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ADDRESS BY J. A. FROUDE, DELIVERED NOVEMBER 30, IN THE ASSOCIATION HALL, NEW YORK. TADIES AND GENTLEMEN: If my it is equally desirable that the Irish
1 object in coming to this country should know it, and a bridge of was to draw attention to the Irish solid fact be laid across the gulf subject, I may so far be said to have that divides us. succeeded. I have succeeded also. A subject of this kind can only beyond my expectation, in eliciting usefully be treated from the plata counter-statement containing the form if the audience will bear their opinions of the Irish people them- share of the burden, if they will selves on their past history, the test by reference what they hear, most complete, the most symmetri. compare evidence, and analyse it. cal, the most thorongbgoing which You will learn more from the books bas yet been given to the world. to which I shall refer you than you
The successive positions taken by can learn from me in the time for Father Burke have been long fami. which I shall address you. I shall liar to me, some in one book and myself venture to indicate the parsome in another. But nowhere ticulars where Father Burke's narhave so many of them been com- ration specially needs examination, bined so artistically, and not till and refer you to authorities. That now have they been presented in an Irishman's view should be difwhat may be called an authorita- ferent from an Englishman's view tire form. Father Burke regrets is natural and inevitable ; but the that I should have obliged him to difference must be limited by facts, reopen wounds which he would which are casily ascertainable. have preferred to have left closed. When they are not ascertainable I conceive, on the other hand, that elsewhere, as, for instance, when a wound is never healed so long as Father Burke attributes words to there is misunderstanding. Eng- me which I never uttered, I shall land and Ireland can approach each venture to speak with authority. other only on the basis of truth, and I must throw off with a point of so long as Irish children are fed this kind. The Father says I have with the story which Father Burke come to America to ask for the has so eloquently told, so long they extraordinary verdict that England must regard England with eyes of has been right in the manner in utter detestation, until full atone which she has treated Ireland for ment be made for past wrongs. If 700 years. Considering that I have Father Burke's account is true, let drawn a heavier-indictment against England know it, look it in the face, England in the course of my lecand acknowledge it. If it be an tures than she will probably thank illusion, or tissue of illusions, then me for, considering that I have VOL. VII.-NO, XXXVII. NEW SERIES.
described the history of her con- against Ireland, which have been nection with Ireland from the be- the shame of her history. But ginning as a scandal and reproach Father Burke's figures, I confess, to her, I must meet this assertion startled me. Of the forty-two milwith a simple denial.
lions of American citizens, twentyNo one who knows Ireland now two millions were either Irish born can be satisfied with its present or of Irish descent. Was this poscondition. There is an agitation sible? I referred to the census of for a separate Irish Parliament, 1870, and I was still more con. which it was supposed that public founded. The entire number of sentiment in America generally ap- immigrant foreigners, who were proved. I think, for myself, that then in the United States, amounted there are certain definite measures to 5,556,566. Of these, under two for Ireland's good which she could millions were Irish. The entire obtain more easily from the United number of children born of Irish Parliament than she could obtain parents was under two millions also. them from her own. I wished to Add half a million for children show that she had less cause than of the second generation, and from she supposed for the animosity these figures it follows, if Father which she entertained against Eng. Burke is correct, that in the two land, ill as England had behaved to last years there must have come her; and I have said what I had to from Ireland no less than 6,000,000 say here in the form of lectures, persons, or more than the entire because it was the most likely way population of the island, and that to attract attention.
