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[13 try the gentle mode of stating their tobacco, nor any other goods whatgrievances, and making a firm and ever, to Great-Britain ; and to decent claim of redress. They render this last resolution the more conclude with warning dealers not effectual, they strongly recommendto raise the price of their mer. ed the cultivation of such articles of chandise beyond the usual rates, husbandry, inftead of tobacco, as on account of any resolutions that might form a proper basis for mamight be taken with respect to im- nufactures of all sorts.; and parportation'; and by a declaration, ticularly to improve the breed of that that province would break off their sheep, to multiply them, and all dealing and commercial inter- to kill as few of them as possible. course whatsoever, with any town, They also resolved to declare those city, or colony on the continent, 'enemies to their country, who or with any individuals in them, should break through the non-imwho should refuse, decline, or ne- portation resolution. The people glect to adopt and carry into exe- of Maryland, the other great cution such general plan as should tobacco colony, were not behindbe agreed upon in the congress. hand with those of Virginia ia Auguít ist.

At a meeting of their determinations; and the two

the delegates of the Carolinas, whole existence seemed feveral counties of Virginia at Wil- to depend upon their exportation, liamíburgh, which lasted for, six were by no means among the least days, befides profeffions of alie- violent. giance and loyalty, of regard and Thus the Boston Port-Bill and affection for their fellow-fubjects in its companions had even exceeded Great Britain, equally strongly ex- the prognostications of their most pressed with thole which we have violent opponents. They had mentioned, and several resolutions raised a flame from one end to the in common with the other colonies, other of the continent of America, they passed others which were pe- and united all the old colonies in caliar, and considering the itate one common cause. A fimilar, lanand circumstances of that province, guage was every where held; or if with its immediate dependence on there was any difference in the the mother country for the disposal language, the measures that were of its only staple commodity, must adopted were every where directed be considered very deserving of at- to the fame object. They all agreed tention, because strongly indicating in the main points, of holding, a the true spirit of that people. congress, of not submitting to the

Among these, they resolved not payment of any internal taxes, that to purchase any more slaves from were not, as usual, imposed by Africa, the West-Indies, or any their own assemblies, and of fulother place; that their non-impor- pending all commerce with the motation agreement should take place ther country, until the American on the first of the following No. grievances in general, and those of vember; and that if the American Massachusett's - Bay in particular, grievances were not redressed by were fully redressed. the toch of August 1775, they The people, as is always the would export, after that time, no case, were, 'from circumstances or

temper,

temper, more or less violent in dif- freeholds, and afford that medioferent places; but the resolution as crity of condition to the possessors, to the great object of debate, the which is fufficient to raise ftrong point of taxation, was every where bodies and vigorous minds; but the same, and the most moderate, seldom that fuperabundance, which even at New-York, seemed deter- proves so fatal to both in old and mined to endure any evils, rather refined countries. The American than submit to that. At Newport, freeholders at present, are nearly, in Rhode Island, the flame burned in point of condition, what the higher than in some other places; English Yeomen were of old, when an inflammatory paper was there they rendered us formidable to all published, with a motto in capi. Europe, and our name celebrated tals “ Join or Die ;” in this piece throughout the world. The former, the state of Boston was represented from many osvious circumstances, as a siege, and as a direct and are more enthufiaftical lovers of liboftile invasion of all the colonies; berty, than even our Yeomen were. “ the generals of despotism,” it Such a body was too numerous to says,

“ are now drawing the lines be bribed, and too bold to be des. of circumvallation around our bul. pised without great danger. warks of liberty, and nothing but In this untoward state of public unity, resolution, and perseverance affairs, General Gage had the concan save ourselves and our posterity folation to receive a congratulatory from what is worse than death, address from the Justices of the Slavery."

