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the southern tier of counties, a circular requesting information concerning the eondition of the monuments along the State line. Particular acknowledgments were made to the supervisors of Chautauqua county for their cordial co-operation, and for a complete survey of the line on two sides of that county, an extent of over fifty-four miles. With this exception no local co-operation was secured.

A report prepared chiefly by Mr. Daniel G. Pratt, Assistant Secretary of the Regents, was transmitted to the Senate May 28, 1873, containing a part of the historical information then collected, and this has since been further continued in a supplementary volume of much larger size.2

On the 18th of January, 1875, Governor Tilden transmitted to the Senate a communication from Governor Joel Parker, of New Jersey, with a copy of a report of survey made by George H. Cook, State Geologist of New Jersey, made in July and August, 1874, with a map. It appeared that one-third of the original monuments were gone, and that the boundary could not be traced from what remained. Questions of jurisdiction and of title might arise, and it was deemed highly important that the line should be definitely ascertained and marked. He stated his intention of directing the attention of the Legislature of his State to the subject, and recommended that the authorities of New York be invited to appoint commissioners to join those that might be appointed by New Jersey, in determining the true location of the boundary line, and marking it by


This led to further action on the part of New York, and by an act passed May 26, 1875,3 entitled "An act in regard to the Boundary Monuments of the State," the Regents were authorized to resume the work of examination of the boundary monuments in connection. with the authorities of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, replacing such as were dilapidated or missing, and the sum of $3,000 was appropriated for the expense.

On the first of June of that year, the matter was referred by the Regents to a committee consisting of the Chancellor, Mr. Pierson and Mr. Perkins, and official correspondence ensued between the

Senate Doc 108, 1873, pp. 350.

2 Report of the Regents of the University on the boundaries of the State of New York Prepared by Daniel J. Pratt, Ph. D Vol. II, being a continuation of Senate Doc. No. 108 of 1873, and Senate Doc. No. 61 of 1877, 8vo pp. 867. 3 Chap. 424, Laws of 1875.

Governors of the several States concerned, as fully reported to the Assembly in 1877.1

Governor J. D. Bedle, of New Jersey, found himself unable at first to act, from want of authority of law, but on the 13th of April, 1876, an act was passed by the Legislature of New Jersey, authorizing the Governor to appoint three Commissioners, with power to negotiate and agree upon the line as defined in an act passed September 26, 1772, but their action was not to take effect unless confirmed by the Legislatures of both States.

It was found that some difference had arisen in the definition of the powers of the Commissioners, as given in the two acts. In New York, it was limited to the replacing of dilapidated monuments on the old line. In New Jersey it was to negotiate and agree upon a true line, without regard to what had been done a century before.

On the 7th of October, 1876, the two surviving members of the New York committee,2 in a letter to Governor Bedle, called his attention to this difference, and offered to go on with the work as their State had authorized, but no reply was made to this proposition, and nothing more was done with respect to that line, under that act.

On the 19th of May, 1877, the New York committee, with S. B. Woolworth, Secretary of the Board, met the Commissioners of Pennsylvania3 in New York city, and after some sime spent in conversation, a series of resolutions was agreed upon by the joint com. mission, recommending that a reconnoisance of the line be first made by skilled surveyors, to ascertain what monuments were missing, and the condition of those that remained. Also, that an astronomical determination be made at four points on the line, to ascertain the true location on the surface of the earth of the forty-second parallel of latitude, and that a written report be made to them of these proceedings. Each State was to appoint a surveyor, to cooperate in the work, and the Superintendent of the Coast Survey was to be invited to cause the points in latitude to be ascertained, at the joint expense of the two States. Each State was to pay the surveyor it appointed, and the expenses jointly incurred were to be equally divided.

Under this arrangement, II. Wadsworth Clarke, a civil engineer

Assem. Doc. 62, 1877, pp. 12.

Mr. Perkins had died in August, 1876. His place was afterward filled by the appointment of Mr Depew.

James Worrall, Robert N. Torrey and C. M. Gere, appointed under an act ap proved May 8, 1876.

of Syracuse, was appointed on the part of New York, and C. M. Gere, of Montrose, on the part of Pennsylvania.

The joint commission again met on the 19th of June, at Hale's Eddy, on the Delaware, near the eastern end of the line, and search was made for a monument at the initial point, but it could not be found. It was located by tracing eastward from milestones that were still in existence, and the survey progressed, but under great difficulties, some of the monuments remaining entire, while others were gone, and others evidently removed from their original place.

When the work of the season had been about half finished, impaired health required Mr. Gere to withdraw, and the Committee received proposals from the Commissioners of Pennsylvania, that Mr. Clarke should take entire direction. The examination was continued through 119 miles, leaving 106 miles on the south, and 19 on the west lines to be completed another season.1

Field work was resumed June 13, 1878, and continued with the exception of about fifteen miles, to Lake Erie, which was reached October 28,2

In the summer of 1879, operations were delayed by lack of appropriations until June 26, when a meeting of the joint commissioners was held at Clifton Springs, N. Y., Colonels Worrall and Gere being present from Pennsylvania, and Regents Leavenworth and Pierson from New York, the latter assisted by Mr. Pratt, Assistant Secretary of the Regents, and by Surveyor Clarke.

