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GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE.

2

.48

8

[PUBLISHED FEBRUARY, 1832.)
London Gaz - Times-Ledger

Norwich, Oxf.,Portsm..Pres.
Morn. Chron... Post - Herald

ton. Sherb., Shrewsb , Souto
Morn. Advertiser -Courier

ampton, Truro, Worcester !.
Globe. Standard - Sun.Star

Aylesbury, Bangor, Barnst.
Brit Tray.. Record-L Gaz

Berwick, Blackb., Bridgew..
St. James's Chron. -Packet..

Carmar.. Colch., Chesterf
Eveu Marl.--Eaglish (hrno.

Devizes, Dorrh., Doncaster,
8 Weekly Pr... 95.1. & Sua.

Falmouth, Glouc., Halifax
Dublin 14. Edinburgh 12

Henley. Hereford, Lancas-
Liverpool 9--Minchester 7

tar, Learning, Lewes, Linc.
Exetes 6. Bath Bristol. s. er-

Lichf. Macclesf. Newark,
field, York, 4 - Brigi too,

Newc. 00-Tyne, Northamp.
Canterbury. Leeds, Tull,

Reading, Rochest., Salish
Leicester, Nottingh. Plym.

Staff., Stockport, Taunton,
Stamf, 3-Birming. Bolion,

Swansea, Wakef.. Warwick
Bury. Cambridge, Carlisle,

Whiteh., Winches.. Windsor,
Chelmsf.,C elteah ,Chester,

Wolverhampton, 1 euch,
Coven. Derhy, Durb.. Ipsw.,

Ireland 61. Scotland 37
Keudal, Maidst., Newcastle,

Jersey 4.Guernsey 3
JANUARY, 1832.
Original communications. Roby's Traditions of Lancashire.......... 47
Mixor CORRESPONDENCE................

Buckhardt's Meditations.......
On substituting Steam-power for Horse-labour 8 Westley's Manual of Logic......... .ib.
Fotherby Church, Lincolnshire.

Dr. Croly's Sermon.......

49
New Church in Little Queen Street, Holborn 9 Nichols's Anecdotes of Wm. Hogarth .........50
Dr. Morgan, Author of “Mural Philosopher" 10 Dr. J. Johnson's Diary of a Physician.. ..53
Communication of Cholera thro' Shipwreck 12 Bp. of Lincoln's Charge.....

.56
Ancient Bowls found in the Severn.........13 Hosking on Architecture.....

.57
Representations of the Labours of Hercules . 14 Bp. Hall's Contemplations.......

.58
On British Geology, No. I......................15 Blakey's Essay on Good and Evil........... .59
Styles of Hume, Gibbon, and Robertson....17 Scott's Appeal on the National Church......ib.
List of Boys at Eton in 1779—1780......... 23 Lodge's British Peerage........
Tenants in Chief of Domesday Book ....... 25 Miscellaneous Reviews...

.61-62
Origin of the Grimaldi Family.......... 26 FINE ARTS..........

.62
Baronial Fainilies of Bec and Crispin.. 27-29 LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.- New Works, &c.64
Descent of the Office of Marshal.....

Adversaria, &c...........
Manuscripts possessed by M. Joha Aymon...ib. ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES..

68
The town of Caudebec in Normandy.

.........32
SELECT POETRY.....

.70
Lady Chapel, St. Saviour's Church...........35

Qistorical Chronicle.
Classical Literature.
Proceedings in Parliament........

72
On the Rectification of the Greek Grammar 41

Foreign News, 74.-Domestic Occurrences. 75
Plato's Four Dialogues........

..42

Promotions, &c. 77.—Births & Marriages...78
Valpy's third Greek Delectus ............. ..ib.