Peace of Plymouth county, assemWhat rendered this state of affairs bled at their general sessions, in the more dangerous, was, that it which, bcîdes the customary com. did not arise from the discontent of pliments, they expressed great cona turbulent or oppressed nobility, cern at teeing that the inhabitants where, by bringing over a few of of some towns, influenced by cer. the leaders, the rest must follow of tain persons, calling themselves course, or perfift only to their ruin ; committees of correspendence, and nor did it depend upon the resolus encouraged by fome, whose busition or perseverance of a body of mess it was as preachers of the merchants and dealers, where every Gospel, to inculcate principles of man habitually fludious of his im- loyalty and obedience to the laws, mediate intereft, would tremble at entering into a league, calculated the thought of those consequences, to increase the displeasure of the which might essentially affect it ; fovereign, to exasperate the parent and where a few lucrative jobs or country, and to interrupt the barcontracts, properly applied, would mony of fociety. A protect was split them into 'numberless fac- alío passed by several gentlemen of tions ; on the contrary, in this the county of Worcester, against inftance, the great force of the op- all riotous disorders, and feditious position to government consisted practices. These efforts had howin the land-holders throughout ever no other effect, than probably America. The British lands in to lead the governor as well as adthat vast continent are generally ministration into an erroneous opiportioned out in numberless small nion, as to the itrength and number

of

EUROPE. [15 of the friends of government in patience and resolution, which had that province

ever been their characteristic. Though liberal contributions Soon after the General's arrival were raised in the different colonies in his government, two regiments for the relief of the suffering in- of foot, with a small detachment habitants of Boston ; yet it may be of the artillery, and some cannon, easily conceived, that in a town, were landed at Boston, and encontaining above 20,000 inhabi- camped on the common, which tants, who had always subsisted by lies within the Peninsula on which commerce, and the several trades the town stands. These troops were and kinds of business subservient by degrees reinforced by the arrival to it, and where the maintenance of of several regiments from Ireland, numberless families depended mere. New York, Hallifax, and at length ly upon localicy, that the cutting off from Quebec. It may be easily of that grand source of their em- conceived, that the arrival and ployment and subsistence, muft, ftation of these troops was far notwithstanding any temporary re- from being agreeable to the inhaliefs, occafion great and numerous bitants ; nor was the jealousy in diftreffes. Even the rich were not any degree less, in the minds of exempt from this general calamity, their neighbours of the furroundas a very great part of their pro- ing counties. This dissatisfaction perty consisted in wharfs, ware- was further increased by the plahouses, fheds, and all those nume- cing of a guard at Boston Neck: rous erections, which are destined (which is the narrow Isthmus that to the purposes of commerce in a joins the Peninsula to the contigreat trading port, and were no pent), a measure of which the frelonger of any value.

quent desertion of the soldiers was They, however, bore their mise either the cause, or the pretext. fortunes with a wonderful constan- In this state, a trifling circumcy, and met with a general sym- ftance gave the people of Botton : pathy and tenderness, which much full earnest of the support they confirmed their resolution. Their might expect from the country in neighbours, the merchants and in case of extremity, and an opporhabitants of the town and port of tunity of knowing the general Marblehead, who were

were among temper of the people. A report those who were to profit the most had been spread, perhaps indu. by their ruin, instead of endeavour- ftriously, that a regiment posted at ing to reap the fruits of their cala. the neck had cut off all commumity, sept them a generous offer of nication with the country, in order the use of their stores and wharfs, to starve the town into a compliance of attending to the lading and un- with any measures that might be lading of their goods, and of proposed to them. Upon this vague transading all the business they report, a large body of the inha. should do at their port, without bitants of the county of Worce. putting them to the smallest ex- fter immediately assembled, and pence; but they at the same time dispatched two messengers express cxhorted them to persevere in that to Boston, to discover the truth of

the

the intelligence. These envoys mong the immoralities, again informed the town, that if the re- which the people were warned, it port had been true, there were se- seemed as if an act of state were veral thousand armed men, ready turned into a libel on the people ; to have marched to their assistance; and this insult exasperated greatly and told them further, that they the rage of minds already suffiwere commissioned to acquaint ciently discontented. them, that even though they might Along with the new laws, which be disposed to a surrender of their did not arrive till the beginning of liberties, the people of the coun- August, Governor Gage received a try would not think themselves at list of 36 new counsellors, who in all included in their act. That conformity to the new regulations by the late acts of the British par- of them, were appointed by the Jiament, and the bills which were crown, contrary to the method pending therein, when the last in- prescribed by the charter, of their telligence was received, their char. being chosen by the representatives ter was utterly vacated ; and that in each assembly. Of these genthe compact between Great-Britain tlemen, about 24 accepted the of. and the colony being thus dissolv- fice, which was a fufficient number ed, they were at full liberty to to carry on the business of governcombine together in what manner ment, until a fresh nomination and form they thought best for should arrive for filling up the vamutual security.