in the same two years the Irish Father Burke goes on to suggest mothers must have produced not that England is a decaying empire, fewer than 11,500,000 infants. I that her power is broken, her arm knew that their fertility was regrown feeble, the days of Ma- markable, but I was not prepared caulay's 'New Zealander' not far for such an astounding illustration off, that England is afraid of the of it.' growing strength of the Irish in Still speculating on my motives, the United States, the eight millions Father Burke inclines on the whole of them who have come from the to give me credit for patriotism. old country, and the fourteen mil. He thinks I have come to speak lions of Irish descent. It is scarcely for my own country, and he is good becoming for two British subjects enough to praise me for doing so. to be discussing in this country I am grateful for the compliment, whether Great Britain is in a state but I cannot accept it. I have of decadence. England is afraid, come not to speak for my country, however, and deeply afraid. She but for his. I believe that the is afraid of being even driven to use present agitation there is likely to again those measures of coercion avert indefinitely the progress of
1 Father Burke probably meant that there were 14 millions of Irish altogether in the United States. Even so, his estimate is wildly exaggerated; I assume that he was not speaking of the Anglo-Irish or Scotch-Irish, but of the Irish proper. Of these there were in America in 1870, of natives of Ireland, 1,855,779, of children of Irish parents born in America, 1,389,433.
The children of mixed marriages are not properly Irish, nor are mixed marriages common among the Irish ; but construing the phrase Irish descent widely, and allowing the same proportion to them as to other foreigners, there were in 1870 of children, one of whose parents was Irish, 385,723.
Thus of natives of Ireland and of children in the first generation, there were in all 3,630,935. It is difficult to arrive at the number of Irish children of the second gene
improvement, that the best chance cious. He enquires why I will not for the Irish people is to stand by reply directly to his own allegations. the English people and demand an I answer first, that I cannot, for I alteration of the land laws. I wish am on one side of the Atlantic and to see them turn their energies my books and papers are on the from the speculative to the prac other. I answer secondly, that if I tical,
reply to him I must reply to fifty But Father Burke considers me others. I answer thirdly, that I unfit to speak upon this subject, have found by experience that conand for three reasons:
troversies between parties interested First, because I despise the Irish in such disputes lead to no conclupeople. I despise them, do I? sion. At this moment I am supThen why have I made Ireland my posed to be calumniating the Irish second home? Why am I here Catholics. Two or three years ago now ? Am I finding my under. I was in trouble in England on pre taking such a pleasant one ? I say cisely opposite ground. I had dis that for various reasons I have a covered a document which I conpeculiar and exceptional respect ceived to relieve the Catholic hierand esteem for the Irish people ; I archy of Ireland of a charge of mean for the worthy part of them, subserviency to Queen Elizabeth, the peasantry, and according to my which had long attached to them. lights I am endeavouring to serve I had discovered another, from them. I say, the peasantry. For which I published extracts, exposIrish demagogues and political agi. ing an act of extreme cruelty pertators,—well, for them, yes, I confess petrated in the North of Ireland by I do feel contempt from the bottom one of Elizabeth's officers. Both of my soul. I rejoice that Father these papers I had reason to know Burke has disclaimed all connection were extremely welcome to the with them. Of all the curses which Irish Catholic Prelates. They were have afflicted Ireland, the dema- no less unwelcome to Protestants. gogues have been the greatest. I was violently attacked, and I
But I am unfit for another reason. replied. The documents were I have been convicted, by a citizen looked into, up and down, but withof Brooklyn, of inserting words of out producing conviction on either my own in letters and documents side. I, after the most careful conof State. Ladies and gentlemen, I sideration, was unable to withdraw have not been convicted by the what I had written. The Tory citizen of Brooklyn, but I have journals continued, and perhaps given the citizen of Brooklyn an continue, to charge me with mis-, opportunity of convicting me if I representation, and speak of me as am guilty. He has not been pleased a person whose good faith is not to to avail bimself of it. He calls my be depended on. proposal, I know not why, falla I determined that from that time
ration born in the United States. They must be the descendants of those who have been sufficiently long here to allow their children to be born, to grow to maturity and become parents. None of the immigrants arriving since 1850 can be included in this class; the arrival of the native Irish was inconsiderable before 1847, and in 1850 the entire number of Irish who had arrived in the United States amounted only to 988,945. The mortality among the Irish, whether as children or adults, is in advance of any other part of the population,
The most extravagant conjecture will not venture, therefore, to add more than 600,000 for the number of Irish children whose parents were born in this country. Those who have best means of judging, estimate the entire Irish race now in America at between four and fire millions.