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SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.

INTRODUCTION. In the further prosecution of a comprehensive survey of the educational institutions of different countries in their historical development and present condition, we have reached the close of our studies, for the present, in the department of Superior Instruction--meaning by that term the highest formal instruction recognized in the system of public schools in each State.

To the individual thinkers, to the discoveries, suggestions, and inspirations of a few teachers, to the sagacity of the master-builders of social order, acting in advance of the general intelligence of their age and country, does society owe its superior instruction; and in the aims, motives, methods, and institutions of such men must we find the clue of its progressive development.

This instruction, so far as it is systematized in different countries, will be found to differ in the organization and administration of the institutions to which it is committed, as well as in the subjects and methods, by which it is given-according to the conditions of the government and people, by whom and for whom it has been provided, and the state of the elementary and secondary schools on which, as a basis, the colleges and universities of the country must rest.

In every country, and in every stage of their development, colleges and universities have owed their organization to the State, or to the Church; and to the latter only when it usurped, or at least exercised the functions of the former. To the State, in its supreme or its delegated authority, (either of municipalities or special corporations created by it), or to the Church, when associated with the State, or in some of its many denominational organizations, has their adıninistration been committed, so that each institution reflects and imparts a special political and religious character and influence. From this general statement should be excepted our State Universities and Schools of Science organized on the basis of national land grants, and a few European institutions, avowedly liberal; but even these institutions can hardly be said to be neutral in the

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political and religious influence, at least, wbich their professors exert on the students. Setting the State institutions aside, nearly all the colleges were chartered with the avowed purpose of securing the contributions, endowments, and students from particular States, and from particular religious denominations.

The subject of superior instruction, in its connection with the clerical, legal, and medical professions, and the institutions generally classed in this department (the colleges and universities of different countries), can not now be studied without reference to the wants of other controlling occupations of modern society, and the institutions which have been called into existence to meet themthe engineers for roads, bridges, mines, the designers and constructors of machinery by which the forces of nature are made to do the work of human brains and buman muscles in all forms of manufacturing and mechanical industry, and the special demands of agriculture, architecture, commerce, and navigation, and the polytechnic, technical, and special schools, which are the creations of the present century, and most of them of the last twenty five years. These subjects have already been treated with considerable fullness in separate chapters, which are now embodied in special treatises.*

To the thoughtful study of the history and present condition of institutions designed for the highest culture of literature, science, and art, in different countries, with a view to the establishment and further advancement of similar institutions in our own, this volume is now issued as a contribution.

Elementary and Secondary Instruction in the German States : Anhalt, Austria, Baden, Bavaria, Brunswick, Hanover, Hesse-Cussel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Liechtenstein, Lippe-Detmold, Lippe-Schaumburg, Luxemburg and Limberg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Nassau, Oldenburg. Prussia, Reuss, Saxony, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Weimar, Waldeck, Wurtemberg, and the Free Cities, with a general summary of the Educational Systems and Statistics for the whole of Germany. 856 pages. Price, $5.50.

Elementary and Secondary Instruction in Switzerland (each of the 25 Cantons), France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norwng and Sweden, Russia, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. 875 pages. Price, $5.50.

Scientific and Industrial Education in Austria, Baden, Bavaria, Brunswick, Free Cities, Hanover, Nassau, Prussia, Saxony, Saxon-Principalities, Wurtemberg, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Switzerland, Italy. 880 pages. Price, $5.50.

Special Instruction in Great Britain, with an Appendix containing selected Chopters from the Report on Scientific and Industrial Education in other European States with particular reference to Drawing, and Systems of Technical Schools. Price, $3.00.

Scientific and Technical Instruction in the United States : Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1867-8. 82.00.

Military Schools and Special Instruction in the Science and Art of War by Land and Sea, in France, Prussia, Austria, Bavaria, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Great Britain, and the United States, 960 pages. Price, $5.50.

Normal Schools, and other Seminaries, Institutes, and Agencies for Professional Training and Improvement of Teachers in Different countries. (In preso).

School Codes of Nations. (In press).

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION: Contributions to the History of the Universi-
ties of Germany, with an account of the Systems and Institutions of
Superior Instruction in other countries.

$5.50. Repub-
lished from Barnard's American Journal of Education, with additions.

912 pages.

CONTENTS

1. GERMAN STATES.

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INTRODUCTION....

3

I THE GERMAN UNIVERSITIES. From the German of Karl von Raumer,.