OBITUARY; with Memoirs of the Countess
Review of Dew Publications. of Orkney; Lady Fitzgerald ; Sir C. Hagger-
De la Beche's Geological Manual

43 ston ; Sir T. N. Hill; Lt. Col. Brereton, &c.
Lyell's Principles of Geology.................ib. Bill of Mortality.–Markets.—Shares....
Hack's Sketches of the Ancient Earth...... ib. Meteorological Diary.- Prices of Stocks....96

.....60

........30

....95

Einbellished with Views of TRINITY CHURCH, Little Queen Street, Holborn ;

And the oid West BRIDGE AND Gate, at GLOUCESTER.

By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent.

Printed by J. B. Nichols and Sox, Cicero's Hero, 25, Parliament Street, Westininster ;

where all Letters to the Editor are requested to be sent, Post-Paid.

MINOR CORRESPONDENCE.

With reference to the inquiries in vol. ci. of the ceremonies used by the Popes in coni. pp. 305, 488, relative to the family of secrating the “Golden Roses," which they HUYShe of Sand, co. Devon, Mr. JAMES occasionally presented to the sovereigns of Davidson, of Secktor, observes, “ I should Europe. Sleidan, in his History of the have little hesitation, notwithstanding the Reformation, notes that the rose was sent transposition of the colours, in attributing in 1518 to Frederick, Elector of Saxony, the fifth quartering of the arms of Rowland by Leo X. through Charles Militz, to serve Huyshe, to the family of Lapflode of Sid- as a bribe ou that prince in the Pope's bury, in which parish the estate of Sand is favour, as Frederick took great part in the situated. (see Pole's Collections, pp. 166, religious disputations then in agitation. 491.) The name of Lapflode occurs more The same author also says that Pope Leo X. than once as a witness in the transcripts of sent the rose in 1524 to our Henry VIII., 'several ancient deeds now before me, relating as a token of his favour, that king having to lands in Sidbury during the 13th, 14th, written against the doctrines of Luther. It and 15th centuries. The seventh quartering would seem hy these two specimens that I should agree with the suggestion of Mr. the Pope knew well how to dispose of Loyd, in assigning to the family of Burnell, his roses to advantage ; they were consiof Cocktree ; but

rather in this case to that dered great gifts, for Sleidan says Frederick of Wike, of Binden, in Axmonth, which had long desired to have one. assumed the coat, (see Pole, 243,) where it An Old CORRESPONDENT asks “ at what appears that the heiress of Burnell was mar- time rings were first employed in the married to Richard Wike, whose son married the riage ceremony ? It is known that the heiress of Avevell. Perhaps the pedigree Heathen, long before the Christian æra, of Wike in the Visitation of 1562, (Harl. used the annulus pronubus ; and about A. D. MS. No. 3288, fo. 127) may state how that 633, the episcopal ring was considered a family was connected with Hayshe. It may pledge of marriage between the Bishop and be observed also in connexion with the the Church." subject, that Richards married the heiress Mr. A. Davis, solicitor, Deptford, would of Avenell, (Pole, 217); and that John "feel much gratified by the communication Sydenham married the heiress of Gambon of any information tending to illustrate (id. 197).

The eighth quartering may, I the history of ancient Deptford. The loan think, be considered with great probability of any old plans, or notices of local antito belong to the family of Tremayle, the quities, and views of St. Nicholas' Church early owners of the estate of Sand. Sir W. before its re-erection in 1697, and of Says Pole, at p. 466, blazons the arms of Tre- Court at any period, are much desired : also mayle thus, ' Argent, a fess gules, between information as to the contents of a pamphlet three tramels Sable ;' and at p. 505, be calls thus mentioned by Lysons :-“ An Account these charges 'tremeils. Neither of the of a great inundation of Deptford is extant, works of Heraldry, to which I have imme- in a small pamphlet published at the time.” diate access, define such a bearing, but the A Constant Reader wishes for inforword “trammel is an ancient term for a mation respecting the Pedigree of the family pot-hook, an utensil which in form nearly of James Scaife, of Crosby Garret, in Westresembles the figures in question. The coat morland, who, he believes, died about 1750, of Tremayle was most likely brought in by and was buried in Crosby church, at the one of the other matches, as the estate of entrance of the porch. Sand had passed from that family prior to M. R. D. saya : “Will your erudite corthe year 1447. According to Risdon, p. 34, respondent J. F. favour your readers with the estate was a purchase by Huyshe, who similar notices of the descendants of Daniel was then there seated in a dainty dwel- Meadows of Chattisham, to those of his ling.'

