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INTRODUCTION. In the further prosecution of a comprehensive survey of the educational institutions of different countries in their historical development and present condition, we have reached the close of our studies, for the present, in the department of Superior Instruction--meaning by that term the highest formal instruction recognized in the system of public schools in each State.
To the individual thinkers, to the discoveries, suggestions, and inspirations of a few teachers, to the sagacity of the master-builders of social order, acting in advance of the general intelligence of their age and country, does society owe its superior instruction; and in the aims, motives, methods, and institutions of such men must we find the clue of its progressive development.
This instruction, so far as it is systematized in different countries, will be found to differ in the organization and administration of the institutions to which it is committed, as well as in the subjects and methods, by which it is given-according to the conditions of the government and people, by whom and for whom it has been provided, and the state of the elementary and secondary schools on which, as a basis, the colleges and universities of the country must rest.
In every country, and in every stage of their development, colleges and universities have owed their organization to the State, or to the Church; and to the latter only when it usurped, or at least exercised the functions of the former. To the State, in its supreme or its delegated authority, (either of municipalities or special corporations created by it), or to the Church, when associated with the State, or in some of its many denominational organizations, has their adıninistration been committed, so that each institution reflects and imparts a special political and religious character and influence. From this general statement should be excepted our State Universities and Schools of Science organized on the basis of national land grants, and a few European institutions, avowedly liberal; but even these institutions can hardly be said to be neutral in the
political and religious influence, at least, wbich their professors exert on the students. Setting the State institutions aside, nearly all the colleges were chartered with the avowed purpose of securing the contributions, endowments, and students from particular States, and from particular religious denominations.
The subject of superior instruction, in its connection with the clerical, legal, and medical professions, and the institutions generally classed in this department (the colleges and universities of different countries), can not now be studied without reference to the wants of other controlling occupations of modern society, and the institutions which have been called into existence to meet themthe engineers for roads, bridges, mines, the designers and constructors of machinery by which the forces of nature are made to do the work of human brains and buman muscles in all forms of manufacturing and mechanical industry, and the special demands of agriculture, architecture, commerce, and navigation, and the polytechnic, technical, and special schools, which are the creations of the present century, and most of them of the last twenty five years. These subjects have already been treated with considerable fullness in separate chapters, which are now embodied in special treatises.*
To the thoughtful study of the history and present condition of institutions designed for the highest culture of literature, science, and art, in different countries, with a view to the establishment and further advancement of similar institutions in our own, this volume is now issued as a contribution.
Elementary and Secondary Instruction in the German States : Anhalt, Austria, Baden, Bavaria, Brunswick, Hanover, Hesse-Cussel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Liechtenstein, Lippe-Detmold, Lippe-Schaumburg, Luxemburg and Limberg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Nassau, Oldenburg. Prussia, Reuss, Saxony, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Weimar, Waldeck, Wurtemberg, and the Free Cities, with a general summary of the Educational Systems and Statistics for the whole of Germany. 856 pages. Price, $5.50.
Elementary and Secondary Instruction in Switzerland (each of the 25 Cantons), France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norwng and Sweden, Russia, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. 875 pages. Price, $5.50.
Scientific and Industrial Education in Austria, Baden, Bavaria, Brunswick, Free Cities, Hanover, Nassau, Prussia, Saxony, Saxon-Principalities, Wurtemberg, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Switzerland, Italy. 880 pages. Price, $5.50.
Special Instruction in Great Britain, with an Appendix containing selected Chopters from the Report on Scientific and Industrial Education in other European States with particular reference to Drawing, and Systems of Technical Schools. Price, $3.00.
Scientific and Technical Instruction in the United States : Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1867-8. 82.00.
Military Schools and Special Instruction in the Science and Art of War by Land and Sea, in France, Prussia, Austria, Bavaria, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Great Britain, and the United States, 960 pages. Price, $5.50.
Normal Schools, and other Seminaries, Institutes, and Agencies for Professional Training and Improvement of Teachers in Different countries. (In preso).
School Codes of Nations. (In press).
SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION: Contributions to the History of the Universi-
1. GERMAN STATES.
c. Customs and Discipline...
4. Higher Learning in the city of Rome.....