The part omitted the year previous was examined during the season, and additional determinations of latitude were made by officers of the coast survey. A general report was made of the condition of the boundary. It had been found that the original line was not straight, and rarely three monuments were in line. The original mile-stones were temporary affairs, and it was probable that it was intended that more permanent ones should be placed.

One of the dangers to which these monuments were exposed, and from which they had suffered most, was that of forest fires. If of

1 Report of the Regents of the University on the New Jersey and Pennsylvania Boundary Monuments. Assem. Doc. 49, 1878. pp. 51, with outline maps.

The part omitted was a rough and uncultivated district on the line of Cattaraugus county, which would require much time, and was deemed of less present importance than other portions.

The results of the work in 1878 were reported to the Legislature March 14, 1879. Assem. Doc. 91, 1879, pp. 37.

3 Assembly Doc. 100, 1880, pp 41.

marble, they would crack and crumble, and if of iron cast hollow, they would warp and break. Several of the old monuments had been taken away for building stones. In view of these objections the engineer in charge recommended granite.

By an act passed May 20, 1880,' entitled "An act to provide for the settlement of the boundary lines between the State of New York and the States of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, respectively," the original line as surveyed at the time was declared the true one, however irregular it might be, and the Regents were directed to appoint three of their number as commissioners, to meet with such as might be appointed by these States, to agree upon this old line, and where necessary to erect new monuments. Under this act the Regents on the 13th of July, 1880, appointed Vice-Chancellor Pierson, and Regents Leavenworth and Depew, to carry this pro

vision of law into effect.

In order to restore co-operation with the other States, the Commission above-named requested Governor Cornell to address their Governors, setting forth the action of the State of New York, and asking their aid in procuring joint action. In accordance with this suggestion, the State of New Jersey, on the 25th of March, 1881, passed an amendatory act of the act of 1876, expressly defining the duties of their commissioners to be the restoration of the original monuments on the old line. The Governor of Pennsylvania promptly replied that the attention of his State Legislature would be called to the matter, and action urged.2 Delays in transportation and from other causes prevented the delivery of the monuments till near the end of the season, and about fifty only were set. A detailed report of operations was made in January, 1882.3

By concurrent resolutions passed June 28-July 1, 1881, the Chap. 340, Laws of 1880.

In the execution of this plan, two kinds of granite monuments were adopted; the larger, termed "road monuments," being four and a half feet long, the top dressed rectangular, six by twelve inches, the letters "N. Y." and "Pa." being cut on the opposite broad faces, which were to be dressed down twelve inches from the top. The smaller monuments to replace the mile-stones were to be dressed six inches square, and both kinds were to have grooves cut on the top, crossing in the center. The holes were dug four feet deep, and at the bottom of each monument an unglazed earthenware disc, six inches in diameter, with a hole in the center, and numbered, was placed, and bedded in surface soil. Only the dressed portion of the stones appeared above the surface, and in some cases they were bedded in hydraulic cement.

3 Senate Doc. 20, 1882, pp. 27. In this report each monument, with its markings, is particularly described.

Commission appointed under chapter 340, 1880, was authorized to continue the work of erecting monuments, and of ascertaining the true boundary, as would best serve the interest and convenience of the State.1

Under the provisions of the act of 1880, above noticed, an agreement was executed on the 25th of March, 1881, between Henry R. Pierson, Elias W. Leavenworth and Chauncey M. Depew, on the part of New York, and Abraham Browning, Thomas M. Carter and George H. Cook on the part of New Jersey, describing and fixing the boundary line between these States. The field books, maps and records relating to the proceedings were filed in duplicate in the offices of Secretary of State in the two States, and an official notice of the proceedings was reported to Congress.

These proceedings were confirmed by law, May 23, 1884,2 and a final report of so much as relates to the New Jersey line was made March 24, 1884.3 In this report the proceedings of the Commission, instructions to surveyors, field operations, and final agreement are given in detail, together with a statement of expenditures and historical information of much importance. The appendix contains a Historical Sketch of the boundary between the States of New York and New Jersey, by Mr. Berthold Fernow of the State Library.



I. Meteorological Observations at Academies.

At a meeting of the Board of Regents held March 1, 1825, ViceChancellor Simeon De Witt offered a resolution :

"That each of the Academies incorporated by this Board be furnished with a thermometer and pluviometer, or rain-gauge, the expense of which shall be paid out of the funds of the Regents, and that the Vice-Chancellor, Mr. Lansing and Mr. Greig be a committee to provide these instruments, and to prescribe the rules for making observations by them, and the manner in which the accounts of them shall be kept, reports of which shall be annually made to this Board."

2 Chap. 351, Laws of 1884. Senate Doc. 46, 1884, pp. 137, with maps.

Laws of 1881, p. 965.

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