elder brother, William Meadows, inserted Alva is informed that “Erdeswicke's in vol. xciv. ii. p. 218." Survey of Staffordshire” was reprinted in J. J. C. inquires whether there is any 1820, with additions by the Rev. Thomas lineal descendant of Sir Thomas Hunt, Harwond, F.S.A. and may be purchased of Knight, (mentioned in March, p. 208) dow the printers of this Miscellany. Bishop living, and where. Lyttelton's MSS. are in the library of the C. would feel obliged for historical parSociety of Antiquaries; and were employed ticulars relating to Leightonville Priory, co. by Mr. Shaw for his “ History of Stafford- Salop, noticed in vol. cl. pt. ii. p.411. shire," as well as by Mr. Harwood.

lo

p. 32, in the head-line, for Havec read Mr. R. F. Hopwood inquires for an account Caudebec; avd below, for Havec read Havre.

THE

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE.

JANUARY, 1832.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

ON THE SUBSTITUTION OF STEAM-POWER FOR HORSE-LABOUR.

Mr. URBAN,

have unquestionably reduced the actual CONSIDERING the extensive cir- labour of horses in a very great ratio ; culation of your Journal among the yet the enormous loads which are atintelligent classes of the provincial tached to four horses, both in the population, I have been induced to heavy six-bodied coaches, and the foursubmit for insertion in your valuable horse vans for carrying goods, shows columns, a few remarks on the pro- that no other limit regulates the amount mised advantages held out to the pub- of labour demanded from these valic, by substituting steam-power for luable animals, except their total inhorse-labour in the conveyance of pas. capacity to sustain such violent labour sengers and merchandise on common with profit to their heartless employers. roads. Having no other interest in Yet the amount of horse-labour in the question than must be felt by this country, great as it is, bears a every person desirous of promoting very small proportion to the aggregate our national prosperity and render- amount of labour performed by steam ing our internal resources available to engines. Without the introduction of the utmost possible extent, I shall locomotive carriages for the transport enter into a few of the leading points of raw produce on rail-roads, a very connected with the transit of goods large proportion or our internal mi. and passengers by horse-labour, previ- neral riches would be unattainable, ously to examining the comparative except at such cost as to limit their value of elementary power applied to use within a very narrow field. Inthe same objects.

deed, we obtain a very inadequate idea The superiority of travelling in Great of the vast amount of labour now perBritain, in comparison with most formed by the aid of locomotive engines, other parts of Europe, is not less from the quantity formerly executed owing to the great improvements by horse-power in our large iron and which have been made within the last coal works, and slate and stone quartwenty years in the construction of ries. A new era has in fact been roads, than to the great attention created by combining the mechanical which has been paid in this country force of steam as a propelling agent, to the breed of horses. Indeed the with the use of iron railways for diextent to which capital and enterprize minishing the amount of friction. The have carried the system of running extent to which this combination of coaches between the metropolis and scientific principles with mercantile the great provincial towns, may be enterprize in the transit of raw prosaid to have almost exceeded its proper duce, has enriched every class of the limits, wlrether we take into account community in the great coal and iron the question of humanity, or the risk districts, naturally led to the introducof life ; for the severity of treatment tion of steam-power for the conveyance to which the noblest animals of the of passengers as well as merchandise, brute creation are subjected by the between the great towns of Manchescruel practice of driving a set of horses ter and Liverpool ; while the adeleven or twelve miles an hour with a vantages resulting from that underheavy load, can scarcely be justified taking having exceeded even the most by any pretence of competition among sanguine expectations of its projectors, the members of any civilized commu

there is little reason to doubt that in nity. The vast improvements in roads a few years more, we shall have storm

carriages very generally substituted to drive the carriage at the rate of six-
for vehicles in transporting both goods teen, eighteen, or even twenty miles
and passengers on common turnpike per hour on level roads.
roads.

