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a regal character, holds courts, levees, and drawingrooms, confers the honour of knighthood, and is attended by a household, for the support of which he receives a fixed annual salary of £20,000, and two residences. He is ex officio Grand Master of the Order of St. Patrick. He is addressed as ** His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant,” and “ may it please your Excellency,” &c.; unless when he happens to be a duke, in which case he is addressed as “His Grace," &c. His wife performs all such regal duties as would fall to the lot of a queen consort, and on all occasions takes precedence of every other lady in Ireland during the vice-royalty.

Pending the absence, or upon the death of the Lord Lieutenant, his place is filled by Lords Jrs.

These consist of three or more individuals, who discharge the duties of the chief governorship till the return of the old, or arrival of the new, Lord Lieutenant. The persons upon whom this trust and dignity usually devolve, are the lord chancellor of Ireland, the lord primate of all Ireland, and the com. mander of the forces in Ireland. For one or other of these the lord chief justice of the court of Queen's Bench, or the archbishop of Dublin, is sometimes substituted. On a recent occasion, the chief justice of the Common Pleas, and not of the Queen's Bench, was substituted for the lord chancellor, who happened to be absent from Ireland at the same time as the Lord Lieutenant, and the archbishop of Dublin took the place of the primate of all Ireland.



EVERY NEW MINISTRY. In addition to the responsible advisers of the Crown, there are a number of public functionaries who invariably hold their offices so long only as the political party of which they are members continue to preside over the administration of public affairs. These offices, therefore, are directly or indirectly in the gift of the minister of the day; and the appropriate filling of each vacancy is all that really constitutes the formation of a new ministry. There are other offices, however, of considerable emolument and importance, which are sometimes, though not necessarily, resigned at the dissolution of a ministry; the latter are not the less held durante bene placito, for the new ministry occasionally require the removal of their political opponents, or the officers themselves sometimes resign, as a manifestation of their uncompromising adherence to their own party, and their freedom from any desire to continue in office on account of pecuniary considerations; it however is held, that if the new minister does not solicit the Sovereign to dismiss these functionaries, their continuance in office is no compromise of political principles.

The following is a list of the offices which invariably become vacant by the resignation of a ministry : First lord of the Treasury

1 Junior lords of the Treasury, exclusive of the chancellor of the Exchequer

4 Joint secretaries to the Treasury

2 Private secretaries to the first lord


Chancellor of the Exchequer

1 Private secretary to the chancellor of the Exchequer

Lord high chancellors (Great Britain and Ire-
land) ........

Lord preside of the council
Chief commissioner of woods and forests

Lord privy seal......

1 Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster..

1 Secretaries of state

3 Under secretaries of state

3 First lord of the Admiralty

1 Junior lords of the Admiralty.

5 First secretary to the board

1 Private secretary to the first lord

President of the board of control

Secretaries to the board of control.
Private secretary to the president of the board
of control

President of the board of trade +

Vice-president of the board of trade

Private secretary to the president of the board
of trade .....

Master of the Mint

1 Secretary at war

Private secretary to the war secretary

Paymaster-general of the forces and treasurer of
the navy ...

Lord lieutenant of Ireland

1 Chief secretary for Ireland .

1 Under-secretary and private secretary

2 Attorneys-general (England and Ireland)...... 2 Solicitors-general (England, Scotland, and Ireland)


The other commissioners are only so er officio, and are therefore included under other offices.

+ The other members of the board of trade are «nly so er officio, and are therefore included under other offices.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Lord advocate of Scotland
Judge advocate-general
Postmaster-general in England
Master-general of the ordnance
Surveyor-general of the ordnance
Clerk of the ordnance
Storekeeper of the ordnance
Secretary to the master-general..
Lord chamberlain of the household
Vice-chamberlain of the household..
Comptroller of the household
Treasurer of the household .
Captain of the gentlemen at arms
Captain of the yeomen of the guard
Mistress of the robes
Lords in waiting
Ladies of the bedchamber
Lord steward of the household
Master of the household
Master of the horse
Chief equerry ...
Equerries in ordinary
Master of the buckhounds
Keeper of the great seal of Scotland
Commissioner of Greenwich Hospital *


Among the officers of the state who are occasionally but not invariably changed by the new minister, are

Ambassadors, and other ministers at foreign courts.
Governor-general of India.
Commander-in-chief of the forces.
Governors of colonies.

• There are two other commissioners who are stationary, and two who, being ex officio members of the commission, of course vary with each ministry, but they are under other heads in the above list.


“ Whoso upon himself will take the skill

True justice unto people to divide,
Had need of mighty hands, for to fulfil
That which he doth with righteous doom decide,
And for to maister wrong and puissant pride.
For vain it is to deem of things aright,
And makes wrong-doers justice to deride,

Unless it be performed with dreadless might;
For power is the right hand of justice truly hight.”


The title and dignity of a Judge belong to all who -individually, or jointly with others—are authorized to hear and determine any litigated question, whether the subject be real or personal, civil, military, or ecclesiastical; whether involving private injuries or public offences; whether the parties be lay or cleri. cal, noble or plebeian. In this enlarged sense, therefore, magistrates assembled at quarter-sessions, and even commissioners of small debts courts—inasmuch as they discharge judicial duties--must be regarded in the light of Judges ; and so, likewise, must many other public functionaries throughout the country. An ensign or cornet sitting on a regi. mental court-martial is as much a Judge as the ex. perienced officer who presides over that tribunal; so also is the tradesman who sits in a court of requests : but, in ordinary use and acceptation, the term Judge is applied only to those able, learned, and upright men, who, after spending more than half their lives in becoming acquainted with the laws and institutions of the country, as well as with the abstract

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