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glances of Mr. Ilusband at a pretty maid! N, B. Let the music be marked thos: 20, no pouting of madam! no family.disputes 40, 60, 80, 100, &c. &c. in every part or about the division of a legacy or an es

accompaniment. Some of your numerous tate! No, no: the gift of Dunmow ba- readers may improve on the above. con is stopped in good time, or there would not be a rasher left in the kingdom To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. for money: it would be all for love; that

SIR, which, according to novels, is the sole object of human existence.

M

ANY ingenious inventions bare Your's, &c. T. D. F.

been offered to the public, for preserving lives in cases of fire; and there

is no doubt that numbers might be saved To the Editor of the Monthly afagazine. if these salutary means were generally SIR,

adopted. But either owing to the exI BEG leave to recommend the follow. pense of those machines, or rather from

ing hint to the notice of your musical mere carelessness, people choose the friends.

risk of being burnt in their beds; and Out of a dozen rehearsals, twelte are we seldom hear of a conflagration, but attendent with delays and inconveniences, some of the inhabitants are consumed in owing to mistakes in some of the prin- their houses. There is one simple mode cipal or subordinate parts. To rectify of security, which I recommended to this, I propose, that composers (parti. the public ten yenrs ago; but which, I cularly in concertos, or any long pieces of fear, will be despised on account of its inusic) number cvery 20 hars of the lead- simplicity. I mean a few yards of knotted ing parts in their scores. The copyist rope to be fixedton table, bedstead, scttee, would of course do the same by erery &c. by which means most people might depart separately; and where, (as it often scend with great ease, and perfect safety, occurs, there are 70, 80, or 100 bars rest, from the window to the street. This is for horns or flutes. "I further propose to attended with almost no expense, occupies' mark them according to the leading part, little room, and is within reach of the and not (as is now customary) all together poorest. I believe the most delicate le between two bars; should there be any male would not hesitate a moment to slip odd bars, they might very casily be added. down thus from a window, if precluded The advantage is obvious: If the leader from other means of escape. I purposely should hear any instrument out of its avoid a minute detail of the mode of osing place, or indeed if the individual who this contrivance, as every person possess played that instrument were to find him ed of common sense, must at once underself wrong, he might soon learn where the stand it; only a hook or noose at the end error lay, by comparing iris part with the of the rope, and knots, at proper distances, principal one; and should the band be seem absolutely necessary. 'Such a ropeobliged to stop in order to rectify a mis- ladder as is used on shipboard, would be · Lake, instead of beginning the whole still more convenient, and better adapted movement a second time, the leader might to the use of women and children. The say begin from the soth, 100th, or any only objection I can see to this, is the adother given bar; the whole orchestra would ditional expenscs, which might be a coninunediately cast their eyes towards the sideration with many, and that it would number, and the piece would go on withe occupy more room than the simple rope. out the least delay. Having been frequent. For my own part, I can never lie down by extremely annoyed by trying the same with pleasure in the losty attic of a Lon. movement three or four times over, be don house, where the drunkenness and cause a flute, or an oboe, or some other dissipation of servants often occasion the instrument, was out, (as they term it in dismal calamity of the house and inhaan orchestra), 1 submit this hint to the bitants perishing together. public, with a full confidence that (if applied) it will answer every expectation, June 3, 1809.

Dundee, Your's, &c. without the least trouble or inconvenia

BENEVOLUS. ence to the performers.

N. B. As government have humanely inYour's, &c.

terfered in limiting the number of people on

HARMONICUS. the stage.coaches, it seems equally proper to September 18, 1809.

enforce some such regulation as above, to prevent accidents by fire,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the dog, the cat (male and female), the SIR,

kilten, the horse, the wur-horse, the cow, Vox-et præterea nihil.

the sucking-pig, the canary.bird, the S I live at some distance from Lon- duck, the hen, the owl, the jack-duw, the