Messrs. Summers and Ogle, who
It is not necessary, Mr. Urban, have run a steam-carriage many months
that I should trespass on your readers' at Southampton, gave similar evidence
patience by giving a detailed account as to the perfect practicability of pro-
of the progressive experiments made pelling those carriages even at twenty-
by parties who have devoted their four miles an hour. Mr. Hawkins,
whole attention to the construction of another patentee, who has been run-
steam carriages, adapted for working ning a steam-carriage from London to
on common roads ; since the House Stratford, Essex, gives similar evidence
of Commons, during the last Session as to the perfect practicability of run-
of Parliament-being duly impressed ning such carriages for any number of
with the national importance of the hours on common roads, at ten or
subject-directed a Select Committee twelve miles per hour, including all
to be appointed, with full powers to stoppages.
examine evidence, and “ report on With regard to any apprehension of
the probable utility which the public danger from the explosion of steam-
may derive from the use of Steam generators, all the before-mentioned
Carriages."-And it is only doing jus- witnesses agrec—that with proper ma-
tice to the sound judgment of the nagement the liability to such acci-.
House, and to the honourable Mem- dents is exceedingly remote ; but even
bers who composed the Committee, in case of such pipes or chambers.
to admit that the Report, together bursting, the only inconvenience that
with the Evidence on which it is has resulted has been that of extin-
founded, contains a mass of more va- guishing part of the fire, and making
luable information to the public at a temporary delay in the journey till
large, than any Report I remember the apparatus can be repaired.
to have seen within the same compass. Steam-carriages are also, from the
Instead, therefore, of offering any in- concurrent testimony of all the wit.
dividual opinion as to the advantages nesses, far less liable to be overturned
and disadvantages that might result than coaches drawn by horses travel-
from the substitution of Steam for ling at a rapid pace, both from the
Horse-power, it will be more satisfac- centre of gravity being lower than in
tory to your readers to take the collec- coaches or other vehicles now in use,
tive opinion of a Parliamentary Com- and from the great facility with which
mittee, founded upon the evidence of such carriages can be directed, in
five or six gentlemen who have been comparison with that of guiding or
several years engaged, and are still reining-in four high-bred horses.
occupied, in bringing steam-carriages In descending hills, also, the engi-
to perfection ;-of five or six eminent neer or conductor has the power of
engineers and surveyors who have de effectually retarding the velocity of a
voted great attention to the construc- steam-carriage, both by regulating the
tion of roads and wheel-carriages supply of steam to the working cylin-
and to the evidence of two honourable ders, and by the still more effectual
Members of the House, distinguished method of reversing the action of the
for their scientific attainments and cranks, in the manner adopted in
knowledge of political economy: steam-boats. By this means an in-

The first witness examined by the calculable advantage is obtained over Committee was Mr. Gurney, who the management of vehicles drawn by made the first successful experiment horses -accidents being in almost with a steam - carriage on common every instance the result of horses roads, about six years back, near the running away, more especially in deRegent's Park; and about two years scending a hill

, or turning 'sharply since made a journey from London to round corners in the road. Bath and back, at a rate of travelling Steam-carriages can also be turned varying from eight to twelve miles per round, or entirely stopped, within a hour. Under favourable circumstances shorter distance than any coach with as to the state of the road, and the four horses, thereby enabling the confull power of the engines, Mr. Gurney ductor not only to guard against acfound it neither difficult nor dangerous cidert from his mun vehicle, but to

