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acute ones as low, and that this connec. rived, or of what substances it is comtion was afterwards changed to contrary, posed. by the less ancient Greeks, and has since I will try to apply this process to some prevailed universally: Probably this of the terms in music. ' A sharp, the jatter connection took its rise from the character employed to raise any note a formation of the voice in singing, which semi-tone, I would call an “accelerator," Aristides Quinctilianus thus describes : because it increases the vibrations; and Súveral die Mio Bapółns, xátolev 'avapecouéve a flat, which is used to depress any note, το πνεύματος, ή δ' οξύτης, επιπολής προϊεμένα. I would call a retarder,” because it Gravity takes place, if the breath is car- renders the vibrations slower;
and a ried upwards from the lower part of the naturai, because it restores a note to throat, but acuteness if it rushes forth its original state, "a restorer.” from the higher part."
All such indefinite expressions as Dr. Sinich says, “ The Greek music adagio, Jarys, andante, allegro, &c. cians rightly describe the difference be- I would entirely expel : and say, tween the manner of singing and talking; many inches.” Because so simple a they considered two motions in the voice, machine as a Bullet, would give the xicais dúo: the one continued and used in precise time in which a composer intends talking, s mir ouvexus 78 xão Roysun; the his picce should be played or sung. other discrete and used in singing, Anda person who has attended to it for is de dragupacities Te xés pencodexń. In the 'a very short time, will recollect, with continued motion, the voice never rests great accuracy, the difference between at any certaio pitch, but waves up and eight or nine inches, or any other down by insensibie degrees; and in the number. discrete motion it does the contrary, fre- If coinposers disdain the use of such quently resting, or staying, at certain very simple means to convey their ideas places; and leaping from one to another with precision, they are not to be pitied by sensible intervals.”—Euclid's Intro- for having the time of their compositions, ductio Harmonica, p. 2. I need not and consequently in some measure the observe, that in the former case, the vic effect, so frequently mistaken. brations of the air are continually acce- Had Mr.Handel made use of this not very lerated and retarded by turns, and by complicated, or expensive, but very port: very small degrees; and in the latter by able instrument, there would not be such Jarge ones.
continual disputation as to the time of Now, Sir, we come to the subject upon his various novements. But my pen which I began.
mores at a rate sufficiently fast to exa Euclid sars, An interval is to neplexo- haust your patience: so I shall subscribe μένον υπό φθόγγων αναμόιων εξυζηλ. Βαρύτήλι, myself,
Your's, &c. What is contained by two sounds ditlering
C. I. SMYTH, in gravity and acuteness.
Junnury, 1810. Aristoxenus dchines a musical sound thus, påvns alāsts 'enti pe'lov téssy • ¢Bavies,, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. A sound is the lalling of the voice upon
SIR, one tension : and an interval thus, Alasnpere
F your active and intelligent correδε εςι το υπό δύο φθόγδων άρισμενον, μή την á vliv tasoy "exóulmo : An interval is that Sense, page 479, for December last, has which is terminated by two sound
discovered that the “art of printing was having the same tension, I know not any one word in the Eng- vention,” and derives the origin of block
only a new application of an ancient inlish language, which we could substitute for interval, which would philosophically art, from the impression of those broad
printing, that insant effort of the modern explain its nature. I should define an interval, “the difference between two twelfth centuries, by the sinple change
seals on the charters of the eleventh and sounds, as to the number of their vibra. of “inking the impression on paper, tinus, or pulses, in a given time." The
instead of wax." following definition is expressed rather barbarousiy; An interval is the pitch- transition froin stamping on paper in
The idea is ingenious; but though the ditierelice of two sounds.
