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As neither this appointment, nor And the more fully to carry this disposal of the public money, could essential purpose into effect, it was be at all agreeable to the Governor, strongly recommended, that they he accordingly refused his concur. should give every possible encourence to the latter; upon which the af- ragement to the manufactures of sembly passed a resolution, to recom America. mend to the several towns and dir Though the committee, that was tricts within the province, to raise the appoioted to conduct this business, said 500l. by equitable proportions, endeavoured to carry it on with the according to the last provincial tax. greatest privacy, the Governor, A recommendation, which, at pre- notwithstanding, obtained fome insent, had all the force of a law. telligence of it, and on the very

The Assembly foreseeing that day upon which they made their their diffolution was at hand, were report, he sent his Secretary to determined to give the people a pronounce their immediate diffolu. public testimony of their opinions, tion. The Secretary, upon his arand under the title of recommenda- rival, finding the door locked, fent tions to prescribe rules for their the House-messenger to acquaint conduct, which they knew would the Speaker, that he had a message be more punctually complied with, from the Governor, and desired than the positive injunctions of admittance to deliver it. The laws. They accordingly passed a Speaker, in some time, returned for declaratory resolution, expressive of answer, that he had acquainted the their sense of the state of public af- House with the message which he fairs, and of the designs of govern- had received, and that their orders ment, in which they advanced, were to keep the door fast. Upon that they, with the other American this refusal of admittance, the Secolonies, had long been struggling cretary caused proclamation to be under the heavy hand of power; made, upon the stairs, and that their dutiful petitions for of the diffolution of the June 17th. the redress of intolerable grievances General Assembly. Such was the had not only been disregarded; but issue of the final contest between the that the design totally to alter the Governor of Massachusett's Bay, free consti:ution and civil govern- and the last Assembly which was ment in British America, to esta. holden in that province, upon the blish arbitrary governments, and principles of its charter. to reduce the inhabitants to slavery, The day after the dissolution of appeared more and more to be fixed the Assembly, a most pathetic, but and determined. They then re at the same time firm and manly commended in the strongest terms address, was presented from the to the inhabitants of the province, merchants and freeholders of the totally to renounce the consump- town of Salem to the Governor. tion of India teas, and, as far as in We cannot forget, that this town them lay, to discontinue the use of was now become the temporary caall goods imported from the East- pital of the province, in the place Indies and Great Britain, until the of Boston ; and that the General public grievances of America should Assembly, the Courts of Justice, the be radically and totally redressed. Custom-House, and fo far as if


could be done by power, the trade the ruin of our suffering neighof that port were removed thither; bours." so that they were already in posler This whole address is remark. fion of a principal share of those able for the propriety with which spoils, which it was supposed would it is conducted, and the justness of have effe&ually influenced the con- its sentiments. They treat the duct of that people, and thereby governor with the highest respect, have bred such incurable envy, and hope much from his general jealousy and animosity, between character, as well as from his conthe gainers and sufferers, that the duct in a former government; they refractory capital finding herself express the strongest attachment to abandoned, and being left alone to the mother country, the deepest rumicate upon her forlorn situation, concern for the present unhappy would soon be reclaimed, and troubles, and the moft fervent wishes brought to as full a sense of her for a speedy and happy reconciliaduty, as of her punishment. tion, to obtain which, they are wil

