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HORACE

For the Monthly Magucine. rangement will be as follows:- The first LICET N OF AVUIENT LITERA book of Saures, the earliese werk of Hue TURE.-Jo. XXVI.

race, was

written between the trenty

sixth and twenty-eighth year of his life WHERE 50 many have concurred the second, between his thirty second

to point out the merits, and to and thirty-fourth; the lipodes, in the Jer; etua:e the fame, of llorace ; upoň thly following years; the first buok of the a-cituject, which has already expusted Odes, was composed between his thirive alinzi criticisia could vier, or ingenuity sixth and thirty-eighth; the second, in suakest, the classical reader will be pre- his fortieth and forty-first; the third, in pait i to expect here only those general the course of the two succeeding years': üt:errations, wh.ch may contirin the opin the first book of Episues, in his tortyDua he has already formed; but which six.b and forty-seventh yrars; then the will adt little to the materials, upon

fourth of the Odes, and the Carinen Se. eiich that opinion is grounded. Most Cre, in the course of liis furtyarinin, singly, indeed, would we have omitted fitter, and fifty-first years. The Art of this article alogether; not so much from Poetry, and the fourth of the Easiles, ano uniculiy likciy to occur in a poet, are noč so well ascertainer ; probably, wbu has been so repeatedly revised by they were written only a year or trubccommentators, ancient and modern, a's fore he died. This arrangement will a:fron ile impossibility of offering remarks pear to be judicious, and not loosely sun riently striking, or new, to excite at- bazarded, if the reader will carefully at, ted[00. But the necessity of conformin- tend to the evidence of the poems them! ing in the regular plan which we frorá selves. In the first place, it is obser: the brst adopted, compels us to proceed. vable, that, in the Satires, the Epodes; The odes of l!orace are, of course, the and the first of the Oles, the naine of only part of his works which we propose Cæsar is always used, riever that of to consider at present.

Augustus, which was not assuined till It may, perhaps, form no idle disquis about the thirty-ninth year of Horace; sition to attempt to ascertain the differ, after which it is frequently adopted. ent periods, at which were written the Then again, in the Safires and Epoues, sereral poems of Horace.

the poet describes himself as a young shall do, taking Bentley for our guide. man, and asserts, that he owed all his The internal evidence of the poenis them- fame to the publication of his Satires. selves may, indeed, lead us to form a to. He no where mentions lis lyric compolerabie conclusion as to their respective sitios as having contibuted to his repudates. Thus, the first book of the odestation. His progressive advance in lije may be ascertained from the prologue ; may be collected from a close examithe second and third from the epilogues;

nation of the sentiments of each succes. the podes from these lines of the 141h sive poein. The free, anti ofien vienus, Epod:

tendency of his early poems, denores his Izceplos, olim promissum carmen, Iambos youthful years ; but we see him afterAd umbilicum adducere.

wards engaged on more decorous sulijects, The date of the first book of Satires and assuming a graves and chasier style. may be collected froin the last line of It is by this internal evidence alone, inat the 10ch:

we can properly ascertain the different 1, puer, atq. meo citus hæc subscribe libello; periods at which Iorace wrote. Those the last froin the prologue. The first book,

who have not condescended to follow also, of the epistles may be traced from this unerring guide, bave lost therrselves the prologue and epilogue. That the, in the wildest conjectures, and have scla fvarth book of the odes, and the second dom failed to obscure, rather than illusof the epistles, were published after a

trate, the subject. considerable lapse of time froin the

Let us now consider Horace as a writer

rest, is evident from the authority of Suetoof odes, a species of poetry, which, of nius; a testimony which, as Bentley

all others, requires

the

sreatest strength observes, is so decisive, that it would be and elevation of genius, and a sort of an useless task in any one to attempt to

enthos.a-m, that must cituse itself refore it. Supposing, then, this internal through the whole.

Judgment, too, evidence to be sufficiently clear, the ar

must have it's share, in tempering the

Rights of too wild an imagination; and • Vize Bentley, de l'emporibus Librorum the greatest art must be used, without Horatii.

the appearance of any, that the compoMOXTILY MAG. No. 194.