stead of wax, appears to us extremely Chymistry, you well know, my dear Sir, has changed its nomenclature, in the origin of the invention; with all its
simple, it will not sufficiently account for order that the name of a substance may simplicity, had it not arisen from some express from what substances it is de- forturiate accident, or been discovered
by some ingenious contrivance, the art mode of spelling a man's name, if he him. of printing miglit, cven at the present self is noi? Yet look at any of Linne's moment, have been unknown to
works, and you will find, that even in the The present age of experimental pbilo- Latin tongue he constantly terms bin. sophy, is no doubt approximating to self Carolus a Linné, never Linnæus. many valuable inventions; and when Indeed it would be strange if he should some of thein shall appear, we shall be have done otherwise; when we kuow astonished, from their extreme simplicity, that the termination aus, in Sweden, is that they had not been discovered before. deemed a mark of plebeian origin; and In respect to the art of printing, the that though Linné's father was called following circumstance confirms the Linnæus, as well as himself up to the Saitement of Common Sense; at the same period of his being ennobled, inmediately time it shows, how it is possible to pos- upon this event, he changed his name to sess the knowledge of an art without Linné,which of course he ever afterwards practising it. “ That the Romans did used as his signature. It strikes me, jot practice the art of prinung, (says a that our pertinacious retention of the old modern writer) cannot but excite our vulgar name must be considered by the astonishment, since they really p. ssessed Swedes as a designed insult upon their the art, and may be said to have enjoyed illustrious countryman, just as we should is, unconscious of their rich possession. deen it on insult upon our immortal I have seen Roman stereotypes, or hero, Lord Wellington, if some ill-manprinting immoveable types, with which nered foreign nation should persist in They stamped their pottery. Iw, in calling him by liis plebeian title, Sir A. daily practising the art, though confined Wellesley; or as Sir C. Flower would to this object, it did not occur io so in- think himself insulted, if his correspon. genious à people to print their literary dents were to persist in directing their works, is not easily to be accounted for. letters and notes to plain Charles Flower, That wise and grave people, perhaps esq. Our clownish behaviour in this dreaded those inconveniences which at- point, in fact, says to the Swedes, “ You tend its indiscriminate use, and dangerous are proud of having had your great naabuse."-Curiosities of Literature, filth turalist's blood ennobled, but resolved we edition, vol. i. p. 118,
are that he shall be no noble to us; CaThe Roman 'stèreotypes above-men- rolus a Linné you may pompously call tioned, exist in very curious collections him; but, by plain Carolus Linnæus, the of antiquities. An eminent collector, only name he ever merited, we are dewith one of these, stamped in my pre- termined to designate him." since, on paper, a complete inscription I can see no answer to this reasoning, in Roman capitals; the letters were dis- but that it would be inconvenient to tinct and well cut. I have preserved the alter a name, to which we have been so impression, but cannot readily find it. long accustomed; a plea which it is eviIt may perhaps be worth giving a fac- dent would go to deprive Sir Arthur of simile, as a specimen of wbat may be bis barony; Sir Charles of his well, called Roman printing.
earned dignity; and many a lucky legalee Lincoln's-inn,
Your's, &c. of a large fortune. Surely if we can Jan. 10th. 1810.
Crito. metamorphose a name," familiar to us
as household-stuff," like Sir Arthur's into To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. a title su unlike it as Wellington, we SIR,
should experience no mighty ditiiculty in I
WISH to enquire of some of your transforining Linnæus into Limné.' In
botanical readers, the reason why truth, if one botanic professor, or Peeress, the great Sivedish naturalist, who on the who studies botany, would set the fashi. Continent is always called Linué, is, in on, there is not a naturalist but would this country, almost universally called blush before the year's end, if the vile Linnæus? For my own part, I think it aus were to escape him. would be absurd in us to persist in wri- I am aware of only one other objecting and calling a name different from the tion, viz. thai, in fact, Linné's name to be rest of the world, even if strictly the given correctly, should be called, Von majority were in the wrong; but in the Linné, or a Linné; and this I admit to present instance, the contrary is so evi- be valid: but in trivial matters of this dently true, that I cannot figure to my- kind, the omnipotence of custom is adself one plansible reason for our vicious mitted; and as hy common consent, practice. Who is to be the judge of the foreign naturalists have dropped the awk
ward prefix, I do not see why we should are few Hindoos, indeed, of distinction, set up for such rigid models of exactness, who bave not their small pagoda at Beas to object to follow their example. nares, in charge of a Brahmin entertained Yet if we must be precisely correct, by them, for the purpose of offering up etter adopt Von Linné, than the boorish prayers and sacrifice, and of distributing Linræus.