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1832.) On the substitution of Steam-Power for Horse-Labour. 5 turn out of the road at an instant to view taken of this important subject avoid accident from carriages drawn by the Parliamentary Committee, we by unruly horses, or driven by negli- must refer to the following extracts gent coachmen.

from the Report itself. In addition to the greater safety and The Committee state, that economy of steam-carriages for carry- “These inquiries have led the Committee ing passengers and goods, the testi

to believe that the substitution of inanimate mony of the inventors (which is fully for animal power in draught on common corroborated by that of the most emi. roads, is one of the most important imnent engineers) proves that the injury provements in the means of internal comdone to turnpike roads is much less munication ever introduced. Its practicabithan in drawing the same weight with lity they consider to have been fully estahorse-labour. It was proved to the

blished......Many circumstances, however, Committee that the injury done to

must retard the general introduction of them roads by stage-coaches is far greater

as a substitute for horse-power on roads. through' breaking up the surface by the prejudices which always beset a new in

One very formidable obstacle will arise froin the horses' feet, than from the action

vention :- especially one which will, at of the wheels : while it appears that first, appear detrimental to the interests of in drawing a given weight (say three

so many individuals." tons), a steam-carriage will admit of

Mr. Farey, one of the witnesses exthe tire of the wheels being made at amined before the Committee, states : least double the breadth of the wheels of ordinary four-horse coaches, thereby after their first establishment, be sum for

“ That steam - coaches will, very soon reducing the injury done to the road

one third of the cost of the present stage to less than one half, independent of

coaches." the horses. This fact is of the utmost

But the evidence of Colonel Torrens importance in the introduction of steam power in lieu of horses, and renders. (one of the Committee) bears so par

ticularly on the immediate question of the subject one peculiarly entitled to parliamentary notice, and to the at

Rural Economy, that I shall be excused tention of road trusts in every part of

for giving it a little more in detail. the kingdom ; for the wear and tear

“ • Have you considered the effect which of roads (and more especially indif

will be produced upon British agriculture ferent roads) requiring an enormous

hy substituting, ou common roads, steain

carriages for carriages drawn by horses ?'outlay of capital to maintain them in

• I have.' • What do you conceive that repair, any measure which has a ten

effect would be ?'I think it would prodency to lessen such expenditure must duce very beneficial effects upon agriculture. be deemed a public or national benefit. I conceive that agriculture is prosperous in One of the first measures therefore proportion as the quantity of produce brought that ought to be adopted by the Legis- in market exceeds the quantity expended in lature, should be to place steam-car- bringing it there. !f steam-carriages be riages upon at least an equal footing employed instead of carriages drawn by with other carriages drawn by horses, horses, it will be because that mode of coninstead of allowing the several road

veyance is found the cheapest. Cheapening trusts to charge any amount of tolls

the carriage of the produce of the soil must they may think proper.

necessarily diminish the quantity of produce It having been apprehended that

expended in bringing a given quantity to

market, and will therefore increase the net serious inconveniences might arise

surplus,—which net surplus constitutes the from the use of steam - carriages on

encouragement to agriculture. For example, common roads, through the liability if it requires the expenditure of two hundred of horses to be frightened, the Com- quarters of corn to raise four hundred, and mittee peculiarly directed their atten- the expenditure of one hundred more on tion to this point, and the uniform carriage to bring the four hundred to market, testimony of all the witnesses who then the net surplus will be one huodred. have examined the effect of steam-car

If by the substitution of steam carriages riages, shows that in very few in

you can bring the same quantity to market stances have horses evinced the least

with the expenditure of fifty quarters, then notice of such vehicles on the road

your pet surplus is increased from one hun

dred to one hundred and fifty quarters; and by no means exceeding that shyness consequently either the farmer's profit, or high-bred horses manifest on other

the landlord's rent, increased in a correoccasions.

sponding proportion. There are many tracts For additional evidence as to the of land wliicli cagout now be cultivated, be

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