B

positiva

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sition, though strictly regular, may re- with frivolous ornaments, which can
tain an air of rapture and disorder. amuse only superficial minds, he com-
Gods, heroes, and princes, were, aising pensates for the want of these by the
the ancients, the objects of the lyric grandeur of bis ideas and figures, in the
Diuse. They liad also another kind of Odes; and by the chasteness of his elo.
Ode, of a more humble nature, which cution, and the propriety of his images,
delighted in softer themes; where beauty, in his Satires and Epistles. Grace every
and the pains and joys of love, were de- where fons from his pen, and pleases
scribed, or the praise of Bacchus sung. the more because natural and unstudied.
The want of the sublime was supplied His poetry is not a barren soil; the use-
by delicacy and spriglitliness. If Pindarful and the agreeable spring up together:
excelled in the former, Anacreon was une we are at once amused and justructed.
rivalled in the latter. The happy genius The mind finds itself enriched by fables,
of Ilorace could sing the triumphs of history, and geography, which are sprink-
Augustus, and the coyness of Chloe, with led through the whole work with judg-
equal success; uniting the qualities of inent, and without affectation. The heart
boch the Grecian bards, he has occasion- is improved by a variety of wise reflections
álly the rapture of the one, and the soft- on the manners of his age, and by lively
ness of the other. lle has all the enthu- representations of vice and virtuć. in a
şiasın and elevation of the Theban poet; word, the taste is formed by a composi-
he is as rich in similes and imagery : but tion just and correct, without constraint;
his transitions are not so abrupt; and full of grace and beauty, without varnish;
his diction is more uniformly soft and easy, and yet not negligent; always
flexible. The subjects of Pindar's odes seasoned with so much wit and learning,
åre generally the same, and his style par- as to leave no room for disgust.
takes of the uniformity. But it is the It has been sometimes said, that ele-
peculiar characteristic of Horace, that gance, not sublimity, is the characteris-
his style continually varies with his sub- tic of Horace. That the former qualifi.
ject. Wherever his poetical-imagination cation is unquestionably his due, no one
inay lead bim-- whether le fancy hin. will attempt to deny. But

, surely, he of-
pell in Olympus, announcing the decrees fers as many instances of ilie sulline in
of the gods; or moralizing upon the his odés, as arıy of the ancient lyric
af'uins of Troy--whe: her scaling the Alps, writers. Let tie adinirer öf Horace turn
or at the feet of Glycera; it is always to the following Odes: the 15th, 35th,
adapted to the objects before him. lle 37th, of the first book; the 1st, isth,
cm, with equal case, pourtray, in the perhaps, the best of all, and 19th, of tlie
subliniest strains, the characters.of Cato second book; and, especially, the 1st,
And of Regulus; and yet, with playful 3d, and 4th, the character of Regulus in
vivacity, describe the caresses of Lycim- the 5t), and the 25th, of the third book;
nia, and the inconstancy of Pyrrha, Vdes the 4th, 9ih, and 14th, of the 4th
Likè Anacreon, the devoted son of pleaa book. It would be easy to fill these co-
sure, he has all the graces of the Teiaŭ lumns, by numerous quotations that
bard, with infinitely more wit and philu would sufficiently prove the truth of our
sophy; and while he possesses the brii. a sertion. It is true, that he himself
liant imagination of Pindar, he surpasses disclains all pretensions to sublimity;
bin in the solidity of his judgment. In and often says in his odes, that his Muse
a word, if attention be paid to the sound. was not suited to subjects of grandeur,
ness of his sense, the precision of his but rather chose to sing
style, the harmony of his verse, and the

Convivia, et prælia Virginum variety of his subjects; if it be recol.

Sectis in Jurenes unguibus acrium, lected, that the same man has com

Non præter solicum levis. posed satires, replete with keenness,

But this is a specimen of that modeslys sense, and gaiety; epistles, which contain the best directions for our conduct in lite, which makes him say in another place, and an Art of Poetry, which will always Pindátum quisquis studet æmulariy be the standard of true taste; it will be

Cerutis ope Džedalea adınitted, that Horace was one of the

Nititur pennis, vitreo dicurus greatest and best-informed poets that ever existed.