, , your Magazine of the current month :* the frog, church-bells, the noise of a and I lose no time in replying to some. watch or clock, the strings of a violin out observations with which one of your cor- of tune, two general musical sounds, a respondents has hònoured a letter of mine postilion's whip, a drum, a hunting-horn, inserted in your publication several and five otbers. Your last month's cormonths ago, and consisting of strictures respondent bas, strictly speaking, added on an article that had appeared in the not one to the list.** Now, Sir, if I preceding Number, reviving the very strengthen a few of my former instances old idea of employing our orthographical by further authority, and supply nine or expression of the sounds uttered by the ten fresti ones, I hope I shall be consiinferior animals, or produced in certain dered as having done my part toward the cases by inanimate objects, as a standard matter in band; and that your other two po record the existing pronunciation of correspondents will put the finishing, the letters of the alphabet. I do not ex- strokes to their great undertaking, and actly understand in what sense your cor- produce respondent applies the epithet “dashing"

A work outlasting monumental brass.” to my former conmunication : my opi.

I shall begin, of course, with confirinnion on the subject of it remains unal- ing my old examples; and as your last tered; but as I think your correspondent's correspondent seems fond of quotations letter was perhaps intended to produce from the learned languages, I shall gratify from me another dash, I regret that this him in that respect. can be but a slight one; for I really write The cry of the sheep your first correspon. in very great haste, to endeavour to be dent gave as baa from Theocritus, and I in time for your printer; and with mate-confirmed it from one of O'Keefe's farces. rials by no means adequate to a topic I have since observed this expression of which, by the acknowledgment of your it adopted by some very high authorities, correspondent, can only be sufficiently which your correspondents will see at the illustrated from an acquaintance with the bottom of the page ;t as well as by languages of all the nations whose his.

Shakespeare, tory has come to our knowledge, the polished as well as the unpolished;" and Such words as snore, biss, clang, and crash, for the discussion of which he accordingly, are not at all in point. The writer of the though quoting French, Latin, and Greek, letter may find many more of that kind cited professes himself incompetent.

What from Wallis (and without approbation, as little occurs to my recollection at this applied in a somewhat similar view) in Johnmoment, I take the liberty of troubling son's grammar prefixed to his dictionary. The you with; from a conviction that a pro- the purpose : our own whistle, charter, crouk,

French words quoted are still further from ject so daring and useful in its design, bark, bowl, and bleat, would be quite as apyet so unambitious and practical in its propriate, or rather unappropriate." As to the ineans, ought not to be lightly abandoned. Latin quotation, he might find a hundred

I cannot help saying, however, Mr. better in the same author: what, for instance, Editor, that I think myself rather hardly does he think of “ clamorque virûm, clangor. treated in this business; and that more que tubarum?” But all these have absolutely than my fair proportion of the labour ne- nothing to do with the matter in band. The cessary for establishing the proposed Greek, and its translation, are, if possible, plan, is thrown upon me. Your first more and more removed from the question; correspondent produced only two sounds, and it is not easy to imagine by what connecthose of the sheep and the cuckoo : I con- tion of ideas they could ever have been in.

troduced into it. firmed both these by additional testimony,

+ Eustathius, who lived towards the close and besides brought forward the follow- of the twelfth century, says that of Br is a ing thirty-two new examples, all (except sound made in imitation of the bleating of half a dozen) accompanied by written a sheep (Bņi i Xav pignoty tepoßétav pavñis), and and indisputable authorities: the cock, quotes to this purpose this verse of an ancient

writer called Cratinus :

ο δ' ηλίθιος ώσπερ προβάτον, βή, βη, λέγων The Number published on the first of

Radical January,

He, like a silly sheep, goes crying baa. + July 1, 1808 : page 506.

« Caninius has remarked the same, Heller, MUNTILY MAG. No. 196.

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P. 26.