Whether this opinion was found- ling to sacrifice every thing, comed upon a thorough knowledge of patible with the safety and dignity human nature in general, or took of British Tubjects. its rise from particular instances, The general had formed confiwhich were extended in fpeculation derable hopes upon the conduct of to the whole, may perhaps, in a the merchants; who he expected certain degree, be determined from would have entered into the spirit the following generous sentiments of the late law, and by removing of the inhabitants of Salem. They their commerce along with the culfay, “ We are deeply afflicted with com-house to Salem, have thereby a sense of our public calamities; the sooner induced the capital to but the miseries that are now ra- the compliances which were withed pidly hastening on our brethren in by government. In these expectathe capital of the province, greatly tions he was disappointed. It is excite our commiseration : and we probable, that the merchants hope your excellency will use your thought it fit and neceffary to keep endeavours to prevent a further ac fair with government, and in gecumulation of evils on that already neral disapproved of all violences ; forely distressed people.”—_" By but it seems evident, that they did hatting up the port of Boston, not enter heartily into the new some imagine that the course of measures. It seerns also probable, trade might be turned hither, and that he believed the friends of the to our benefit ; but nature, in the system of government now adoptformation of our harbour, forbids ed, to be stronger and more numeour becoming rivals in commerce rous than they really were. An with that convenient mart. And experiment was however made, were it otherwise, we must be dead which set this matter in a clear to every idea of justice, loft to all light. The friends of government feelings of humanity, could we in- attended a town-meeting at Bolton, dulge one thought to seize on and attempted to pass resolutions wealth, and raise our fortunes on for the payment of the tea, and for


diffolving the committee of corre put an immediate ftop to trade, spondence ; but they found them- without waiting till other measures selves loft in a prodigious majo- were tried, or receiving the general rity; and had no other resource, sense of the colonies upon a subthan the drawing up of a protest ject of such alarming importance ; against the proceedings of that as- and though they were eager for the sembly.

holding of a congrels, they would In the mean time, rough draughts leave it nothing to do, but to pro. of the two remaining bills relative secute the violences which they had to the province of Massachusett's begun. The other, if less numeBay, as well as of that for quarter- rous, was not less respectable, and ing the troops in America, all of though more moderate, were perwhich were in agitation in Eng- haps equally firm. These were land, at the time that the last tips averse to any violent measures being failed from thence, were received in adopted until all other means were Boston, and immediately circulated ineffectually tried; they wished throughout the continent. The further applications to be made to knowledge of these bills filled up Great-Britain ; and the grievances whatever was wanting before, of they complained of, with the violence and indignation in most rights which they claimed, to be of the colonies. Even those who clearly stated, and properly prewere moderate, or seemed waver sented. This, they said, could only ing, now became fanguine. The be done effectually by a general idea of futting up the ports be. congress, as in any other manner came common language, and to be it inight be liable to the objection considered as a matter of necessity. of being only the act of a few men, Nothing was to be heard of, but or of a particular colony. We, meetings and resolutions. Liberal however, acknowledge a third contributions for the relief of their party, which were the friends to distressed brethren in Boston were ihe administration in England, or every where recommended, and more properly, those who did not foon reduced into practice. Num- totally disapprove of its measures; berless letters were written from but their ftill small voice was so towns, districts, and provinces, to low, that except in a very few parthe people of Boston, in which, be- ticular places, it could scarcely be fides every expression of sympathy distinguished. and tenderness, they were highly The more violent, who had not fiattered for their part conduct, and patience to wait for the result of strongly exhorted to a perseverance a congress, entered into other meain that virtue, which brought on sures. An agreement was framed their sufferings.

by the committee of correspon. The people of America at this dence at Boston, which they enti. time, with respect to political opi- tled a folemn league and covenant, nions, might in general be divided wherein the subscribers bound them. into two great classes. Of these, felves in the most solemn manner, one was for rushing headlong into and in the presence of God, to the greateft extremities; they would suspend all commercial intercourse


with Great-Britain, from the last British parliament, and of the day of the ensuing month of Au- peace, good order, and safety of gult, until the Boston Port-Bill, the community. All persons were and the other late obnoxious laws warned againit incurring the pains were repealed, and the colony of and penalties due to such aggravaMafiachafett's-Bay fully restored to ted and dangerous offences, and all its chartered rights. They allo magiftrate charged to apprehend, bound themselves in the same man. and secure for trial, such as thould per, not to consume, or to purchase have any share in the publishing, from any other, any goods what- subscribing, aiding, or abetting ever, which arrived after the fpe- the foregoing, or any similar covecified time, and to break off all commerce, trade, and dealings, This proclamation had no other with any who did, as well as with effect than to exercise the pens and the importers of such goods. They the judgment of those who were renounced in the same manner, all versed in legal knowledge, by enfuture intercourse and connection deavouring to thew, that the affowith those who should refuse to ciation did not come within any fubscribe to that covenant, or to of the treason-laws, and that the bind themselves by some fimilar charges made by the governor wese agreement, with the dangerous consequently erroneous, unjuft, and penalty, annexed, of having their highly injurious. They said he names published to the world. had assumed a power, which the

