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TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE SHAL OF PERSIA. This treaty, an official copy of which we have received from the Department of State, is dated at the city of Constantinople, 13th of December, 1856 ; ratified by James Buchanan, the President of the United States, 12th of March, 1857; exchanged at Constantinople, 13th of June, 1857, and proclaimed by the President, 18th of August, 1857. Omitting (the formal introductory preamble, which, as asual, is larded with high-sounding titles, for economy of space, we give the several articles of the treaty, as follows :
Art. 1. There shall be hereafter a sincere and constant good understanding between the government and citizens of the United States of North America and the Persian empire and all Persian subjects.
Art. 2. The ambassadors or diplomatic agents whom it may please either of the two high contracting parties to send and maintain near the other shall be received and treated, they and all those composing their missions, as the ambassadors and diplomatic agents of the most favored nations are received and treated in the two respective countries; and they shall enjoy there in all respects the same prerogatives and immunities.
Art. 3. The citizens and subjects of the two high contracting parties, travelers, merchants, manufacturers, and others, who may reside in the territory of either country, shall be respected and efficiently protected by the authorities of the country and their agents, and treated in all respects as the subjects and citizens of the most favored pation are treated.
They may reciprocally bring by land or by sea into either country, and export from it, all kinds of merchandise and products, and sell, exchange, or buy, and transport them to all places in the territories of either of the high contracting parties. It being, however, upderstood that the merchants of either nation who shall engage in the internal commerce of either country'shall be governed, in respect to such commerce, by the laws of the country in which such commerce is carried on; and in case either of the high contracting powers shall hereafter grant other privileges concerning such internal commerce to the citizens or subjects of other governments, the same shall be equally granted to the merchants of either nation engaged in such internal commerce within the territories of the other.
Art. 4. The merchandise imported or exported by the respective eitizens or subjects of the two high contracting parties shall not pay in either country, on their arrival or departure, other duties than those which are charged in either of the countries on the merchandise or products imported or exported by the merchants and subjects of the most favored nation, and no exceptional tax, under any name or pretext whatever, shall be collected on them in either of the two countries.
Art. 5. All suits and disputes arising in Persia between Persian subjects and citizens of the United States, shall be carried before the Persian tribunal to which such matters are usually referred at the place where a consul or agent of the United States may reside, and shall be discussed and decided according to equity in the presence of an employee of the consul or agent of the United States.
All suits and disputes which may arise in the empire of Persia between citizens of the United States, shall be referred entirely for trial and for adjudication to the consul or agent of the United States, residing in the province wherein such suits and disputes may have arisen, or in the province nearest to it, who shall decide them according to the laws of the United States.
All suits and disputes occurring in Persia between the citizens of the United VOL. XXXVIII.--N0. I.
States and the subjects of other foreign powers, shall be tried and adjudicated by the intermediation of their respective consuls or agents.
In the United States, Persian subjects in all disputes arising between themselves, or between them and citizens of the United States or foreigners, shall be judged according to the rules adopted in the United States respecting the subjects of the most favored nation.
Persian subjects residing in the United States, and citizens of the United States residing in Persia, shall, when charged with criminal offenses, be tried and judged in Persia and the United States in the same manner as are the subjects and citizens of the most favored nation residing in either of the above mentioned countries.
Art. 6. In case of a citizen or subject of either of the contracting parties dying within the territories of the other, his effects shall be delivered up integrally to the family or partners in business of the deceased ; and in case he has no rela tions or partpers, his effects in either country shall be delivered up to the consul or agent of the nation of which the deceased was a subject or citizen, so that be may dispose of them in accordance with the laws of his country.
ART. 7. For the protection of their citizens or subjects, and their commerce respectively, and in order to facilitate good and equitable relations between the citizens and subjects of the two countries, the two high contracting parties reserve the right to maintain a diplomatic agent at either seat of government, and to name each three consuls in either country; those of the United States shall reside at Teheran, Bender, Bushir, and Tauris ; those of Persia at Washington, New York, and New Orleans.
The consuls of the high contracting parties shall reciprocally enjoy in the territories of the other, where their residences shall be established, the respect, privileges, and immunities, granted in either country to the consuls of the most favored nation. The diplomatic agent or consuls in the United States shall not protect, secretly or publicly, the subjects of the Persian government, and they shall never suffer a departure from the principles here laid down and agreed to by mutual consent.
And it is further understood, that if any of those consuls sball engage in trade, they shall be subjected to the same laws and usages to which private individuals of their nation engaged in commercial pursuits in the same place, are subjected.
And it is also understood by the high contracting parties, that the diplomatic and consular agents of the United States shall not employ a greater number of domestics than is allowed by treaty to those of Russia residing in Persia.