Shakespeare, in the Two Gentlemen of As I am no naturalist, my ideas are Verona (act. 1. scene 1.) “ Proteus. not perfectly clear on the subject of a Therefore thou art a sheep.--Speed. bird which I mentioned in my former Such another proof will make me cry letter by the name of the pee-wit. Dr. bua."-It is rather extraordinary that Mavor, in lns Elements of Natural HisWalker remarks, in the Principles of tory, gives this a secondary appellation Pronunciation, prefixed to his dictionary of the lapuing. Now Harmer, in some (No. 77), that this word has been adopted part of his Observations on Passages of precisely for the same purpose " in almost Scriptare, speaks of the lapwing as called all languages." I am afraid this circuin- upupa in the East, from its note being stance would go fatally to the very foun- pupu :--and there seems some coincidation of the whole plar; for it can hardlydence between this remark and the name be 'supposed that almost all” nations of hoopoe, given by Dr. Mavor to one have been uniform, or even nearly so, of the birds that he describes, and which, in their pronunciation of these identical he says, “receives its name from its letters.

note.” The doctor gives a plate of the The barking of the dog I have already hoopoe; which, I suppose, will help those given on two-poetical authorities. I find who know more about birds than I do from Walker*that Aristophanes expresses to solve the difficulty. it by the diphthong ay, ab; exactly equi I mentioned explicitly that I did not valent, says Walker, to our ow in bow. pretend that the sound assigned to the wow.

trumpet, in the poetical quotation which The owl, I have given from Shake- I gave, was at all suited to it. I have speare. Plautus however expresses it since found it much better illustrated : differently, as tu-tu (tbe very expression first, in a line from a very old Latin poet whicl. your first correspondent affirms (Ennius)* that the same poet has given to the 16 At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara cuckoo!); and iwo other authors, an

dixit;"+ English and a French, write it respec- And secondly, together with that of anotively too-tov and tou-lou.

ther martial instrument, as follows: The cries of the crow and the frog were also stated in my former letter; but “ Now, madam, observe how he marches in each of these I have since found expres. The man with the kettle-drum enters the gate,

state, sed differently. Parkhurst, in his Greek Lexicon, on the word xapat, attributes this Rub dub a.dub dub: the trumpeters follow, word (korar) to the ruven or crow, and Tantara tantara, while all the boys halloo. says, that Aristophanes expresses the I do not know how it was, that I omita oroaking of the frog by kuur. I have ted giving an authority for tantidy as the since seen the frog-chorus in Aristopha. sound of the hunting.korn, from the song sies stated more fully (so far as concerns of Old Towler : the cry of the animal) as follows: Heigho chivy! Brekekex, kráx, koax,

Hark forward, hark forward, santivy! Sec. Brekekéx, koax, kráx.

Some of my fresh examples I have now

given incidentally, among the confirmap. 26. ' E longum, cujus sonus in ovium tions of my old ones. I shall here adid balatu sentitur, ut Cratinus et Varro tradi- the rest. derunc.' "The sound of the e long may be

The name of the bird called cockatoo perceived in the blearing of sheep, as Cratinus is given to it from its note. and Varro have handed down to us.'” Quoted from Walkers Key to the Classical Pro- in "some account of the Feast of Fools

A periodical publication of last month, nunciation, &c. page X. Key, Sc. page x.

(or of the Ass), one of the moralities, or †"Plautus:

sort,of sacred dramas, that were formerly -Tu, tu, istic, inquam, vin'afferi noctuam, exhibited in the churches, at particular Quæ.1, tu, usque dicat tibi ?"

seasons, in Roman-catholic countries, " It appears here, (says Mr. Forster, in his gives the following from Du Cange as defence of the Greek accents,) that an owl's the first line of the chorus to the song cry was tu tu to a Roman ear, as it is too too sung in the cathedral of Sens on this octo an English. Lambin, who was a Frenchman, obseryes on the passage : alludit ad Quoted in the notes on Heyne's Virgil, woctuæ vocem seu cantum, fttu seu tou-tou.' Æneid ix. 503. • He here alludes to the voice or noise of an † " But the trumpet, with a terrible owl, tu-tu or tou·ton (Frencb).'"-Quoted sound, said taratantara " efiex Walker': Key, c.p.xi.