The covenant, accompanied with conftitution denied even to the a letter from the committee at fovereign, the power of making Boston, was circulated with the usual those things to be treason, which activity, and the people, not only were not considered as such by the in the New England govern- laws; that the people had a right ments, but in the other provinces, to assemble to consider of their entered into this new league with common grievances, and to form the greatest eagerness. It seems, associations for their general conhowever, that limilar agreements duct towards the remedy of those had been entered into about the grievances; and that the proclafame time, in various parts of the mation was equally arbitrary, odi. coatinent, and without any pre- ous, and illegal. vious concert with each other, any Measures were now every where more than with those at Boson. taken for the holding of a general

General Gage was much alarm- congress; and Philadelphia, from ed at this proceeding; to which the convenience of its fituation, as its name, as well as its tendency, well as its security, was fixed upon might poflibly contribute. He ac as the place, and the beginning of Jane 2gth.

cordingly published a Sep ember the time, for meeting.

strong proclamation where an allembly happened to be againit it, in which it was stiled fitting, as in the case of Massaan unlawful, hoftile, and traiterous chusett's Bay, they appointed decombination, contrary to the al- puties to represent the province in legiance due to the king, deftruc. the congress. But as this happentive of the lawful authority of the ed to be the cale in very in


itances, the general method was, they say, that they view the late for the people to elect their usual differences between Grear-Britain number of representatives, and and the colonists with the deepest these, at a general meeting, chose distress and anxiety of mind, as deputies from among themselves; fruitless to her, grievous to them, the number of which, in general, and destructive of the best interests bore some proportion to the extent of both. They then, after exand importance of the province; presling the most ardent withes for two being the leait, and leven the a restoration of the former harmony, greatest number, that represented declare that the colonists are enany colony. But whatever the titled to the same rights and libernumber of representatives were, ties within the colonies, that the each colony had no more than a subjects born in England are withfingle vote.

in that realm. At these county or provincial They reprobated in the strongest meetings, a number of resolutions terms the late bills relative to the were constantly pafied, among province of Massachusett's-bay, and which a declaration that the Boston declare that they consider their bre. Port-Act was oppressive, unjust, thren at Boston, as suffering in the unconstitutional in its principles, common cause of all the colonies. and dangerous to the liberties of They also declare the absolute neAmerica, was always among the ceflity of a congress, to consult togeforemost. At Philadelphia, a peti- ther, and to form a general plan of tion signed by near 900 freeholders conduct to be observed by all the cowas presented to Mr. Penn, the lonies, for the purposes of procuring Governor, intreating him to call a relief for their suffering brethren, general assembly as soon as possible. obtaining redress of their general This requelt being refused, the grievances, preventing future difprovince proceeded to the election fentions, firmly establishing their July 15th.

of deputies, who foon rights, and the restoration of har.

after met at Philadel- mony between Great-Britain and phia. As the resolutions passed at her colonies upon a constitutional this meeting carry more the marks foundation. of cool and temperate deliberation, They acknowledge, that a sufas well as of affection to the mo- pension of the commerce of that ther country, than those of many large trading province with Greatothers, and are at the same time Britain, would greatly distress mulequally firm in the determination titudes of their induitrious inhabiof supporting what they thought tants; but declare that they are ready their rights, we shall be the more to offer that sacrifice, and a much particular in our notice of them

greater, for the preservation of They set out with the strongest their liberties; that, however, in profeffions of daty and allegiance regard to the people of Greatto the sovereign, which could be Britain, as well as of their own well devised; and declare their ab- country, and in hopes that their horrence of every idea of an un- just remonftrances might at length constitutional independence on the have effect, it was their earneft deparent state ; upon which account, fire, that the congress thould first


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