9

1. Historical..

1. Introduction. Universities of Salerno, Bologna, and Paris.

9

2. List of German Universities, with date of their foundation.....

10

3. The German Universities in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth centuries.

11

A. Charters, or Letters of Foundation........

11

B. The Pope and the Universities.....

12

C. The Emperor and the Universities...

16

D. Organization of the earliest German Universities...

17

a. The Four Nations. Four Faculties. Rector. Chancellor. Endowments, 18

b. The Four Faculties...

20

1. Faculty of Arts, ...

20

2. Faculty of Theology.

21

3. Faculty of Canon and Civil Law..

24

4. Faculty of Medicine...

26

c. Customs and Discipline...

27

1. University of Wittenberg and its relations to the earlier Universities..

30

5. History of the Customs of the Universities in the Seventeenth Century.

37

A. The Deposition....

B. Pennalism....

52

6. History of the Universities in the Eighteenth Century..

59

A. Nationalism. National Societies.

52

B. Students' orders, ..

56

7. History of the Universities in the Nineteenth Century.

58

Introduction ; the author's academical experience....

59

A. Entrance at Halle, 1799; a preliminary view...

59

B. Göttingen; Easter 1801 to Easter 1803....

59

C. alle ; Easter 1803 to Sept. 1805...

68

D. Breslau ; 1810 to 1817.......

76

a. Establishment of the Jena Burschenschuft, July 18, 1816. Wartburg Festi

vul, Oct. 18, 1817...

80

b. Establishment of the general Burschenschaft, in 1818.

91

E. Breslau, 1817 to 1819..............

92

a. Sand............

102

be. The consequences of Sand's crime. Investigations. Breaking up of the

societies. Destruction of the Burschenschaft.

124

F. Halle, 1819 to 1823....

136

Conclusion.....

153

II. APPENDIX......

155

I. Bull of Pius II., creating University of Ingoldstadt..

157

II. List of Lectures in the Faculty of Arts in 1366.

159

IIL Bursaries.....

160

IV. The Comment" of the National Societies

161

V. Statutes.....

165

A. Constitution of the General German Bunchenschaft.

B. The Jena Burschenschaft...........

168

VL The Wartburg Letters.....

183

VII. Bahrdt with the iron forehead..

186

VIII. Substance of Tubingen Statutes for organizing a students' committee..

187

PAOL.

IX. Extract from an Address of Prof. Heyder, at Jena, in 1607.......

188

X. Synonyms of " Beanus".

191

XI. Meyfart's "Aretinus" or Student Life in the Sixteenth Century.

191

XII. Grant of Privileges by Leopold I. to the University of Halle...

192

XIII. Works referred to...............

253

XIV, The Universities in the summer of 1853.

UI. ACADEMICAL TREATISES..

J. Lecture system. Dialogic instruction........

201

2. Examinations.....

206

3. Obligatory lectures. Optional attendance. Lyceums. Relations of the philo-

sophical faculty and their lectures, to those of the professional studies..... 213

4. Personal relations of the professors and students.....

229

5. Small and large oniversities. Academies....

236

6. University instruction in elementary natural history.

241

7. Student songs.....

245

Conclusion

049

INDEX..............

255

II. THE GERMAN UNIVERSITIES COMPARED WITH THOSE or FRANCE AND ENGLAND.

By Prof. H. Von Sybel, Bonn..

259

French idea of Superior Instruction. Renan...

260

Isolated courses and Lectures. College of France...

260

English idea of Superior Instruction...

260

Continuation of Subjects and Methods of Grammar Schools.

260

German union of original Research and thorough Instruction...

262

Relations of Universities to Gymnasia..

262

Defects of German Universities...

266

III. UNIVERSITIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES. By Prof. Charles Savigny, Berlin. 271-330

INTRODUCTION. Influence on the civilization of Europe..

273

1. UNIVERSITIES OF ITALY. Origin and Peculiarities....

275

(1.) Bologna. Earliest Statutes. Rector. Faculties. Nations. Degrees.... 275

(2.) Padua. (3.) Pisa. (4.) Vicenza. (5.) Vicelli. (6.) Arezzo...

275

(7.) Ferrara. (8.) Rome. (9.) Naples. (10.) Perugia. (11.) Modena, Pavia, 296

2. UNIVERSITIES OF FRANCE, .....

309

(1.) Paris. Oldest Documents. Peculiarities. Teachers. Colleges..

309

(2.) Montpellier. (3.) Orleans. (4.) Other French Universities..

316

3. Universities of England, Scotland, Spain, Portugal..

324

Remarks on the older universities...

325

Name. Relations to the Church and State. Chancellor....

327

Law Lectures. Subjects. Relation of Students to Teachers...

327

IV. UNIVERSITIES–PAST AND PRESENT, by Dr. Döllinger, Munich.

331

Meaning and origin of the University...