I Swift : the verses on Hamilton's bawn.

to

casion; and adds that (with the French ation of it) for the report of a pistol : it pronunciation) it" is certainly an imita- is poue.* tion of asinine bruying.” The line is My last example has but lately come this:

to my knowledge, and very unexpectedly; Hex va! bez va ! bez va bez !

but as an explanation concerning it may

help to illustrate some texts of Scripture Eustathius, it seems, remarks that which I am sure must occasionally be blops is a sound in imitation of the clep- liable to misconception, I shall employ sydra.* As the clepsydra was a water- a few lines on the subject. There is a clock, I sappose this refers to the noise Latin verb pipio, given some of our of the fluid in issuing from the vessel. I school dictionaries with the translation do not know in what manner it ran; but, merely “to peep," and in others more to judge froin the foregoing expression, fully, peep

like a chicken ;" and as it was not in a smooth stream. I shall the word hardly ever occurs, this intertherefore place as parallel to this, a pretation miylit pass without causing any French wood-cutter's term for the sound practical blunder. The idea, however, of the liquor emptying from his bottle (! which the Latin verb rcally signifies, is, imagine, what we call a leathern-bottle) “to cry Peep!" this last word being into his mouth :t

merely an imitation of an inarticulate Qu'ils sont doux,

sound; and we have an obsolete verb Bouteille jolie,

to peep,formed in the same manner Qu'ils sont doux

as “lo huzza, to whoop, and to hem and Vos petits glcu-glou ! &c. I

ha.”+ This verb is very appropriately

applied to young birds in the nest, in In my former letter, 1 presented you Isaiali, chap. 10, ver. 14: “There was with a curious and most valuable state- none that moved the wing, or opened ment, exhibiting the sounds of the strings the mouth, or perped." In chap. 8, ver, of a violin in being put into tune. I have 19, of the same prophet, it is coupled now the good fortune of being able to with «

mutter;" and in the margin of lay before your readers, from the author chap. 29, ver. 4, is made equivalent to whom I have last quoted (Molière), ano- “ whisper," and " chirp." — The word ther article, almost equally valuable, in then may be supposed to have been a similar display of the sounds produced formed from the cry of young birds, and by the strings of a lute, in undergoing in this view it is suited to my present precisely the same operation (of being

purpose. put into tune). It is, of course, neces. I conclude with my hearty commendasary to remember that the instrument is tions to all'ingenious projectors, whether out of tune at the time; and that the fol- 'in words or deeds; and am, Sir, lowing example should be read with the

Your's, &c. French pronunciation of the words: January 1211, 1810. "plan, plan, plan; plin, plin, plin :-plin, plin, plin; plin, tan, plan; plin, For the Monthly Magazine. plin :-plin, plan."

The same work supplies me also with On the scale of certain MUSICAL INan expression in the French pronunci.

STRUMENTS, which are said to be with.

out TEMPERAMENT. In his note on the Iliad, book 1, ver,

THE letter of your respectable corre499, his words are, Baétiswo tñs u).stúspezs 387 of the November Magazine, induces me Έχος μιμητικώς κατά τις παλαίες, Blops, according to the ancients, is a sound in imi to trouble you herewith, in order to men. tation of the clepsydra.? - From Walker's Key,

* Le Malade Imaginaire : première entrée P. X + Molière: Le Médecin malgré Lui; acte

de ballet. The passage is this : " Polichi. 1. scène 1.

nelle, faisant semblant de tirer un coup de "My pretty bottle, how sweet is your

pistolet. Poue !" little glu-glu!"

+ Johnson, under “ to peep," gives only | Le Malade Imaginaire: premier inter. (besides the most common meaning, of mède, scène 4. The passare is as follows:

I looking slily,") “ to make the first appear* Polichinelle prend son luth, dont il fait ance;" and then explains “ peeper" by semblant de jouer, en imitant avec les lèvres

young thickens just breaking the shell. Here et la langue le son de cet instrument. Plan.

seems evidently some confusion or mistake, sze, Voilà un tems facheux pour mettre un

from a comparison with the signification luth d'accord."

given in the upper part of this page.