We shall allow ourselves one quotatis His thoughits are the genuine offspring nore, to prove; once for all, that the geo of nature. They are dictiter by truth mins of Lorace was highly susceptible of and renoun. Unwilling to deck his style that grandeur' of scutiment which is

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Siznent prescribed to a the histranstolis, even the past, will be found na ten ei tbe Ode; and alle balare of that maka aay unteason. eranted to bis Muse. ten ne the third Ode of

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called sublinity in Pindar, Observe. plify this character in some heroes, whn, with what magnificence, and pomp of ex- by the exercise of virtue, had been deia pression, he describes a lyric poet, and fied. llere was an occasion to mentioni å favourite of the Muses, in the 3d Ode Romulus, who was worshipped by the of book 4:

Romans as a God under the name of Quem tu, Melpomene, semel

Quirinus. Upon his reception into hea. Nascentem placido lumine videris, ven, Juno, as the well-known enemy of Ilium non labor Isthmius

the Trojans, declares to thie assembled Ciarabit pugilein; non eques impiger Gods the conditions upon which she cono Carru ducet Achaïco Victorem : neque res bellica Deliis

seuts to his apotheosis, and to the future Ornatum foliis ducem,

grandeur of the Roman state.

Thus,

what, at first sight, may appear to be a Qaod regum tomidas contuderit minas, Ostendet Capitolio :

wild and rapturous transition, is found, Sed, quz Tibur aquæ fertile perfluunt,

upon examination, to have been the result Et spissæ nemorum comx,

of deep and judicious reflection. As a Fingen: Æolio carmipe nobilem. poet, he prophetically delivers the divine The truth is, that the splendour of

decrees; and when the purpose is an. Horace, not having the glare and extra: his imagination, had left him, he checks

swered, as if the God, who had inspired ragance of Pindar, does not so immedi: ately strike the eye, but is generally

the forward Muse: more agreeable to the understanding of Quo Musa tendis ? desine pervicax the reader. He is more correct in luis ex- Referre sermones Deorum. pressions, less extravagant in his meta- Sublimity, then, is an essential feature phors, less bald in his transitions. in the poetical character of Lorace. Though he sometimes swe!ls, and rises That he is not always sublime is a proof bigb, he never exceeds those limits of that surprising versatility, that curiosa which a clear judgment prescribed to a felicitas, which pervades every thing he warm imagination. His transitions, even undertakes.--" In Odis sublimi charac, where they are the boldest, will be found tere usus est,” says Baxter, “ et nonnunadapted to the desjyn of the Ode; and quam Aorido et amæno; in Epodis hua to anse mare from the nature of that mili; et in Sermonibus, comico et civili; kind of poetry, than from any unreason. nisi quod in epistolis, accedente jam seable indulgence granted to bis Muse. nectute, omisso, ut plurimum, ludo et That which occurs in the third Ode of joco, ad philosophicon vultum, uti de book ij. has been considered most cuit, sene composuerit."-It rarely haplable to objection; but even this will pens, that au author succeeds in different vanish, when the reader accurately stut kinds of composition; but Horace is dies the design of the Ode, and upon equally happy in the most opposite spewhat occasion it was composed. Before cies of worting. In lyrics, he has not the death of Julius Cæsar, there was a only united the beauties of Pindar,. Al report, that he intended to remove the cæus, Anacreon, and Sappho, but baş sear of empire to Troy, from which the found the means of tracing a new path, Romans derived their origin; and it was and of substituting himself us a model. keared, that Augustus might carry into It will be seen, hereafter, that he has execution what bis uncle and adopted the same soperiority in satire, father had proposed to effect. Horace As to his morality, though in early is thought to have composed this Ode, in youth he had imbibed the principles of order to prevent it. He therefore intro: Epicurus, yet he acknowledges one suduces Juno in the council of the Gods, as preme Power, superior to all created consenting to favour the Romans, pror beings, who will not suffer crimes to be vided they never think of re-building committed with impunity; to whom even Troy, or of transferring to that city the kings are accountable for their conduct, seat of government. The design of the and who ought to be the source and end poem thus anticipated, it may be sup- of all ineir actions. He teaches us, that posed that he would only gradually con- happiness consists in the right use of our vey the liņt to Augustus, and not ab- reason, and in curbing the tunneltuous roptly discover his intention in writing: sallies of our passions ; that we cannot too and the manner in which it is executed soon devote ourselves to the study of wisstill be found equally adınirable. The Ode begias with the praises of a just and * Baxter, judicium de Horat, in Zeunius suurageous man : it proceeds to exem. Edit. of Gesnes, p. 34.