333

Characteristic features of the ancient Schools of Italy and France,

334

Late development of the German High School...

335

Rapid Multiplication. Religious Agitation. Thirty Years' War...

337

New University without territorial circumspection....

343

Reorganization of the University of Vienna....

345

Common bond of all Faculties and Sciences.......

347

University organization and Teaching in other European States..

348

France-Great Britain—United States—Italy...

349

Spain--Holland-Scandinavia-Russia

350

Universities-the seed-beds and workshops of German thought..

351

German Faculty of Historical Research ......

353

Quadruple Task of German High Schools...

355

Contributions to Scientific and Literary Production.....

357

Chief acquisition of University Training in the Historical Sense.

359

V. STATISTICS-FACULTIES, PROFESSORS, STUDENTS......

361

VI. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PARTICULAR INSTITUTIONS.

385

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II. ITALY

1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION............................ 453

1. Higher Education in Ancient Greece.......

453

Sinte policy-The Sophists—Public Life-Attic Oratory.

456

Schools of Athens-Plato, Socrates, Aristotle ..

462

Museum of Alexandria-its Rector, Professors, Students..

464

Rhodes-Antioch-Tarsus.

466

2. Higher Education among the Romans.......

Teachers of Rhetoric and Grammar. Study of Greek...

469

Personal Influence. Unconscious Tuition of Eminent Men. Etruvia..

474

Atheneum of the Capital. University of Athens.....

475

Professors, appointment, salaries and assistants....

477

Sophists of the later Roman Empire. Mode of Instruction.

481

3. Effects of Christianity on Academic study.....

186

Octagon or Tetradision of Constantine..

487

Theological Seminaries Alexandria--Constantinople.........

488

Roinen Law at Rome and Berytus.....

489

Rule of the Ostrogoths-German element....

490

4. Differences between Ancient and Modern Academic Institutions..

492

Corporate privileges- Academic degrees....

463

Faculty of Arts, associated with Theology and Law...

495

Special Sciences-Canon Law-Medicine-Roman Law..

500

Influence of Byzantine Greeks—Platonic element-Arabic culture..

505

Internal Economy of Ancient and Modern Academic life

506

Einancipation of the Faculty of Arts Classical Learning...

507

Notes-Museum of Alexandria-Literary Clubs, or Symposia..

510

II. CHRISTIAN SCHOOls—as distinguished from Pugar......

513

St. Mark at Alexandria-Catechetical School..........

515

Pantænus--Clernent- Origen at Alexandria and Cæsarea..

516

Cassiodorus in Italy-Sacred Studies-Triving and Quadrivium..

Monastic Institutions in the Enst-Rule of St. Basil.

522

Religious Orders of the West-Christian Women...

523

St. Benedict and the Renedictines.....

525

Monte Casino-Summary of the Benedictine Ryle....

528

Monasteries as Schools and Refuges of Civilization............

III. REVIVAL OF THE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OF GREECE AND Rone...

541

1. Literary studies of the Middle Ages-Intellectual Life.........

545

Trivium, Quadrivium, Mathematics, Astronomy, Natural History...

548

Roger Bacon-Lay of Nibelungen.....

549

2. Dante and Boccaccio-Use of the Vernacular....

550

Petrarch-precursor of Philological Poetry--aversion to scholasticism,

356

3. Growth of Classical Learning-Florence.......

565

John of Ravenna and Chrysoloras-Guarino and Vittorino di Feltre

..... 567

Cosmo di Medici-LorenzoPope Nicholas V.-Pirst printed books..... 570

Platonic Academy at Florence-Marsilius, Ficious, George of Trebezond.. 572

Francis Philelphus-Poggius-Laurentius Valla-Bessurion-Gaza.....

573

Lorenzo di Medici-Landinus-Politianus-Picus, Count of Mirandola.

577

Leo X.-the dark side of his Pontificate-Machiavelli and Ariosto..

586

Retrospect --Influence on Germany, France, and England..

592

IV. SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION IN THE KINGDOM OF ITALY..

I. HISTORICAL NOTICE OF EXISTING UNIVERSITIES....

1. State Universities ....

598

Bologna, Cagliari, Catania, Genoa, Maceralta, Messina, Modena, Naples, 603

Palermo, Parma, Padua, Pavia, Pisa, Sassari, Siena, Turin.

609

2. Non-government Universities...

Camerino, Ferrara, Perugia, Urbino.....

616

3. Buperior (nstitutes....

619

4. Higher Learning in the city of Rome.....

II. ADMINISTRATION, FACULTIES, PROFESSORS, STUDENTS, AND STATISTICS........ 621

TU. TEACHING ORDERS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH..

641

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