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16

tion, that Mr. Maxwell, in his Essay on In the tuning of the twelve notes in Tunc,” printed at Edinburgh 1781, has each octave, that are in common use, demonstrated, page 194, that forty-four some authors and tuners advise, the mastrings or, pipes are required, in each oc- king certain chords or intervals perfect, tase of a piano-forte or organ, that shall and others very nearly so; throwing the be capable of performing in all the twen- imperfection or temperament, wholly or ty-four keys, in which modern composi- in great part, on certain other intervals, tions are wrote, or into which they fre- called the bearing-notes, wolves, &c. quently modulate, without temperaments; So in like manner, when seventeen notes that is, without introducing concords as above, twenty-one which the late Dr. that are imperfect or tempered, and Robert Smith used, or any other number which consequently are somewhat out of of notes, are introduced in the octave tune, and would be sensibly noticed as (short of the whole number which Mr. such, if these imperfect intervals were Naxwell has shown to be necessary for held out, or occurred in the long notes of perfect use) bearing notes or wolves must a piece of full music.

unavoidably be introduced, somewhere The organs to which Mr. Lofft alludes, in the scale. as I suppose, are those made by Mr. Tho I have not yet been able to learn the mas Elliot, No. 12, Tottenham-court, un- exact mode adopted for tuning each note der the Rev. William Hawke's patent, on Mr. Hawke's patent instruments, or which instruments I have not yet seen; to obtain a table of his seventeen interbut I hastily examined last spring, some vals, expressed by the major-tone $, the of the piano-fortes constructed under the minor-tone io, and the hemitone 1 (or same patent, by Mr. Robert Bill, No. 49, by any other musical notation), others Rathbone-place, which, as far as I recol- wise, I would point out the particular lect, had forty-eight strings in each oc- chords which are imperfect or tempered, tave, viz. four unison strings to each of in the use of these patent instruments, the seven long finger keys, two unisons and the exact quantity or degree of temfor each of the five short finger keys, con- perament in each case. Mr. Hawkes, sidered as sharps, and two other unisons the patentee, or some other person ac for each of the same keys, considered as quainted with his mode of tuning, will, I flats; or without the double strings to hope, oblige me and others of your readeach note, merely for giving strength of ers, by giving an account thereof, and tone, twenty-four strings in each octave such a table as I have mentioned, in a are necessary in these patent instruments, future Number of the Monthly Magazine, for obtaining only seventeen intervals in P.S.-Since writing the above, a musical the octave; the unison on the natural friend has put into my hands a printed quarto notes or long keys, admitting of the whole copper-plate page, describing the use of the clavier or range of finger-keys being grand patent harmonic piano-forte, lately inshifted to the right or left, by means of vented by D. Loeschman, of No. 28, Newa pedal, without altering the pitch of man-street, Oxford-road, which, by the help

but the short or half-notes. any

of six pedals, produces seven scales of twelve The expedient proposed by Mr. Lofft, for others, by the use of the pedal belonging

notes each (two only of them being changed of dividing each of the short finger-keys, to each respective scale), making twenty-four has in part been adopted long ago, in the notes or intonations in each octave of these Temple Church and Foundling Hospital instruments, which are pretended to produce organs, in London, as I believe with per- eighteen major and fifteen minor keys in tude. fect convenience to the performer: and Should these be the instruments to which were the same extended' to every short Mr. Lofft has alluded, I beg to inform him, key, seventeen strings or pipes in an oc- that the calculations necessary for showing tave, or such an instrument, would an. how well their pretentions to perfect tune swer all the ends of Mr. Hawke's twenty, are formed, would be far too technical and four, besides avoiding the danger of

either would best appear in Mr. Tilloch's Philoso straining the instrument by accidentally phical Magazine, where a series of similar do moving the pedals and keys at the same tails bave of late been inserted, and to whom I time, or of striking both the flat and sharp shall probably, ere long, make a communica. notes at the same time, in rapid mo- tion on these patent instruments, dulations. The accidental sharp or flat notes, which occur in some music, Inight

ON FIORIN GRASS. also be readier introdoced on such an in Your correspondent, at page 462 of strument as Mr. Lofft aliudes to, thau vol. 28. who enquires about Fiorin Grass, • Mr. IIawke's instrument,

'will find that Dr. William Richardson

has

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