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UNIVERSITIES.

(PART IT.

ters patent, this institution has borne the title of C'niversity College. Connected with it is a school for boys, which is espressly framed as preparatory to the departments of the esta lege itself.

King's College was founded partly by shares and partly by donations. It forms the east wing of Somerse: Hrase, the ground on which it stands having been presented by George IV. It received a royal charter of incorporation in 1829, and its constitution only differs from that of l'airersty College in two particulars. First there is a peas of divinity attached to the establishment; and the ooleee is essentially devoted to the instruction of students accoriin; the tenets of the Church of England. The other peculiar consists in the presence of a large number of chambers which, though residence is not compulsory, are kept outstantly full, and are under the influence of academical disepline. As in University College, so here there is attacbed a school for boys, preparatory to their entrance on the air classes ; in connexion with this school, and characterized by the same course of education, are several others distritated throughout the kingdom.

The Scottish UNIVERSITIES are four in number: viz. St. Andrew's, which was founded by purel authority in 1413; Glasgow, founded in 1450; Aberdeen, founded in 1494 ; and Edinburgh, foundei in 1582.

St. Andrew's University formerly had three coileges attached to it; but two of these were subse quently combined, and it now has only two; viz. St. Mary's, and the consolidated college of St. Sal. vador and St. Leonard's.

The University of Aberdeen has two colleges King's, founded in 1494, and Marischal, instituted

in 1593. The Universities of Glasgow and of Edinburgh contain but one college each.

The professors in the different colleges form the constituent members of the Senatus Academicus of each university. This body confers degrees, and enjoys the uncontrolled management of their own affairs. The Chancellor is chosen for life by the senate, presides at the councils, and acts as visitor ; it is merely an office of honour. The Rector is subordinate to the Chancellor, is chosen by the students annually, and superintends the discipline, statutes, and privileges of the University. In Edinburgh, however, there is no Chancellor, and the Lord Provost of the city is Rector ex officio.

IRISH UNIVERSITY. The University of Dublin has but the single college of “Trinity" attached to it. The first students were admitted in the year 1593, though its institution is of an earlier date, and its practical action was for some time impeded by the unsettled state of the kingdom. Some authorities trace its first foundation to the year 1311. Its government is carried on by a Chancellor, a Vice-Chancellor (who in special cases has power to employ a proVice-Chancellor), a provost, a vice provost (usually the first of the seven senior fellows), two proctors, two deans, a censor, two librarians, two registrars, two bursars, an auditor, &c. The whole management is vested in a board, composed of the Provost and the senior fellows. The assembly for conferring degrees is termed Comitia.”

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THE ARMY.
“ With all their banners bravely spread,

And all their armour flashing high,
Saint George might waken from the dead,
To see fair England's standards fly.”

SCOTT. To enter into any lengthened history of the rise and progress of our military arrangements, to undertake any description of the science of war, to uphold or decry the maintenance of a standing Army, would be quite foreign to the purposes of this work. But the naval and military professions confer upon their members certain titles, of which the origin, relative rank, and comparative importance are not perhaps thoroughly understood by many persons; while the higher ranks are so interwoven with our system of government, that no complete view of our constitution can be presented which would omit to notice these two professions.

The Church has been dignified by the sacred character of its members, and a natural reverence for learning, piety, and virtue; the legal profession has been rendered important by the exalted station and exemplary character of the judges; while the Army and Navy have had their pride gratified, their respective professions elevated, their devoted loyalty identified with the personal attributes of the monarch, by numbering kings and princes of the blood as fellow soldiers and shipmates.

Previous to the abolition of feudal tenures by Charles II. stipendiary troops had gradually entered into the constitution of our military force, from the practice of commuting compulsory service for sums of money; but subsequently the employment of paid soldiers became the necessary consequence of the removal of feudal liabilities. The parliamentary army during the civil war was mainly composed of stipendiary troops, though the royalists consisted principally of landed proprietors followed by their tenants. The origin of a standing army is traced by some authorities to the year 1660, when Charles II. established a force of about 5000 men, including those in garrisons abroad: James II. subsequently increased this to 30,000. Up to the period of the Revolution, soldiers were embodied under the authority of the Crown only, but the Bill of Rights declared that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom during peace is contrary to law, unless it be upheld by the consent of Parliament. This abridgment of the royal prerogative, therefore, placed in the hands of Parliament the maintenance of the troops, and an act is annually renewed for the regulation of the military force of the country. This act, popularly called the Mutiny Act, specifies each year the number of men to be kept on foot, as well as the conditions under which they are enlisted, paid, billetted, and governed. In conformity with this statute the Crown issues Articles of War which are printed with, and annexed to the Mutiny Act.

Although the Crown has no power to raise and maintain forces without parliamentary control, yet the King is the supreme head of the Army and Navy, in all that concerns the distribution, command, and organization of the troops when once they are raised. All forts, arsenals, and other fortified places are under

his sole government and disposal, and all military orders emanate directly from the Crown. These powers are of course exercised through the medium of responsible advisers; but the interference of the Parliament is confined only to the existence of the standing army, and that existence is only authorized from year to year.

THE COMMANDER-IN-Chief is the immediate deputy of the Sovereign, in controlling and superintending the organization, discipline, and efficiency of the military forces of the country. To the Crown alone the internal economy of the Army is entrusted, and the Commander-in-Chief receives direct from the Sovereign, in the royal closet, all orders relating to this portion of his duty; but as far as regards the disposal and employment of the forces, he is under the regulation of the secretaries of state. As a great state officer he is himself responsible for the first portion of his duty; but for the second, the secretaries of state are answerable. No important or extensive change in the whole system of military discipline can be made by the Commander-in-Chief on his personal responsibility; but yet the secretaries of state are not entitled to intervene between him and the Sovereign in the promotion of the interests of individuals, or in the promulgation of general orders for the maintenance of the internal government of the service. He is usually, but not invariably, a member of the same political party as the administration of the day; on the three most recent changes of ministry, no alteration was made in this office. The Commander-in-Chief is assisted in the perform

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