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Van Hoboocken, Harmen. (School-master, 1655-64), 1869, p. 874,

885.

Van Ilpendam, Adriaen. (School-master, 1645-60), 1869, p. 881. Van Lennep, Henry G. (See Endowment of our Higher Educational Institutions.)

Vassar, Matthew (founder of Vassar College), biographical sketch of. By John H. Raymond, LL. D., President of Vassar College, 1869, p. 785. Veeder, M. A. (See Uses and Relations of the Study of Botany.) Verplanck, Gulian Cornelius, LL. D. A Discourse on the Life, Character and Writings of. By William Cullen Bryant, LL. D., of New York city, 1871, p. 567.

Verstius, William. (School-master, 1650-55), 1869, p. 873.
Vocal Music. (See Instruction in Vocal Music.)
Volunteerism in Higher Education. By Martin B. Anderson, LL.
D., President of the University of Rochester, 1877, p. 627.
Ward, Dr. Samuel B. Notice of Dr. Jacob S. Mosher, by, 1885,
p. 260.

Ward, Thomas. (See Physical Culture.)
Warren, Orris II. Rev. Jesse T. Peck, D. D., LL. D. Obituary
notice of, 1884, p. 266.

*

Warren, Edward. (See Better organization of Science Education ;
Questions and Suggestions
Washington Academy noticed. 1885, p. 64-74.

; Industrial Drawing.)

*

*

Water, weight of a given volume of. (Sec Measures of Capacity.) Waterbury, Edward P. (See Military Drill in Colleges and

Academies.)

Watkins, Albert B. Notice of General S. D. Hungerford, by, 1885 p. 258.

Watkins, A. B., and others. (See Teachers' Classes in Academies. Watkins Academy and Union School. Historical Sketch, 1877, p. 708.

Watkins, Albert B. (See Houghton, James Dunbar, Notice of ; State and Secondary Education; Study of English Literature, etc.)

Watson, Rev. John. Noticed, 1885, p. 63.

Webb, Gen. A. S.

Remarks of, at Conference of College Presidents in 1884; 1885, p. 177.

Webster, Horace, LL. D, late President of the College of New

York. (By Professor Charles Davies, LL. D.) 1872, p. 692.
Webster, Noah. Teacher in Goshen, 1885, p. 64.
Weed, M. (See Normal Department in Academies.)
Weed, Monroe, A. M. Notice of, 1868, p. 710.

Weights and Measures. (See Abstract of Reports on Decimal Systems.)

Weights and Measures. (See Metrical System of.)
Weisse, John A. (See Evolution of the English Language.)
Welch, Ransom B. (See History of Literary Institutions; Mod-
ern Theory of Forces.)

Wells, D. Franklin. Suggestions on Normal Instruction in a letter from, 1869, p. 708.

Wells, Henry. (By Prof. John W. Mears, D. D.), 1880, p. 642.
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Wells, John A. (See Griffith Institute, Hist. Sketch; Plea for
the Study of Latin.)
Wentworth, Rev. Erastus. (See Chinese Competitive Examinations.)
Werner, Adolph. (See Examinations of the N. Y. Free Academy;
German in the College Curriculum; Nichols, John Augustus,
Notice of.)

What Shall We Do With the Books? By Charles II. Crawford, Principal of Almond Academy, 1873, p. 537.

Whipple, Alden B. (See How to Read.)

White, Aaron. (See Land Surveying, etc.; Speculations in Metaphysics; Speculations in Physical Science.)

White, Pres. Andrew D. Remarks at Conference of Presidents of Colleges, in 1884, 1885, p. 162, 163, 164, 165, 185.

White, Horatio S. (See French and German in Colleges, etc.) Whole Work of Academies. By George W. Jones, A. M., Principal of the Delaware Literary Institute, 1567, p. 665.

Why Should Elementary Chemistry be Required for Admission to
College By Le Roy C. Cooley, A. M., Professor of Natural
Sciences in the New York State Normal School, 1869, p. 716.
Wickes, W. K. (See Civil Government as a Science and a Study.)
Wilcox, Prof. Samuel Darwin, A. M., 1875, p. 752.
Wilder, Royal G. (See American Educators in India.)
Willard, Mrs. Emma. A Memorial of, by Mrs. John H. Willard,
Principal of the Troy Female Seminary, 1871, p. 537.
Willard, Emma. (See Female Education; An Address to the

Public.)

Willard, Mrs. Emma. Memorial Sketch. By Charles Davies, LL. D., 1871, p. 673.

Willard, Mrs. John H. (See Esthetic Culture in Troy Female Seminary; Extent and Character of Female Education; Troy Female Seminary, Historical Account; Willard, Mrs. Emma, Memorial of)

Williams, Heary S. (See Paleontological Evidences, etc.)
Williams, S. G. (See Normal Training in Colleges.)

Williams, S. G. (See Requisites of Admission to College.) Wilson, William D. Remarks on the Public School System, 1885, p. 152. (See Ancient and Modern Estimates, etc.; Campbell, Robert, Remarks on; Differentials and the Method of Finding Them; General and Special Culture in our Schools, etc.; Influence of Language on Thought; Legitimate Use of Fictions in the Prosecution and Discussion of Science; McGraw, John, Notice of; Modern Agnosticisms Considered, etc.; Nature and Method of Teaching Mathematics; Positive and Negative Terms in Mathematics; Realism and Nominalism, etc.; Rela tions of the University to the Colleges, etc.)

