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our nurseries are, they cannot supply the demand. Their trade extends into every
State and territory. New York city is one of the chief customers. Indeed the
call comes from all quarters—the oldest no less than the newest sections of the
Union requiring a supply greater than can be furnished.”

Of the general correctness of this statement we are well aware from personal
knowledge. The nurseries make very large shipments to San Francisco, and
equally distant places. In each issue of the California Farmer some two columns
are filled with advertisements of importations from these establishments, etc.

COMPOSITION OF MILK AT DIFFERENT TIMES OF DAY.

The Edinburgh Medical Journal says that Prof. Boedecker has analyzed the milk of a healthy cow, at various times of the day, with the view of determining the changes in the relative amount of its constituents. He found that the solids of the evening's milk (13 per cent) exceeded those of the morning's milk, (10 per cent,) while the water contained in the fluid was diminished from 89 per cent to 86 per cent. The fatty matters gradually increase as the day progresses. In the morning they amount to 2.17 per cent, at noon 2.63 per cent, and in the evening 5.42 per cent. This fact is important in a practical point of view—for while 16 ounces of morning's milk will yield nearly half an ounce of butter, about double this quantity can be obtained from the evening's milk. The casein is also increased in the evening's milk from 2.24 to 2.70 per cent, but the albumen is diminished from 0.44 per cent to 0.31 per cent. Sugar is least abundant at midDight (4.19 per cent) and most plenty at noon (4.72 per cent.) The percentage of the salts undergoes almost no change at any time of the day.

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HOG STATISTICS OF KENTUCKY.
The Louisville Courier has procured from the assessors complete returns of the
number of hogs in Kentucky for 1857. It will be seen that the assessment num-
bers more hogs in 1857 than at any period for the past three years. The total
returns for 1857, 1856, and 1855, were as follows:-

1857...... 1,432,589 | 1856...... 1,105,185 | 1855...... 1,898,206
Excess of 1857 over 1855, 25,383; excess of 1857 over 1856, 318,404. Total
packing 1855–6, was 2,489,502 ; total packing 1856–7, 1,818,468; excess packing
1855-6 over 1856–7, 671,034.

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PRODUCTION OF WINE IN WURTEMBURG,
An authenticated statement of the production of wine in the kingdom of
Wurtemburg during the year 1856 gives the following results : The whole
extent of vineyards at 84,700 acres, (the extent of the whole Zollverein is
321,414 acres,) and the whole produce of the kingdom at 97,835 eimers, or
about 1,500,000 gallops. The yield was greater than that of 1855 by 10,844
eimers

. The average price was 46 florins. The greater part of it was taken
for home consumption ; only 1,345 eimers were sold to foreign purchasers.
The total net value was estimated at 3,684,398 florins, or 462,993 florins more
than in 1851.

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STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.

Arrivals from

Scotland...

IMMIGRATION INTO CANADA FROM EUROPE IN 1857. The Chief Agent (Mr. A. C. Buchanan) of the Emigration Department of Canada, stationed at Quebec, recently furnished to the government his report for 1857, from which we derive the following :1856. 1857. Arrivals from

1856. 1857. England 10,353 15,471 | Germany

4,637 4,961 2,794 3,218 Norway & Sweden. 2,806 6,407 Ireland.. 1,688 2,016 | Lower Am. provin. 261

24 Total immigrants arriving....

22,489 32,097 The total for 1857 includes 44 children born on the passage. Distinguishing the nationality or origin of the immigrants during the season of 1857, the returns show as follows: English 11,098 | Norwegians...

6,119 Scotch.. 4,925 Swedes

351 Irish. 4,466 Belgians.

215 Germans 4,872 | Canadians

51 Total of immigrants ......

32,097 From these figures it appears that the Irish, who formed only a few years ago nearly two-thirds of the whole of the immigrants arriving in Canada, were in 1857 inferior in numbers not only to the English, but also to the Scotch, the Germans, and the Norwegians. This is the more remarkable when it is remembered that the Irish papers, throughout the whole of the past summer, spoke of the exodus as being as great as in any previous year. The statistics of the mode of conveyance in 1857 are

Steerage. Total. 18 steamships...

..passengers

1,546 8,245 4,791 217 sailing. vessels.

294 27,012 27,306 Total .....

1,840 30,257 32,097 One important feature of the immigration of 1857 is, that out of the whole number of adult males, 12,443, rather more than one-half, or 6,279, were “unskilled laborers ;" of "farmers and agricultural laborers," there were 3,518; of “ mechanics and tradesmen," 2,185 ; and of“ domestic servants,” 134 ; aggregate of these four classes, 12,116.

