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statutes of each establishment; thus fellowships are limited to particular schools, counties, districts, dioceses, founders' relatives, rotation, private favour, &c. Fellows are not allowed to contract matri. mony; and with some special exceptions, fellowships must be held by those studying with a view to holy orders. Thus vacancies occur by death, by marriage, or by the acceptance of livings (of which those in the gift of the college are offered to the fellows as they fall vacant in the order of seniority).
The corporate business of the whole University is conducted in two distinct assemblies. The Congregation performs duties chiefly of a formal character, and these consist in conferring degrees and granting dispensations.
The Convocation is a legislative assembly which was instituted in the reign of Charles I., and is composed of the vice-chancellor, proctors, and heads of houses. Its powers are mainly directed to alterations, &c. of the statutes of the University.
The Public Orator is the officer who writes letters and addresses on public occasions, delivers an annual Latin oration, and presents to the congregation persons about to receive honorary degrees. He was first appointed in the reign of Elizabeth, and is chosen by convocation.
On the first Tuesday in July, an annual meeting is held in the Academical Theatre, which is called the Commemoration, or Act, and on this occasion honorary degrees are conferred, the annual oration is delivered, and prize essays, poems, &c. are recited.
The following is a chronological view of the different colleges at Oxford.
University College, date of foundation unknown, oldest sta
tutes dated 1280. Baliol College, founded between 1260 and 1270 by John de
Baliol, of Bernard Castle, Yorkshire. Merton College, founded about 1261 by John de Merton, and
subsequently enriched in 1274 by Walter de Merton,
Bishop of Rochester. Exeter College, founded in 1314 by Walter de Stapleton,
Bishop of Exeter. Oriel College, founded in 1326 by Edward II. Queen's College, founded by Robert Eggesfield, Chaplain to
Philippa, the Queen of Edward III. New College, founded in 1386 by the celebrated William of
Wykeham. Lincoln College, founded in 1427 by Richard Fleming, Bishop
of Lincoln. All Souls' College, founded in 1437 by Henry Chichele, Arch.
bishop of Canterbury. Magdalen College, founded in 1456 by William of Waynflete,
Bishop of Winchester. The King's Hall and Brazen Nose College, founded in 1509
by William Smith, Bishop of Lincoln, and Sir Richard
Sutton, of Prestbury, Cheshire. Corpus Christi College, founded in 1516 by Richard Fox,
Bishop of Winchester. Christchurch originally founded by Cardinal Wolsey, but
modified in 1545, Henry VIII, having first suspended
and subsequently re-established it. Trinity College, endowed by Sir Thomas Pope in 1534. St. John's College, founded in 1557 by Alderman Sir Thomas
White. Jesus College, founded in 1571 by Queen Elizabeth. Wadham College, founded in 1613 by Nicholas Wadham of
Merifield in Somersetshire. Pembroke College, founded in 1624 by Thomas Tesdale, Esy.
and Rev. Richard Wightwick. Worcester College, founded in 1714 by Sir Thomas Cookes,
of Bently, Worcestershire.
THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE differs very slightly from that of Oxford in those particulars which this work professes to include. The legislative assembly is styled “the Senate,” and consists of two houses, “regents and non-regents.” Propositions submitted to the senate are called " graces,” and every grace must have the previous approbation of “the Caput," a council which consists of the ViceChancellor, a doctor in each of the three faculties, and two masters of arts. The principal officers have nearly the same titles and duties as at Oxford, namely, Chancellor, High-Steward, Vice-Chancellor, Public Orator, and two Proctors, but the deputies of the latter are called moderators, a title not in use at Oxford.
The following presents a chronological view of the different colleges at Cambridge.
St. Peter's College, (commonly called Peter House) founded
in 1257 by Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. Clare Hall, founded in 1326 by Dr. Richard Badew, but
reconstructed by the sister of Gilbert, Earl of Clare. Pembroke College, founded in 1343 by Mary, Countess of
Pembroke. Gonville and Caius College, founded as Gonville Hall in
1347 by Edmund Gonville, and united to Caius by John
Caius the celebrated physician. Trinity Hall, founded in 1350 by William Bateman, Bishop
of Norwich. Corpus Christi College, founded in 1351 by two guilds in
Cambridge. king's College, founded in 1441 by Henry VI. Queen's College, founded in 1446 by Margaret of Anjou. Catherine Hall, founded in 1475 by Robert Woodlark, Provost
Jesus College, founded in 1496 by John Allcock, Bishop of
Ely. Christ's College, founded in 1451 by Henry VI. St. John's College, founded in 1511 by the executors of
Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby. Magdalen College, begun in 1519 by Edward Stafford, Duke of
Buckingham, and completed in 1542 by Lord Chancellor
Audley. Trinity College, founded in 1546 by Henry VIII. Emanuel College, founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay. Sidney Sussex College, founded in 1598 pursuant to the will
of Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex. Downing College, founded in pursuance of the will of Sir George
Downing dated 1717, but not incorporated till 1800
In the year 1832, the UNIVERSITY OF Durham was founded by endowment from the revenues of the dean and chapter. Its government resides in a warden, a senate, and a convocation; and its officers include a visitor, governor, warden, sub-warden, fel. lows, professors, senior and junior proctors, readers, lecturers, tutors, public examiners, registrar, bursar, &c. Its main object is to furnish instruction to students in the north of England, with a view to holy orders ; although founded in the year 1832, it did not receive its charter of incorporation till the 1st of June, 1837.
THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON was erected by let. ters patent, dated the 28th of November, 1836, which confer upon it the power of granting degrees in arts, law, and medicine, under regulations which were left to the discretion of the University when ratified by the approbation of the Secretary of State for the time being. By a second charter, dated the
5th of December, 1837, some of the powers granted in the first were modified. The senate is appointed "for the purpose of ascertaining, by means of examination, the persons who have acquired proficiency in literature, science, and art, and of rewarding them by academical degrees, as evidence of their respective attainments, and marks of honour proportioned thereto.” Its senate consists of a chancellor, vicechancellor, and thirty-two members and fellows. The right of nominating the chancellor and fellows is reserved to the Crown, while the vice-chancellor is elected annually from out of the fellows and members of the senate. The business of the University is transacted in apartments of Somerset House, which at present is the only habitation it possesses.
Among the colleges connected with this University, the most important are the two metropolitan institutions of University College and King's College; for the establishment of these really led to the erection of the University itself,
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE was founded, in 1826, by a company of shareholders, for the combined purpose of pecuniary advantage to the proprietors, and of affording a more extended course of general education unconnected with religious instruction of any kind. No system of academical residence or discipline was contemplated, but lectures were established in arts, medicine, and law. The institution was erected in Gower-street, and opened in October, 1828 ; it then assumed the title of “ The London University,” notwithstanding numerous unsuccessful attempts to obtain a charter authorizing the granting of degrees. Since the establishment, however, of the bona fide University of London in Somerset House under let