Art. 8. And the high contracting parties agree that the present treaty of friendship and commerce, cemented by the sincere good feeling and the confidence which exist between the governments of the United States and Persia, shall be in force for the term of ten years from the exchange of its ratification ; and if, before the expiration of the first ten years, neither of the high contracting parties shall have announced by official notification to the other, its intention to arrest the operation of said treaty, it shall remain binding for one year beyond that time, and so on until the expiration of twelve months which will follow a similar notification, whatever the time may be at which it may take place; and the plenipotentiaries of the two high contracting parties further agree to exchange the ratifications of their respective governments at Constantinople in the space of six months, or earlier, if practicable.
In faith of which, the respective plenipotentiaries of the two high contracting parties have signed the present treaty, and have attached their seals to it.
IMPORTATION OF FOREIGN SPIRITS INTO COSTA RICA. The United States Consul at San Jose, Costa Rica, has transmitted to the Department of State at Washington, the copy of a decree by Juan RAFAEL MORA, President of the Republic of Costa Rica, dated September 21, 1857, probibiting, after the expiration of ten months from the date thereof, the importa
tion of all classes of foreign spirits except on account of that government. He states that, by this decree, all foreign spirits are placed upon the same footing as gunpowder, rum, and tobacco. According to art. 22d, chap. 11th, of the tariff and custom-house ordinance, all vessels arriving at the port of Punta Arenas, having on board any of these articles, are required to deposit them in the public stores at a cost of two dollars per month for each cwt., (although they may be destined for other ports,) or leave the port within twelve hours.
Omitting the preamble, we annex a translation of the decree, which was given in the city of San Jose, in the National Palace, in the Department of Finance, of which Rafael G. ESCALENTE is the Minister, who is charged with the execution of the decree, and with submitting the same for the approbation of the Congress :
Art. 1. Ten months from this date, (Sept. 21, 1857,) the importation of every kind of foreign spirits on account of private individuals, is prohibited, and those having these articles on hand at the termination of the period specified are required to export them.
Art. 2. The government will cause to be procured on account of the State all the various kinds of foreign spirits in common use, in order that the same may be expended in such public places as shall be instituted for this purpose, and the proprietors of hotels and restaurants will purchase, at wholesale, in these places, for the supply of their establishments.
U. S. TREASURY LETTER ON VESSELS CLEARING FOR BREMEN, For the information of ship-owners and shippers, and to enable them to obviate the embarrassments heretofore experienced in the trade with Bremen, the collector of customs at New Orleans has deemed it proper to give publicity to the following letter of the Treasury Department, explaining the difficulties and delays, and suggesting a mode of relief :
Treasury DEPARTMENT, November 17, 1857. Sir :—The Secretary of State has submitted for my perusal a dispatch from the United States Consul at Bremen, in which he refers to delays in the unlading of cargoes to which vessels from the United States are sometimes subjected at that port, and which he thinks ought, in justice to American ship-owners and shippers, to be remedied if possible.
The port of entry for Bremen is at Bremerhaven, near the mouth of the river Weser, about 50 miles below the city. Vessels drawing over seven feet of water cannot come up to the city, and the transportation of cargoes, destined for Bremen, is effected between the port of entry and the city by means of small lighters, which are not considered as common carriers by the local law, and the parties at Bremen, to whom the cargo is destined or consigned, will not receipt the same on its delivery to the lighters, but only when delivered to them at Bremen--thus subjectiog the vessels to delay until this transportation is completed.
It would seem from the statement of the consul, that Bremen, vessels from the United States are, as a general fact, not subjected to such delays, and in that respect enjoy an advantage over vessels from the United States, in contravention of the spirit, if not the terms, of our treaty stipulation.
It is not clear, however, from the Consul's statement, to what extent, if at all, any ordinance of the governinent of Bremen, or any port regulations of the local authorities, cause this discrimination between the vessels of the two nations. How. ever that may be, the attention of the authorities of Breinen has been called to the subject by the U.S. Consul at that port.
It is suggested by the Consul that the delays in the unlading of cargoes, so often complained of by masters of vessels from the United States, might be ob.
viated if the shippers to that port would insert in their bills of lading, to “Bremerhaven," instead of “ Bremen,” “to be discharged within five days after entering the harbor."
Among the cases stated by the Consul in which complaints have been made to him, I perceive one from your port, and I have thought it expedient to communi. eate the Consul's suggestions to you, that shipp or masters of vessels in clearing for Bremen at your port, may be notified by you of the facts and suggestions communicated by the Cónsul, that they may adopt such measures as they may deem necessary and expedient to secure requisite dispatch in the unlading of cargoes at “ Bremerhaven." I am, very respectfully,
HOWELL COBB, Secretary of the Treasury. F. H. Hatch, Esq., Collector, &c., New Orleans.