Another feature is, that of the 30,257 steerage passengers who landed at Quebec, more than one-third, or 12.489, proceeded to the Western States, leaving the actual immigration to Canada 17,768, in addition to some 1,840 cabin passengers. The agent supposes, froni information in his possession, that this loss is more than covered by arrivals through the United States, but he has no correct data on which to frame an estimate.

In regard to the health of the immigrants while at sea, the report states that there was very little sickness among those from the British Isles, and that the average mortality among them was “not more than one-third of one per cent, and chiefly confined to children. The foreign passengers suffered more ; but

Cabin.

11

among them the average mortality, between embarkation in Europe and landing
in Quebec, was less than one and three-eighths per cent, children included. The
mortality at sea was confined to the sailing ships--not a single death was re-
ported on board any of the steamers; while in the whole there does not appear
to have been a single instance of brutality, and only one case of personal ill-
treatment. On unskilled labor, the Chief Agent remarks :-

“ Both the past season and that of 1856, have brought a class of immigrants
to whom this colony offers but little encouragement. I allude to those having no
particular business or calling, and who are unaccustomed to labor ; to persons
whose sedentary employment has affected their condition and strength, or who
have been confined to a single branch of a manufacture until they are incapac-
itated from taking up other labor ; but more particularly to those who have filled
the more subordinate offices in government departments, or in bankers' or mer-
chants' establishments, with a routine of duty and confined habits of living. No
persons of these descriptions ought to be induced, under any circumstances, to
emigrate to this country. In other respects the immigration of the present year
is composed, in the main, of a highly respectable class of persons.”

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THE INDUSTRIAL POPULATION OF ENGLAND.
Statistics have recently been published in which the following are given as the
various employments of the people, under classes :-
1. Persons engaged in the general or local government of the country... 65,330
.. Persons engaged in the defense of the country.

78,496
8. Persons in the learned profession, (with their immediate subordinates,)
either filling offices, or in private practice..

87,422
4. Persons engaged in literature, the fine arts, and the sciences

94,790
6. Persons engaged in the domestic offices or duties of wives, mothers,
mistresses of families, children, relatives....

2,777,017
6. Persons engaged in entertaining, clothing, and performing personal
offices for man

1,620,881
7. Persons who buy or sell, keep, let, or lend money, houses, or goods of
various kinds..

162,265
8. Persons engaged in the conveyance of men, animals, goods and mes-
sages...

252,196
8. Persons possessing or working the land, and engaged in growing grain,
fruits, grasses, animals, and other products ..

1,576,081
10. Persons engaged about animals....

63,506
11. Persons engaged in art and animal productions, in which matters of
various kinds are employed in combination...

664,878
12. Persons working or dealing in animal matters.

419,282
13. Persons working and dealing in matter derived from the vegetable
kingdom.......

789,814
14. Persons working and dealing in minerals.

623,171
15. Laborers and others--branches of labor undefined..

290,227
16. Persons of rank or property not returned under any office or occupa-
tion.

147,879
17. Persons supported by the community, and of no specified occupation. 103,453
18. Other persous, of no stated occupations or conditions...

110,407 Total of persons, aged 20 and upwards, in England and Wales... 9,816,597

POPULATION OF HOLLAND.
We learn from the Statistisch Yuarbaek voor het Koningrijk der Nederlanden,
" Slatistical Annual of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,” that the increase of the
population of Holland during the quinquennial period from 1850 to 1854, was
182,162, or an annual average of 36,432–equal to about one and a quarter per
VOL. XXXVIII.-NO. I.

9

cent. This rate of increase will appear considerable, especially if we consider the density of population, which is 100 to the square kilometre in Holland, while in France it is 68; in the United Kingdom. 88; and is much lower in other countries of Europe, if we except Belgium, Saxony, Lucca, and Lombardy. It seems, however, that the increase diminishes as the density of proportion increases, according to the law of inverse proportion, which M. de Baumbauer elucidates in cap. 11 of comparative demography. Thus, the increase of population in Holland, which was 0.0253 (24 per cent.) in the period, 1815–1830, descended successively to 0.0236 in 1830-1840, 0.0188 in 1840–1850, and to 0.0121, (or 17 per cent,) in 1850–1854.