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dom; that nothing but sirtue deserves race, in his Odes, is the only author our admiration, and timt, without it, who has shown the compass of the Latin there can be no true or rational tieedom. language, in all the variety of composiHe has proved himself a master in the tion. This renters it a task of considernose diñenlt part of human conduct, that at le cittculty to imitate him, with any of an Anis vtbein, sich be always dues degree of case or eleyince. He has a with great incerity, but without the apo nude of expression peculiar to himself, pearance of premeditation. By iliis me. which sometimes balllos every attempt to ihod, the anvice had a better ellect upon convey his meaning ino the idiom of any. the person who received it, because moderns language There are few poets of there was no affectation of superiority uhim versions have been more frequently in hiin who gave it. Had this been vi- aitempted: no one, perhaps, has had sible, it would only fiave offended that less justice done to liim; and it is the interent ce li our

Diture, which

more extrhoudinary, that his lesser Odes, makes every ma'i so ur willing to athlon- I mean thuse i hal treat of humbler suba lodge, or be told of, his faults. For in- jects, have been unituro:ly found the ştance, which wrising in praise of mild most domicult :

the 9ih of ration, he addresses himself to an masin, lib, 3, the favourite Ode of Scaliger. tious man, shows him the danger of his Those who will be at the pains to exadarling pasalin, and the charms of con- mine it, will find its peculiar inerit to tentment. Thus, without touching his consist in the delicacy, brevity, and simfuible, by descending to particulars, he plicity, of the expressions; the beautiful demon-trates to the person addressed Order of the words, and the harmonious the danger of the measures be pursues. sueetness of the numbers. This little The 10ih Ode of lib. 2, to Lacurius Mu. Orie, though of all others, perhaps, the ræna, is a fine example of this. Murærra most laboured at, has been the worst was brother-in-law to liecanas, and, executed. Its beautitui and unaffected through his interest, coulet.have liule brevity sets translation, at dehance; and doubt of being promoted. But this would is a model of that perfection of style, not satisfy his restless ambition; nor which La Bruyere admired, the art of could the seasonable advice of Horace using the one proper expression, which prevent bien from entering into a conspi- can alune be right. racy with Famous and vihers, which cost Creech, who had done ample justice him bis life -10 the 15ch of lib. 1, to the philosophic verse of Lucretius, where he represents Nereus as declaring lost all his laurels by his attempt "pon to Paris the deplorable fate of Troy, llorice. He has also been fatal to the which will inttend his rape of Heten, lie reputation of some vihers. The version warns Antony net to give himself up to of Francis.is, upon the whole, the best the charms of Cleopatra, which must executed: in some parts of the Odes, he inevitably end in his ruin; and in the is highly Horatiani moral, without bea preceding Ode, be, by a beautiful alle- ig dull; gay and spirited, with progery, exhibits to the Romans all the ca- priety; and icnder, without being lana lamilies of their civil wars, and exhorts guid. Some of the imitations of Dunthem w) peace. Davje inclined, as we combe are spirited and elevant; but, in olise : cd at the close of our last Number, general, he is interior to Francis. to the Swic pliilosophy, towards the Quinctilian bas said, indeed, that he latter part of his life, he consequently would not have the whole of Tiosace inarmed' himself with their principles terpreted ; and be allules to the Odes, against the fear of death. Thus he de- rather than to the Saures. This caution scribes his wise man as braving adver- will appear singulnr, and would, at leasi, sity, and especung mortality to put an have seemed to be equally applicable to end to any misfortunes that raay befal the rest of his works. Crecen gives this hum. This is done ailegorically, under reason, “which," he says,

must be the characters of Pentheus and Bacchus; taken from the design and subject matter that is, the wise man will then display the of the poems. To describe and reform a same courage.which Bacchus did in his vicious man, necessarily requires some answer to Pentheus, in a tragedy of expressions which an ode cannot want, Euripides.

The paint whichi an artist uses must be We mbail closetlis general account by agrecable to the piece which he designs. a try rewards up the cinculty of Satire is co instruct, and that supposes a translating this interesting podio llu- kuonledge and discovery of the crime

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wlaile Odes are made only to instruct and the discovery, of which these pages treat, to pitase, and therefore every thing that is not by any means so ancient as many offends in them is unpardunable." have imagined. Jlowever numerous the

To enumerate the various editions of admirers, of this fragrant Ottur may be Hace wouit more than fill the columns in Europe, as in Asia, I wish to pay it we hive already occupieci

. We thus my public homaye.-A verse froir thereure select only a few even of the Hafiz, the Persian Anacreon, will not be best,

here misplaced : Horatius, 410. Editio Princeps, sine anno, loco, vel typour phi indicio.