Your's, &c. alms, on their account, at the conseLec. 1, 1809.
A LIANEAN. crated city.
A pagoda, called Visswishor, or ViTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. shishor, is the principal place of worSIR,
ship. Though sinall, it is a handsome TOUR correspondent E. in conse- temple, built wholy of stone, stained of
quence of my having quoted two a red colour, and sculptured, both inside very amusing definitions of Bailey, under and out, in an elegant manner. The the words Gregorian and Thunder, has idol within the temple is a black cylincalled upon me to specify the editions, drical stone, called Sceb, or Mah Deeoo, To this I reply, that I shall not take such (the Phallus of the ancient Egyptians,) trouble, because I have been informed, that is, the Great God. Both men and that the author was the father of Miss women resort in crowds every morning Bailey, whose ghost so haunted Captain and evening, to the adoration of this Smith, as we find in a well-known dole- image, to which they are summoned by ful ballad, and I may get haunted too, if I the ringing of bells. To the homage of meddle too far in the family affairs, &c. this curious divinity, they bear with E. adds, that the information of Grego- then Ganges water, rice, beetle, planrian being a fashionable wig in the eigh- tains, sugar, flowers, and frankincense, as teenth century, is curious information. an offering. They carry also a small If so, Catalani bonnets, and Nelson's lamp filled with ghee (or grease) and a chip-hats, with Hobies for boots, and little bell. On their entering the temple, Woydons for pistols, are not properly they light the lamp, and fire the franka confined to Dictionaries of English Cuse incense, and place them both, with setume, but ought to be extended to Dic- veral other articles of the offering, before. tionaries of the English language, toge- the idol. They then sprinkle the idol ther with Grose, the Slang, &c. &c. with water, and part of the rice, and
I agree with E. that John Bailey, and crown the top of it with flowers. After Miss Bailey, have both amused the the oblation they pray, and in the interval public, and I have not the smallest wish of every prayer, tinkle their little bell. to prevent their continuing to do so. When the hour of prayer is ended, the Your's, &c.
Brahmins carry away their offerings,
which are considered as their subsistence. For the Monthly Magazine. There is a stone figure of a bull within ACCOUNT of BENARES, written in 1785. the pagoda, and usually a consecrated
stands on the northern side of the temple. Ganges, and is reputed the most holy Fire is not only a sacred offering of city of the Hindoo sect. Regarded with the Hinduos, but is itself also worshipped the same veneration as Mecca by the by them, as is its prototype, the sun. Mussulmans, a pilgrimage to Benares As in other sacred places of Indostan, absolves every sin, and secures to the devotee Fakeers are here seen, with their Pagan a settlement in heaven. A nuin- limbs distorted by voluntary acts of peber of rajahs, and opulent llindoos, nance. have contributed to its celebrity by Besides the Visswishor, there are a monastic institutions for Fakeers and multitude of smaller pagodas in Benares, Bralımins; by establislıments for pago- and a celebrated observatory, erected das; by fine flights of stone steps down near a century ago, by a vajab of Joyto the Ganges, for the convenience of nagur. But the mosques are few only. lustration ; by gardens contiguous to the The largest was erected on the highest town; by long avenues of trees; and by part of the bank, by tbie emperor Akbur; extensive tanks. Some of these bene- hut it is remarkable for nothing more factions they were enabled to bestow at than its lofty minarets. a moderate expense, on account of All the principal houses are built of sercral stone quarries within the moun. stone, in streets, (or ra:lier alleys) so very tains, at no great distance either from narrow, that a palanquin has barely rouva the place, or from the river side. There to pass. Abundance of wealthy mer
B kept within the court of die
chants are resident in this capital, or painting, may have suggested to the resort to it. These lanes, or passages, Albe's Du Bos and Winkelmann their for the security of their property, are absurd notion, that the influence of a closed every night, at bob ends, with northern or cold climate is unpropi. thick doors, plated with jron, and filled tivus to the efforts of genius; an absurwith nails; so that though the town be dity, which, both in bis paintings and his unfortified, it would prove a work of writings, has been ably refuted by the soinę ditöculty to penetrate into its iiie late Processor Barry.*
From the upper stories of Previous to the formation of the Royal many opposite houses, communications Academy, there existed a society of are made by small bridges.
