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of conducting the Queen in the absence of the Chamberlains, and they likewise attend in the closet at chapel, where no other gentlemen ushers wait. The senior of these officers is usually created a baronet. The appointments are in the gift of the Lord Chamberlain.
GENTLEMEN USHERS Daily WAITERS are next in authority to the Lord and Vice-Chamberlains ; they officiate monthly by turns, and wait in the presence chamber. The senior is also Usher of the Black Rod, in attendance on the house of Lords and the Order of the Garter, in consequence of which duty he is released from his attendance on the Sovereign.
GENTLEMEN USHERS QUARTERLY WAITERS also attend in the presence chamber, and are second in authority to the daily waiters, in whose absence they officiate. Both offices are in the gift of the Lord Chamberlain.
MASTER OF THE CEREMONIES.—This office was founded by James I., and his chief duties have re. ference to the introduction and presentation to the Sovereign of all ambassadors, &c.; he is necessarily a gentleman of good address, and possessing an acquaintance with modern languages. On all occasions of state ceremony he is in attendance at court, and is provided with an assistant master or deputy.
THE GENTLEMEN-at-Arms.-In 1509 this portion of the king's body guard was established by Henry VIII. They were originally denominated " spears," and till the reign of William IV. they bore the name of “ the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners,” but by command of the latter king, they have since always been styled the band of “Gentlemen-at-Arms." The body is composed of forty gentlemen, who purchase their several appointments, subject to the approval of the captain ; and their duty consists in attending at every levee and drawing-room in the presence chamber ; whenever addresses are presented to the throne, or the Sovereign goes to the house of Peers, they are also on duty. Upon the death of the king, they attend the funeral on each side of the canopy, and at coronations they possess the privilege of carrying up the royal dinner; on the latter occasion knighthood is usually conferred on the senior officer, without the payment of fees. Every member of the band is styled esquire in his warrant of appointment. The officers consist of a CAPTAIN, who is sworn in by the Lord Chamberlain in person, under royal warrant, and bears an ebony staff, with a gold head, as an ensign of office. A LIEUTENANT, who is sworn in by the Clerk of the Cheque, under the captain's warrant, and bears an ebony staff, with a silver head. A STANDARD-BEARER, who bears a similar staff, and is sworn in the same manner as the lieutenant; he has no standard, however, in the present day. A CLERK OF THE CHEQUE, who keeps the roll, and is sworn in by the captain, from whom he receives an ivory headed staff. And, lastly, a HARBINGER, whose duty is to provide for the accommodation of the band whenever the court moves in processions, royal visits, &c.
The YEOMEN OF THE GUARD.—This corps was instituted by Henry VII. in 1485. It now consists of one hundred men, six of whom are called Yeoman Hangers, and two Yeoman Bedgoers; the first attending to the hangings and tapestries of the royal apartments, and the second taking charge of all beds during any royal removals. The yeomen of the guard carry up the royal dinner, and are popularly designated as "beaf-eaters," respecting the origin of which name some differences of opinion exist, for many maintain that they never had any duties connected with the royal beaufet. A yeoman usher and a party of yeomen attend in the great chamber of the palace on drawing-room and levee days, to keep the passage clear. The officers consist of a CAPTAIN, who is, ex officio, a member of the privy council, and carries an ebony baton tipped with gold as a badge of his office; his salary is £1000. A LIEUTENANT, who bears a staff ornamented with silver, and receives a salary of £500 per annum, An Ession, who bears a similar baton, but has never carried any banner or standard; his salary is £300 per annum. Four Exempts or Exons, one of whom constantly resides at the palace to command the yeomen on duty ; their appointment is vested in the captain, by whom they are sworn; they are styled corporals in their commissions, but the true origin of name is doubtful; some trace it to those officers of the French guard, who are styled, "Capitaines Exempts des Gardes du Corps.” The last officer is, THE CLERK OF THE CHEQUE, who holds a similar place to the corresponding officer among the gentle men-at-arms; he never carried a baton till the year 1787, but in the July of that year this ensign of office was extended to the Clerk of the Cheque.
SERGEANTS-AT-ARMS.—This corps was first raised by Richard I. They are eight in number, though formerly they were much more numerous, and even at their first establishment amounted to twentyfour. Their present duty consists in walking before the Sovereign, and at a coronation in attending on the several bearers of the regalia. They are appointed by patent for life, with a salary of £100 a year. The sergeants-at-arms most frequently met with in public proceedings, however, are those detached for the performance of specific duties in the hoases of Parliament, and the court of Chancery. Io the house of Lords, the practical maintenance of decorum below the bar, near the throne, and in the gallery, devolves upon the gentleman and yeoman usher, with their assistants, so that “the sergeantat-arms attending the house of Lords” has less conspicuous duties to perform than those which devolve upon “the sergeant attending the house of Commons ;” both, however, execute the commands of the house to which they belong, as regards the apprehension or custody of all persons committed by order of Parliament. In the house of Commons, the sergeant-at-arms is an officer of considerable importance, enjoying large emoluments, assisted by a deputy and several subordinate officers; during the sittings of the House he occupies a chair below the bar, and he directs a large proportion of the arrangements connected with the maintenance of order in the approaches to the house and the offices adjacent. He is at once the executive and the ceremonial officer of the lower house ; but his discretionary powers are not extensive, for almost all his more important duties are performed under the immediate direction of the house itself, communicated through the Speaker. The office is usually held by a gentleman of the military profession, seldom under the rank of a field officer. The sergeant-at-arms attached to the court of Chancery is usually the same individual who performs the duties of sergeant-atarms to the house of Lords. In the court of Chancery, as in the Lords, his orders always proceed from the Lord Chancellor, and his duties mainly consist in carrying the mace, and taking peers and others into custody by direction of the court. The emoluments of this office are considerable.
The Master Of The Horse has the charge of all matters relating to the royal stables and horses, and, as a consequence, enjoys the command of the equerries, pages, grooms, coachmen, farriers, smiths, saddlers, and all other tradesmen connected with his department. The revenues appropriated for the support of this portion of the household are under the entire control of the Master of the Horse ; and he is the only officer who enjoys the use of any horses. pages, or footmen, belonging to the royal stables. His salary is £2500 per annum. He is considered the third great officer at court, being inferior only to