supply of public school accommodation, the maintenance and regulation of all public elementary schools, and their general supervision by the State.

For these important objects, the 'Education Department,' or, in other words, the Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education, have most extensive powers.

Definition of an Elementary School. The term "elementary school' means a school or department of a school at which elementary education is the principal part of the educa. tion there given, and does not include any school or department of a school at which the ordinary payments, in respect of the instruction, from each scholar, exceed nine pence a week.

School Districts. The school districts, as set forth in the First Schedule of the Act, are The Metropolis, Boroughs, except Oxford-the District of the local board of Oxford—and Parishes not included in any of the above-named districts.

Supply of Schools. It is enacted that there shall be provided for every school district a sufficient amount of accommodation in public elementary schools (as hereinafter defined) available for all the children resident in such district for whose elementary education efficient and suitable provision is not otherwise made, and that where there is an insufficient amount of snch accommodation, in the Act referred to as public school accommo dation,' the deficiency shall be supplied in the manner provided by the Act. That is to say-where the Education Department are satisfied (through returns which they shall cause to be made, and after such inquiry, if any, as they think necessary,) and have given public notice, that there is an insufficient amount of public school accommodation for any school district, and the deficiency is not supplied, the Department shall cause a school board to be formed for the district, and shall send a requisition to the school board so formed, requiring them to take proceedings forthwith for supplying the public school accommodation mentioned in the requisition, and the school board shall supply the saine accordingly.

In doing this, the Education Department must take into condsideration every school, whether public elementary or not, and whether actually situated in the school district or not, which, in their opinion, gives, or will, when completed, give, efficient elementary education to, and is, or will, when completed, be suitable for, the children of such district.

It is imperatively enarted that the Education Department shall take proceedings for the supply of schools immediately after the passing of: the Act, and the same in future years, after the receint of returns, sub

sequent to the first, with respect to any school district, and after such inquiry as they may deem necessary.

Again, where application is made to the Education Department with respect to any school district by the persons who, if there were a school board in that district, would elect the school board, or with respect to any borough, by the council; or where the Education Department are satisfied that the managers of any elementary school in any school district are unable or unwilling any longer to maintain such school, and that, if the school is discontinued, the amount of public school accommodation for such district will be insufficient; the Education Department may, if they think fit, without making the inquiry or publishing the notices required by the Act before the formation of a school board, but after such inquiry, public or other, and such notice, as they think sufficient, cause a school board to be formed for such district, and send a requisition to such school board requiring them to take proceedings forthwith for supplying the public school accommodation mentioned in the requisition.

Here we have, so far, a most effective system for the sufficient supply of public school accommodation to the children of the working classes. The Education Department, through the returns which they are author. ized and enjoined to procure, are thoroughly informed as to the supply of elementary schools in all parts of the metropolis, and every borough and parish of England and Wales. These returns may be supplemented by any inquiry the Department may think necessary; and the returns and inquiries will be repeated periodically, as they may be required. Accordingly, proceedings were taken by the Department, immediately on the passing of the Act, to have school boards elected, whose duty it is to supply, maintain, and carry on the requisite additional schools in the most efficient manner, under the inspection and control of the Department, on which it is imperative to see that this is done.

Evidently, with a view to urging the immediate general establishment of schools, where required, it was enacted that no parliamentary grant should be made in aid of building, enlarging, improving, or fitting up any elementary school, except in pursuance of a memorial duly signed, and containing the information required by the Education Department for enabling them to decide on the application, and sent to the Education Department on or before the thirty-first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and seventy.

The effect of this provision will be seen in the following facts :

In the year 1870, grants were made for building 78, and enlarging or improving 96 schools.

From the commencement of the operations of the Committee of the Council on Education in 1839 to the end of 1870, grants were made for building 5,016, and enlarging or improving 2,319 schools.

In the year 1870, the Committee received no less than 3,280 applications for aid ; viz., 1,723 to erect new bulldings, 1,479 to enlarge or im

prove schools, and 28, in which it was doubtful whether the applicants wished to enlarge or rebuild. Of these 3,230 applications, no fewer than 3,111 were received between the 1st of August and 31st of December, and the great majority in the last two months of the year.

It is a significant fact that of these 3,230 applications, less than onetenth were from Nonconformists and Undenominationalists, and more than nine-tenths were from members of the Church of England and other Denominationalists. This is an additional proof of the great majority of the people being in favor of Denominational Education.

School boards, it will be understood, are constituted for the purpose of establishing and maintaining rate-aided unsectarian schools, to supplement schools previously existing, whether denominational or others, so as to fill up every void, and completely supply the educational necessities of the country.

There are two classes of schools, therefore, now under the supervision of the Education Department of the Privy Council: viz., first, all Church of England, British and Foreign, Catholic, and other voluntàry schools, which comply with the conditions which constitute Public Elementary Schools,' and, secondly, those which are the special creation of the new Act-School Board Schoolsmalso complying with the same conditions.

Let us now see what these conditions are; and what is the difference between the two classes of schools.

PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

It is enacted that every elementary school which is conducted in accordance with the following regulations shall be a public elementary school within the meaning of the Act; and that every public elementary school shall be conducted in accordance with the following regulations (a copy of which regulations shall be conspicuously put up in every such school); namely

1. It shall not be required as a condition of any child being admitted into or continuing in the school, that he shall attend or abstain from attending any Sunday school, or any place of religious worship, or that he shall attend any religious observance or any instruction in religious subjects in the school or elsewhere, from which observance or instruction he may be withdrawn by his parent, or that he shall, if withdrawn by his parent, attend the school on any day exclusively set apart for religious observance by the religious body to which his parent belongs :

2. The time or times during which any religious observance is practiced or instruction in religious subjects is given at any meeting of the school shall be either at the beginning or at the end, or at the beginning and the end of such meeting, and shall be inserted in a time-table to be approved by the Education Department, and to be kept permanently and conspicuously affixed in every school-room; and any scholar may be withdrawn by his parent from such observance or instruction without forfeiting any of the other benefits of the school:

3. The school shall be open at all times to the inspection of any of Her Majesty's inspectors, so, however, that it shall be no part of the duties of such inspector to inquire into any instruction in religious subjects given at such school, or to examine any scholar therein in religious knowledge or in any religious subject or book:

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