Hofiz! wesal.i.gul tulbee temebu butulan, 8.0. Ferrar. 1474.

Jan Kun sedui Kkak i rab-i-bagbban igul. fol, Mediol, ditto.

"O! Hafiz, thou desirest like !he Nighifol. Venet. 1478, 1483, 1490. ingale che presence of the rose ! let thy very

apud Ald. 1.501. soul be a ransom for the earth, where the fol. illustrated by 80 commenta- keeper of the Rose-garden walks !" tors. Bisil, 1580. Of this edit. Dr. Harwood says, " that it con

In this couplet, he alludes to the loves tains the observations and remarks of the Nightingale and the Rose, which on Horace, which were made by have been celebrated by so many poets the great scholars of that iilus- of Arabia, Persia, and Turkey. trious age-ihe gloripus aje of the The word Ortur, or A'thr, used by the revival of literature; as well as Asiatics, to express the essence of roses, the criticisms of the old commen- is originally Arabic; and signifies an tators, Acron, Porphyrion, &c. aromatic odour, or perfume in general; 4to. Cruquii. L. Bat. 1593.

it is derived from Allura, or A'thura, (to quios is considered one of the best perfume one's-self,) &c. and it seems to

commentators on Horace. Horatü Opera, a Dan. Heinsio, 12mo. Elz.

have some affinity with another Arabic L. Bar. 1629.

work, Katara, (to drop, or distil by in usum Delphini, 410. Paris,

drops, &c.) and to the Hebrew Ketr, 1691.

(he has perfumed, &c.) The Chaldaic Horatius, cum notis v riorum, 8vo. Lug.

word Katura expressed eleven kinds of Bat. 1653, 1658, 63, 68, 70.

aromatics, which the Jews burned in The first of these is the best, their sacrifices. (See Schultens's Clavis à Bentley, 4to. Cantab. 1711: - Dialect: ling Hebr. et Arab; page 296 : Amster. 1713, 1728.

and Castelli Lexicon Hoptaglott, ad Baxter, 8vo. Lond. 1701, 1795. vocem up.).

As to the resemblance Gesneri, Lips. 1752, 1772. which Mr. Weston, (in a work which I

Oşervationibus Zew- 'shah hereafter quvie) imagines. he has nii, 8vo. Lips. 1788-1802. Horarii Opera, 12mo. Glasg. 1744, called and the European odour, I leave it for

found between the Arabic word Ottar, the immaculate edition. Horece, by Watson, Lat. and Eng. 2. vol. my readers to determine on the etymo8vo. Lond.

logy. I must here renark, that flowers by Francis, with the orig. text.

in general, and rises froin teir peculiar 4 vol. 12mo. 1747. 4to. 1749. excellence, are termed in Arabic, ward; The edition by the late Gilb. Wakefield, is and in Persian, gul; but the otlar is not executed with uncommon accuracy and ele- to be confounded with the gulab, or pace.

rose-water, which is simply the product

of roses, distilled with water, according For the Monthly Magazine. to a process well known to all per: umers, INQUIRIES into the DISCUVEPY' of the both of Europe and Asia ; this, indeed,

ESSEXCE Of Roses; translated fiom the is the prcvious and indispensable preRECUEFCHES SUR LA DECOUVERTE DE paration for obtaining the essence, or L'ESCENCE ROSE, of MONSIEUR ottur; for after a certain quantity of LANGLES, MEMBER, of the NATIONAL roses has been so distilleit, (as Colonel INSTITUTE, KEEPER of the OP.IENTAL Polier indicates in the first volume of MASINERIPTS, &c. &c.

Asiatic Researches,) the rose water is FROM the çitle of this little essay, it left exposed to the cool air of the night;

might appear, that I incur the re- and on the next day, a very inconsiderproach of having devoted my time tu "able portion of oliur is found congealed Livebrus researches, but my object has con the surface of the rose.naser. It may teen to correct an error. very frequent be easil: supposed, that the quantity of among Orientalists; and to prove that cssence depends much on the quality of

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