TAE TARIFF AND TRADE OF NEW SOUTH WALES. T'he Washington Union, which has access to the mercantile information forwarded by our consuls and commercial agents to the Department of State, published on the 18th September, 1857, an article on New South Wales, with special reference to our commerce with that colony, from which we condense the following statements :
The articles which American merchants could advantageously ship to New South Wales, according to the Union, are wearing apparel, bags and sacks, cheese, candles, (tallow and sperm,) coffee, preserves, drugs and medicines, salt fish, flour and biscuit, furniture, glassware, hardware and ironware, leather manufactures, linens, provisions, spirits, (chiefly rum and whisky,) stationery and books, sugar, tobacco, woodenware, watches and clocks, and general notions.
TARIFF OF DUTIES LEVIED ON IMPORTS INTO NEW SOUTI WALES.
• per lb.
Per gall. Brandy and gin.....
$2 40 Whisky, rum, and other spirits, cordials or strong waters, sweetened or mixed with any other article so that the degree of strength cannot be ascertained by Sykes' hydraulics.....
2 40 Perfumed spirits ...
1 68 Wine, containing more than 25 per cent of alcohol, of a specific gravity of
.825 at the temperature of 60° of Fabrenheit's thermometer, for every gal
lon, in proportion to strength..... Wine not containing more than 25 per cent, &c.
48 Ale, porter, and beer of all sorts, in wood.....
2 Ditto, in bottles.....
6 Sugar, refined, and candy.
.cwt. 1 60 Ditto, unrefined.....
1 20 Treacle and molasses Coffee and chicory...
72 Tobacco and snuff ...
48 On exports there are no duties. In regard to the best means of promoting the commercial relations of the United States with this colony, a correspondent at Sydney informs the Department of State that “ the abolition of the duty on wood imported into the United States would have a tendency materially to augment the trade between the two countries, as then ships bringing cargoes from the United States would readily obtain return cargoes of an article of large consumption there, and would thus add not only to the profits of those who might be directly engaged in the trade, but would also contribute to the prosperity of one of the most important branches of our manufactures, and more remotely to the general welfare of all industrial pursuits in our country. Another, and no doubt the most important, step which could be taken for promoting the commercial inter. ests of our country in this region, would be the establishment of steam communication between the two countries by way of Panama.”
THE TARIFF OF MOROCCO. The sixth article guaranties entire freedom in navigation and equality with the national flag, as to duties on all imports, except those specified in article two. Article seven stipulates that import duties shall not exceed ten per centum ad ralorem, and that export duties shall not exceed the amounts marked in the following tariffs :
TARIFF OF DUTIES ON LEADING EXPORTS.
Exp't duty, Articles
Articles. Flour .. .cwt. 30 Tanned sking..
.cwt. 100 Bird seed 12 Horns....
M. 20 Dates 40 Slippers..
.. 70 Almonds. 35 Porcupine quills.
..cwt. 20 Cumin seeds... 20 Hair ...
30 50 Woolen sashes..
.. 100 Gums
20 | Tuckawt (a dye).
20 120 Tanned fleeces. Wool, washed 80 Hemp and flax
40 55 Raisins...
20 Hides, sheep, and goat skins..... 36
The preceding schedule contains the chief articles of export, and, besides the general reduction which it exhibits, is otherwise quite satisfactory, by reason of the certainty it guaranties that no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the produce of Morocco when sold or shipped for exportation.
Wool in grease
TONNAGE DUTIES IN CHILI.
A new law imposing additional tonnage duties upon vessels entering Chilian ports, the net amount of which is to be applied to the construction and support of lighthouses, has been adopted by the government. We are uninformed as to the amount of these duties, but the Chilian law of July 16, 1850, abrogates a law in force from January 8, 1834, imposing upon all foreign flags differential duties in favor of the national flag, the amount, whatever it may be, cannot be considered in the light of an unjust or oppressive tax, since it applies, by virtue of the law above cited, to all equalized flags, national as well as foreign. The existing tonpage duties are, on vessels of nations having treaties of reciprocity, or that have accepted the Chilian reciprocity law of July 16, 1850, 25 cents per ton of the vessels' measurement. On all other vessels, 75 cents per ton. This reciprocity law of 1850, was accepted on behalf of the United States by President's proclamation bearing date November 1, 1850.
IMPORTATION OF SPIRITS INTO NEWFOUNDLAND, Applications having been made to the Board of Revenue, at Newfoundland, for the restoration of spirits seized under the provisions of the act 18 and 19 Vict.. cap. 4, sec. 46, upon the ground that the owners or importers thereof were ignorant of the prohibition, in certain cases, to import spirits in casks not capable of containing at least fifty gallons
The Secretary of the Board gives notice that no such application will be entertained, but that the provisions of the statute will be rigidly enforced.