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ance of his duties by the Adjutant-General, the Quarter-Master-General, the Barrackmaster-General, the Commissary-General, the Master-General of the Ordnance, and the Paymaster-General.
The ADJUTANT-GENERAL is the medium of communication between the individuals in the Army and the Commander-in-Chief. By him all orders are pablished, and he superintends the recruiting, discipline, clothing, and accoutrements of the forces ; he regulates the employment of officers on the staff, grants leaves of absence, &c.
The Quarter-MASTER-GENERAL is entrusted with the conduct of the Army as far as regards the localities and capacities of the ground they occupy; he prescribes routes and marches, regulates embarkation and debarkation, provides quarters and encampments, plans defences, &c. His duties, therefore, exercise an important influence on military successes while the Army is in the field.
The BARRACK-MASTER-GENERAL, as his name implies, is the superintendent of barracks, and is entrusted with all that relates to their construction and repair, as well as generally to the reception and lodging of the troops.
The Commissary-General is head of that department which superintends the supply of provisions and other necessaries to the Army; in this capacity he is subordinate to the Secretary-at-War as far as relates to military matters, and is under the control of the Treasury in the financial portion of his department.
THE PAYMASTER-GENERAL holds one of those offices which are conferred and resigned at the formation of every new ministry. He is invested with no discretionary powers, but makes payments in strict pursuance of such warrants as the Treasury or Secretary-at-War address to him. Each regiment has in addition a paymaster of its own, who is of course to a certain extent under the control of the Paymaster-General. Formerly the PaymasterGeneral was only entrusted with the payment of the military forces of the country; but of late years a consolidation has been practically effected in three of the departments of the public service, by conferring upon one person the offices of Paymaster-General, Treasurer of the Ordnance, and Treasurer of the Navy.
T-War is the medium of com. munication between the Army and the government of the day, just as the Adjutant-General is the channel of intercourse between the Commander-in-chief and the military forces of the country. His department has an especial bearing upon the financial portion of the government of the Army. He is bound to give effect to the orders of the Commander-in-Chief so long as they are consistent with the known resources of the service; but when they appear likely to occasion an excess of expenditure, he refers for further instructions to the Treasury, by whose decisions he is bound to abide. His duty is to prepare the
Army estimates, and lay them before Parliament; he is always, therefore, a member of the house of Commons. He is occasionally, though not always, a member of the cabinet, but he is usually a privy councillor. The office was established in 1666; and the first person who held the appointment was detached from the Secretary of State's office, so intimately connected were the two departments then considered. The gazetting of military appointments and promotions, the preparation of the annual Mutiny Bill, the framing of the Articles of War, and the investigation of complaints against the military, all fall under his control.
The MASTER-GENERAL OF THE ORDNANCE was formerly appointed for life, but now he varies with every change in the responsible advisers of the Crown. The celebrated Earl of Essex held the office under Elizabeth, but the last occasion upon which it was conferred for life occurred in 1660, and since that period the tenure has always been during pleasure. The appointments, discipline, and employment of the corps of artillery and engineers is under the personal control of the Master-General, as cclonel-in-chief, as is likewise the government of the Military Academy at Woolwich. But there is another class of his dutieswhich is under the control of that board, of which he is the president. The officers composing the Board of Ordnance are entrusted with functions respecting the artillery and engineer corps, similar to those discharged by the Secretary-at-War, in regard to the rest of the Army. Arms and military stores of every description are examined and distributed by them, and they likewise attend to the guns and gun-carriages of the Navy. The whole Army, however, as well as the ordnance and engineer corps, receive their supplies of the munitions of war through this board, and a certain portion of the clothing, namely, the furnishing of great coats, the clothing of the artillery and engineers, the clothing of a part of the militia, and of the Irish constabulary force, enter into the constitution of their duties. Fortifications and military works are under their superintendence, and they furnish the stores required for the use of the various convict establishments in the colonies. These extensive duties are performed through the medium of a surveyor-general, a clerk, and principal storekeeper, all of whom are generally members of Parliament; but the Master-General is the officer responsible for the manner in which the duties of his department are performed.
The British Army is divided into cavalry, infantry, and artillery, which each undergo a subdivision into regiments, many of which are divided into two or more battalions.
The three regiments of Life-Guards consist of Officers ...
33 Privates .... Non-commissioned ditto. 53 Horses
The ordinary cavalry regiments have each on an average Commissioned Officers... 27 Privates
304 Non-commissioned ditto. 31 Horses
The Grenadier regiment of Foot-Guards consists of three battalions, having Commissioned Officers ... 96 Privates
2080 Non-commissioned ditto. 177
The other two regiments of Foot-Guards consist of also three battalions each, and have Commissioned Officers... 61 Privates...
. 2080 Non-commissioned ditto. 109
The ordinary infantry regiments consist of one battalion, and have each Commissioned Officers... 39 Privates
739 Non-commissioned ditto. 57
The Royal Regiment of Artillery consists of nine battalions, and has Commissioned Officers ....
449 Non-commissioned and men
.6062 The officers or staff of an ordinary cavalry regiment, which is divided into six troops, are follow: Colonel 1 Paymaster
6 Veterinary Surgeon.. 1 The staff of an ordinary infantry regiment, consisting of one battalion, contains as follows: Colonel ........ 1 Paymaster
12 Assistant Surgeons.. 2 Ensigns