painters, who held their academy in St. Benares is the principal mart for dia- Martin's lane, and who were denomimonds, on the eastern side of India. It naied “ The Incorporated Society of possesses also a manufactory of gold and Artists." But as they had neither pasilver tissue, stlass, silks, and gauzes, tent, exclusive privileges, nor the sanckeemcaub, mushroo, and guibuduun. tion of royal authority, they could be
Like other places of fanatic or super- considered, in fact, no better than a mere stitious enthusiasm, it is notorious for club of painters. In this society, which unrestricted gallantry, and licentious in. was rather numerous, there were some trigue.
good, and many inferior artists, a selecFrom hence to Dehly, the women tion fruin whom, with the addition of above the vulgar class, are generally per- Bartolozzi, Cipriani, and some other sonable, many eminently beautiful, and foreigners, formed the first body of Royal few deformed. Neither France nor Italy Academicians and Associates of ihe can boast of courtezaus more expertly Royal Academy of Arts. skilled in the cosmetic art, or in decoy- The institution of the Royal Academy, ing allurements to captivate, to influence, under the auspices of our present most to fascinate, and to fiecce, their para- gracious Sovereign, may be bailed as the mours,
dawn of that happy era, which brightens
as it advances, and which, we may fairly For the Monthly Magazine. predict, will snied à lasting lustre on our
ANECDOTES of PAINTING. national character, and class the efforts TORACE Walpole, whose literary of British artists withi thuse rare pro
character stands deservedly highi, ductions which adorn the civilized has already given the world, “Anec- world. dotes of Painting in England." This, I cannot introduce, in more approhowever, should be 'no motive why the priate language, the commencement of subject should not be taken up by ano- this brilliant period than by adopting a ther, particularly as Walpole may be courlet from Dr. Johnson's moito to said in have ended when the Fine Arts the works of our immortal Bard : began to flourish in this country, namely, “When Painting's triumph o'er her barbarous at the establishme!t of the Royal Aca
First reard the arts, immortal Reynolds The reigns of the two first Georges, rose." may be considered the Gothic night of
It was a fortunate circumstance for the the Arts in England; for those monarchs, arts, that the Royal Academy should whatever may have been their virtues, have had for its first president a man of bad no taste: and it was not till the aus
such classic taste, and consummate skill, picious period commencing with the as Sir Joshua Reynolds; a man, whose present reign, that Painting may be said whole mind seemed devoted to the higher to have reared her head in the British excellencies of his profession, and whose nation. In former periods, the artists of any Creek and Roman names, whose prac
great ambition was to tread upon the celebrity who resided amongst us, were
tical excellence, and theoretic know. generally foreigners : such were Torigiano, Anthony More, Hans Holbein, Ru
Barry's book, or rather pamphlet, on chis bens, Vandyke, Lely, Verrio, &c. &c. subject, is an able production ; and borne out and except Dobson, Isaac Oliver, and
as he is by the splendid talents for painting Cooper, who gave some indications of which have been recently exhibited in this genius, we had very little cause for ex- country, we may consider the question reultation on the score of native talent. specting the intluence of climate, as irrefraThis dearth of excellence amongst us in gably answered in our favour.