THE DECAY OF THE ASIATIC RACES. The Friend of India, by far the ablest of the papers in India, some months since had a very able and eloquent examination of the hitherto dominant races throughout the whole continent of Asia. It showed that all were sioking away from inherent and circumstantial reasons. Since then, the Bengal mutiny, which must end in giving British India completely into the hands of its conquerors, serves to confirm the following conclusions of the article referred to :

“ All history shows that indigenous Asiatic races require the direction of a dominant class. Industrious, bardy, and with many of the qualities essential in the development of cultivation, they seem to lack social force. India was in the days of Aurungzebe wbat she was in the days of Ram. China is now what she was a thousand years ago. The Greek rayahs of Turkey are what the Greek peasant was in the days of Cantacuzene. Their numbers do not materially change. Thiey do not advance, and need the directing force of a progressive race. It remains but to speculate on the races to whom this high function must be assigned. They must be Europeans, for Europeans alone have acquired the necessary superiority in arms. Of Europeans, the English and Russians alone display capacity for the permanent administration of subject peoples. It is to their bands that we believi Asia to be intrusted. The advance of Russia will be checked by no humanity and few scruples. That of England may, but she obeys the irre sistibie impulse the more thoroughly for her occasional recoil. Year by year, the two powers close in toward each other; and if the future may be predicied from the experience of the past, another century will see this quarter of the globe goy. erned irom London, W'asbing ton, and St. Petersburg."

MERCANTILE MISCELLANTES.

WHAT BECOMES OF THE BONES:

THEIR USE AND COMMERCIAL VALUE.

A writer in the Tribune has at length ascertained what becomes of the bones of beuves, hogs, calves, sheep, and lambs. We could have informed him " long time ago.” A Mr. Groen, one of the many engaged in the business of calcining bones in New York. gives the following information, as to the use and va'ue of bones. Mr. Jones' boiling calcining establishment is situated on the Jersey side of the Hudson, sixteen miles up, nearly opposite Yonkers. To collect the bones from the chi onniers he employs in this city eight men, eight horses, and four carts. A laborer invariab y goes with each driver. The largest collections are made in the Eleventh, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Twenty-first, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Wards. They commence their rounds as early as 7 A. M., and by

1 P. M. the collections are deposited in the vessel that is to convey them from the city. The law requires all the carts engaged in this business to be boxed or covered with canvas. The price paid for bones varies according to quality. Thigh bones of bullocks rank first, as they are the only bones in an ox that are fit for turner's use; they are mostly manufactured into handles for tooth brushes, the natural curve of the bone giving the desired shape to that indispensable article for the toilet. They are worth from ten to twelve cents each. The jaw, bones rank next, and are worth $18 a thousand. The “short" bones, as they are termed, such as leave the family table, are worth from 40 to 50 cents a basket. To give some idea of the amount of money paid for bones, when we consider the number engaged in the business of bone-boiling, exclusive of the Barren Island business, we will state that Mr. G. pays for bones in this city alone an average of $100 a day. The fore leg and hoof are usually bought by manufacturers of glue, Peter Cooper being the heaviest purchaser of this description of offal ; and when they are done with, they are sold to the bone-dealers at two cents a pound. The hoofs are disposed of at the rate of $40 a ton, and are afterward made into horn buttons and Prussian blue. Horse hoofs and sheep hoofs and horns are sold at $15 a ton.

On the arrival of the bones at the factory, the thigh and jaw bones are sawed so as to admit of the removal of the marrow. They are then thrown into a vast cauldron and boiled until all the marrow and fatty substances attached to them are thoroughly extracted. The fat is then skimmed off and placed in coolers, and the bones are deposited in heaps for assortment. The thigh bones are placed in one heap for the turners: the jaws and other bones suitable for buttons are placed in a second pile ; the bones suitable for bone black” come No. 3, and the remainder are ground up for phosphates and manures.

“ Bone black” is used by sugar-refiners, and is worth from 24 to 3cents a pound. To judge of the amount used in this city alone of this article, in the eleven immense sugar refineries in operation here, it is only necessary to state that · Stuart's" and the “ Grocers'" refineries pay annually in the neighborhood of $10,000 a year each for "bone black.”

Of classes Nos. 2 and 3 we were furnished with no reliable data. No. 2 is used in the manufacture of phosphates. No. 3 is made into manure, and is sold at prices ranging from 38 to 55 cents a bushel, according to quality, but generally averaging about 50 cents, delivered at the factory.

Of the amount of soap-fat produced from bone-boiling, we can only say that our informant showed by his books that the sale of soap-fat from his factory from June, 1856, to June, 1837, amounted to $19,000. Of this amount $14,000 was paid by one house, and we were assured that this was but a moiety of the amount the house anpually purchased.

THE BANKS AND THE MERCHANTS ;

OR, TAKING CARE OF ONE'S SELF IN PANIC TIMES. When, in 1847, a panic overtook the trading community of the city of London, England, a committee of bankers, headed by the present Lord Overstone—then plain Mr. Lloyd-waited upon the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and requested him to authorize the Bank of England to issue a few millions more bank-notessuch notes, as is known, being regarded by the British public as the absolute

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