Wilson, J. (See Comparative Philology.)

Winchel, Alexander. (See University Control.) Winchester, Alonzo M. Obituary notice of. By Elisha Curtis, 1855, p. 274.

Women, Colleges for. (See Modifications in the Established Curriculum, etc.)

Women. (See Collegiate Education of Women.)

Women. (See Diplomas for Women.)

Women. (See Education of Women.)

Women. (See Endowment of Higher Educational Institutions for.)

Women. (See Should American Colleges be Open to, etc.)
Woolworth, Dr. Samuel B. Memorial of, 1881, p. 647; Proceed-
ings on Resignation of, 1881, p. 648; Proceedings on Death and
Funeral of, 650; Dr. W. and the Convocation, by Prof. Edward
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Wright, Charles J.
Wright, Norman F.
Wright, Truman K.
p. 90.

Written Examinations in Higher English and the Classics. By
Alonzo Flack, A. M., Principal of the Claverack Academy and
Hudson River Institute, 1869, p. 783.

Yale College. Endowments of, 1868, p. 702.

(See Military Drill in Academies.)
(See Our Normal Schools, etc.)

Remarks of, at Regents' Centennial. 1885,

Zoological Collections. (See Utility of Zoological Collections.) Zoological Education. By W. S. Barnard, Ph. D., of Cornell University, 1881, p. 529.

CHAPTER XXXV.

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT ALBANY. [Placed by law under the Regents of the University and the Superintendent of Public Instruction.]

The first attempts in the establishment of courses of normal instruction were made in the Academies as already noticed. The history, organization and results of special institutions for the preparation of Common School teachers, as they existed in Europe, were well known and often discussed in the country; but it was not until 1839 that the first American school of this kind under State patronage was established in Massachusetts, although in the city of New York one for local use had been in operation for some years before. The Academic departments were admitted to be useful, and in some cases eminently successful, while in other cases, more especially in those where their maintenance was made a condition to the distribution of the Literature Fund above $700, they were mere formalitics, without existence except upon record; there being neither a want for their presence, nor special preparations for their operation.

Meanwhile various agencies were quietly at work, all tending to a better provision for the qualification of teacher of Common Schools. In 1830 a committee of citizens of Rochester asked for a State Teachers' Seminary. In 1833 Gov. Marcy suggested some plan as desirable. The provision for teachers' classes in Academies had begun to operate, showing success in some cases, and revealing the need of something better in others. A board of visitors of schools established through the efforts of John C. Spencer, as Secretary of State, and of which the Rev. Alonzo Potter of Union College, was Chairman, lent its influence in support of more effectual measures. The District School Journal begun at Geneva in 1840, by Francis Dwight, and afterward removed to Albany, supplied every school district in the State at public expense, with sound views upon the

1 Governor Seward, in his message of 1839, in alluding to this subject, remarked:

"We seem at last to have ascertained the only practicable manner of introducing Normal Schools into our country. It is by engrafting that system upon our Academies. I ardently hope you will adopt such further legislation as is required to make this effort successful "

? Normal Schools were established at Framingham, Bridgewater and Westfield, Mass., in 1839.

subject, and in 1842, a convention of county superintendents at Utica, at which the Rev. Alonzo Potter, Horace Mann and George B. Emerson attended, gave the weight of its influence in favor of a Normal School. A like convention in 1843 renewed the recommendation as essential to the educational system of the State.

The Superintendent of Common Schools, in his report of 1843,1 in referring to this subject, said:

"The great cause of the failure of these departments to effect much practical good seems to be that the bounty of the State is diffused over too great surface. Sixteen institutions now receive annually $300 each for this purpose, making in the whole $4,800. While the share of each is so inconsiderable, educational science will be regarded as wholly subordinate to Academic instruction."

The discussion finally led to the passage of an act for the establishment of a Normal School on the 7th of May, 1844,2 under the joint direction of the Superintendents of Common Schools and the Regents of the University. It appropriated $9,600 for first expenses, and $10,000 a year for five years, for the maintenance, but made no provision for building. Its immediate management was intrusted to an executive committee of five, whereof the Superintendent of Common Schools was one, and ex officio the Chairman. The first members of this committee appointed were the Rev. Alonzo Potter, D. D., Gideon Hawley, Rev. William H. Campbell, D. D.,3 and Francis Dwight, and their first duties were the preparation of a set of rules and regulations for its government.

The corporation of the city of Albany on the first of August following, offered for its use, for a term of five years, free of rent, a building on the north side of State street, a little below the Capitol Park, which had previously been used as a passenger depot by the Mohawk and Hudson River Railroad Company, and agreed to pay $500 toward fitting it up for use, making the total contribution of the city $5,750.

1 Common School Report, 1843, p. 18.

2 Chapter 311, p. 464, Laws of 1844. The Hon. Calvin F. Hulburt of St Lawrence, Chairman of Committee on Colleges, Academies and Common Schools, in Assembly, and the Hon. Michael Hoffman of Herkimer, were conspicuous in their advocacy of this bill.

3 Dr. Campbell was then pastor of the Third Reformed Church in Albany. He was afterward for three years Principal of the Albany Academy, then Professor in the Theological Seminary of his denomination, and for a long period President of Rutgers College at New Brunswick, N. J.

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