Jerige, went band in hand, and whose from whom eight members are chosen, zeal and patriotisin peculiarly calculated who form a council, and who may be him tor, ihe high and honourable office considered the executive government. Bri which lie was elected. The endow. The members of this council are annually Inents of Sir Joshua were such as fall to elected, or rather come in by rotation, the lot of few individuals; and except in from the Academic body. The Assothe single instance of Rubens, painting ciates derive neither advantage nor could never before perhaps boast of so eclat from their iminediate situation ; accomplished a professor. He was save only their standing in that gradaprofound scholar, a finished artist, and a lion, which is the next step to the rank polished gentleman.*
ot Royal Academician, and being conWith such a man at its head, it was plimented with a diploma, and a ticket batural to expect that the lioyal Aca- for the dinner, or annual gala, given at derny of London would at least biase Somerset Place, previous to the opening kept pace with the other sein maries of of the exbibition. But they have neither painting then existing; but it did mure: vote at its elections, voice in its councils, il soon surpassed thein.
nor any influence whatever in the interHogarth, who was hostile to this in- nal regulations of the Royal Academy. stitution, predicted, that the establish- The president, professors, and different ment of a school of painting, to which officers of the Royal Academy, are chosen there was such easy access, would be froin among the Royal Academicians, zuinous to the profession; as painters who all, except the president, have sawould then be as numerous as mechanics, laries annexed to their appointments. and print-sliops' as plenty as porter. The professors are those of painting, houses. It is needless to inforin the perspective, architecture, and anatomy, seailer of the total failure of Hogarthi's who each deliver six annual lectures in prediction, and that the arts, instead of their several departments, to the students beinig ruined, have risen to a degree of of ihe Royal Academy. mportance, and the professors to Besides those professors, there are beigbt of respectability, which, in their other officers attached to this establish. most sanguine moments, they could ment, such as the “ keepers or master never have hoped to attain.
of the drawing-school, the secretary, auAlthough the advantages of the Royal ditors, secretary for foreign corresponAcademy, may be sufficiently obvious; dence, &c.” yet it may not be amiss to inform the There are also a number of inferior general reader, in what its superiority to officers, servants, porters, &c. on this alt foriner institutions in this country grand national establishment; the whole more particularly consists. First then, expenses of which are defrayed out of the academic body is composed of sixty those funds accumulated froin the annual artists, who are chosen from among the exhibitions. Those exbibitions of late annual exhibitors, most distinguished for years have been eminently productive; their superior merit. These members and instead of "gaining iwo thousand are divided into two classes; Academi. pounds à-year from shillings,"* they cians, and Associates: the Academicians, often now et four thousand pounds. of whom there are forty, form the higher Having gone thus far into the constidass, and the Assuciates, of whom there tution of the Royal Academy, it may not are twenty, the inferior. The first ad- he amiss to point out the various advance to academic honors, is that of vantages which the students in painting being elected an Associate; and the derive from being admitted into this next, or higher, that of Royal Acade. Temple of the Muses. mician. The Associates, as before re- The first and most obvious advantage lated, are selected from the mass of ex- arising to the student of the Royal Acabibitors; and when a vacancy occurs in demy, is the access to so extensive and the higher class, it is filled up by an grand a collection of Casts from the Anelection from the Associates. The go- tique, (inany of which are no wise invernment of the Royal Acarlemy is férior to the originals,) which in any wholly vested in the Academicians, other than a national institution must be
unattainable. He has also the advantage Leonardo da Vinci was certainly a very of studying from the living models; of learned painter: but his theory surpassed his lectures on painting, perspective, anapractice; hus science was greater than bis execution.