cancies. Not long after, the governor is- Matters

now, however, sued a proclamation unfortunately tending to that crisis,

for the encourage, which was to put an end to all ment of piety and virtue, and for established government in the prothe preventing and punishing of vince. The people in the diffevice, prophaneness, and immora- rent counties became every day lity. This proclamation, which more outrageous, and every thing was avowedly in imitation of that bore the semblance of resistance issued by his majesty upon his ac- and war; in Berkshire and Wor. ceslion, seems, like most acts of go- cefter counties in particular, nothing vernment about this time, to have was to be seen or heard of, but the been wrong placed, and ill-timed. purchasing and providing of arms, The people of that province had the procuring of ammunition, the always been scoffed at, and re- casting of balls, and all those other proached by their enemies, as well preparations, which testify the moft as by those of loose manners, for immediate danger, and determin. a pharisaical attention to outwarded resistance. All those, who acforms, and to the appearances of cepted of offices under the new religious piety and virtue. It is laws, or prepared to act in conforscarcely worth an observation, that mity with them, were every where neither proclamations or laws can declared to be enemies to their reach farther than external appears country, and threatened with all ances. But in this proclamation the consequences due to such a chaHypocrify” being inserted 2. racer. The people of Connecticut,

looking

were

August 4th. for

looking upon the fate of their mit to a renunciation of their of Deighbouring colony to be only å fices, or to suffer all the fury of an prelude to their own, even exceed- enraged populace. Most of them ed them in violence.

submitted to the former condition ; The new judges were rendered some had the fortune to be in every where incapable of proceed. Boston, and thereby evaded the ing in their olsce. Upon open- danger, while others, with great ing the courts, the great and petty risque, were pursued and hunted in juries throughout the province, una- their escape thither, with threats nimously refused to be sworn, or of destruction to their houses and to act in any manner, under the estates. new judges, and the new laws. The old confitution being taken The acting otherwise was deemed away by act of parliament, and the to heinous, that the clerks of the new one being rejected by the peo. courts found it necesary to acknown ple, an end was put to all forms leage their contrition in the public of law and government in the Papers, for issuing the warrants by province of Massachusett's Bay, which the juries were summoned to and the people were reduced to that attend, and not only to declare, Atate of anarchy, in which manthat let the consequences be what kind are supposed to have existed they may, they would not act fo in the earlielt ages. The degree again ; but that, they had not con- of order, however, which by the fidered what they were doing, and general concurrence of the people, that if their countrymen should was preserved in this state of anarforgive them, they could never for- chy, will for ever excite the afton. give themelves for the fault they ishment of mankind, and continue had committed. At Great Bar- among the strongest proofs of the rington, and some other places, efficacy of long established habits, the people assembled in numerous and of a conitant fubmislion to bodies, and filled the courthouse laws. Excepting the general opand avenues in such a manner, that polition to the new government, neither the judges nor their officers and the excesses arising from it, in could obtain entrance; and upon the outrages offered to particular the heriff's commanding them to persons who were upon that acmake way for the court; they an- count obnoxious to the people, no fwered, that they knew no court, other very considerable marks apnor other establishment, indepen: peared of the cessation of law or dent of the ancient laws and usages of government. of their country, and to none other In the mean time, General would they lubmit or give way Gage thought it necessary for the upon any terms.

safety of the troops, as well as to The new counsellors were fill secure the important poft and town more unfortunate than the judges. of Boston, to fortify the neck of Their houses were furrounded by land, which afforded the only comgreat bodiss of the people, who munication, except by water, befoon discovered by their counte

tween that town and the continent. nance and temper, that they had This measure, however necessary, no other alternative than to fub- could not but increase the jealousy,

[B]

suspicion,

Vou. XVIII. 1775.

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