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Multiplicand

Product

Universal Multiplication. 1

Formula.
Multiplier B
S2

160 Ansr. A
Eram. Mult, 32
by 5

1

5

B
Quotient

Dividend

А Division.

Divisor

B 8 Ansr.

32
Eram. Divide 32
by 4
1

B
First Term

Third Term
Proportion, or
Rule of Three.

Second Term

Fourth Term B Erumple.

112

42

A If 11216. cost 8s, what will 421b. cost?

8

3s. Ansr. B Wishing to allow the subject to appear abundance of theorem for the elementary to be simple, as it really is, I will not at enquirer: and though, in our progress, this time create any aların by introdu- an infinite variety of objects may appear, cing cases in the bigher parts of arith- which the limited faculties of man can metic; but should this introduction prove never hope to reach or comprehend, acceptable, I will furnish you with a persevering industry on our part will so nunier of bighly-useful formula, suited improve the stock of knowledge which to the particular practice of various class- we have already in our possession, that es, such as retailers of goods of all de- rational study will be most amply repaid. scriptions, mechanics and artizans in The principle which we have already most branches, merchants and clerks in 'laid down, on the theory of inflexion, public ofiices, engineers civil and mili- appears to coincide with ihe opinions of

the most scientific, who have written on Your's, &c. the philosophy of inusic. In the AugusLeighton,

B. Bevan. tan age, that great era of classical puJanuary 21, 1810.

rity and elegance, it was supposed, that

the speaking voice of man was limited For the Monthly Magazine. in compass; and Dionysius of HalicarnasMR. WRIGHT'S NEW

sus insinuated, that the distance of three

potes and a half, above and below the (Continued from p. 40.)

key-note, comprised the specific tones of

every passion that could possibly agitate ATHEMATICAL calculations of the hunan mind. I believe the moderns of the lengths of vibrations, and of their it is presumed, that the proofs which acuteness or gravity of sound, afford an , were advanced in our last essay, agreeinteresting field for the speculative en- ing exact!; with the demonstrations of quiry of students in elocution. We are the measures of musical plænomena, intormed by those who have written on clearly confute the idea.- But to pro. the fundamental principle, or acoustical ceed. Ilaving noticed the musical sound branch of music, that reason for the

or monotone, and also spoken of the causes of harmony, is ascertained by the rising and the falling inflexion, it remains just mode of explaining consonancy, as for us next to consider two other modi. the coincidence of vibration in separate fications of voice, called circumflexes. bodies producing undulations in the air

A late writer states, that “the Scotch in certain due proportions to each other. pronounce the far greater part of their We are also given to understand, that words with the acute accent, or rising what is evident to sense, in the effect on inflexion : and the Irish as constantly the medium (air,) by the agitation of a spake use of the grave accent, or falling vibratory string or monochord, is equally inflexion." discernible in the motions of all other as proofs.

The following be adduces bodies which give a funeable sound. But there sull remains in this pursuit, Walker's Elements of Elocution, p. 183

Scotch.

· tary, &c. &c.

THEORY OF
INFLEXION.

Scotcb.-Ex'ercise and temperance strengthen Walker, will be found to be the union of the constitution.

inflexions at contrary terminations, called Irisb. E'xercise and temperance strèngthen the rising and falling circumflexes. When, the constitution.

on the same syllable, the concluding part With considerable reluctance, I dissent of the falling inflexion unites with the from the authority of so distinguished a commencing part of the rising inflexion, professor; but I am inclined to think, and vice versá, they are termed circumthat after more accurate investigation, flexes. They descend and ascend by the voices spoken of by the late Mr. musical fifths:

falling circumflex

1st. example :

rising circumflex

falling circumflex

2d. example

3.

B В

rising circumflex The student will take notice of the înnocency of thy past life sâved thee." propriety of distinguishing these turns of This form of phraseology may be consivoice, by the names affixed to the exam- dered peculiarly characteristic of the ples. The circumflex A in the first ex. Scottish people; and if, in the foregoing ample, falls a fifth, and, in returning, the example, the words “ doubt, absolved, voice does not ascend above the key modesty, innocency, past, and saved," note: and, vice versá, the circumflex B were marked the same as the rest of the in the same example, rises a fifth, and, accented words, viz. with the falling cirin returning, it does not descend below cumfiex instead of the rising circumflex, the key-note. To form the cadence, the we should then have an instance of the circumfleses must be reversed, as in the

turn of voice in their pronunciation. second example.

The following is an instance of the turn Our initial proposition is somewhat of voice in the Irish pronunciation : supported by two observations in the “Good môrrow my pretty fellow; upon learned work of the Rev. James Adams. my word thou hase acquitted thyself very Speaking of the dialect of the Scots, he hắndsomely.” Better pronounced thus: says, "every word has some peculiar “Good môrrow my pretty fellow; thou twang, or twist, discordant with received classical English sounds.” “ The Irish- hast acquitted thyself very handsomely.” English," the same gentleman observes, By the circumflex, the contrary is under

stood. “ may be said to be chiefly confined-tó the singular tone, or false rise and fall of

The circumflex is also made use of in voice, approaching to the note of re

the pronunciation of certain words, in strained interrogation."

that class of rhetorical figures which These peculiar turns of voice are given

serves to embellish the argumentation. to the pronunciation of certain words in in the concession at the end of Pope's oblique phraseology, wherein more is Ode on St. Cecilia's Day, the fallunderstood than the mere words scem to ing circumflex on the word hell is a striexpress. Tropes of this class convey of the modification of sound, when used

king instance of the strength and beauty their meaning either by the known acceptation of the nature of the persons " His numbers rais’d a shade from

in a proper inaniner :

hell: or things to which they are applied, by Her's lift the soul to heaven.” the mode of pronunciation, or by eduction from the context. If the following series be pronounced according to the marked words, and accompanied with a The passages which I have quoted in sneering smile, the student will discern illustration of this position appear conmore satisfactorily the true nature of cir- vincing; and I fatter myself, that, from cumflexes. “There is no doûbt of it; the quickness of thought, and the accuthy intégrity gut thee absôived; thy mô- cracy of discernment, which such class of desty drew thee out of danger; and the tropes and figures are found to contain,

and

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and the peculiar turns of voice they neces. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. sarily require in the pronunciation, they SIR, will be considered by better judges than N au extract which I lately read from mour and temper of the Irish and Scot observed an account of a remedy for that tish nations. Your's, &c.

most dreadful of human maladies, the

JAMES WRIGHT. hydrophobia; which onght to be more 33, Bedford-street,

generally known, as it never failed of Covent-garden.

producing the desired effect when admis (To be continued.)

nistered in time. It is composed of seaErrata in our last.-Ac p. 30, cul. 1, 1. 30, holly,viper's bugloss, and Cretan balm. The for “ teeth, lips, nostrils," &c. read,"teeth, plants are taken when they are begivmg tongue, lips," &c.; line 43, for “ cartilages to run to seed, and hung in the shade acted by the muscles," read, “ cartilages be till all their humidity is evaporated. On: acted upon by the muscles.”

this each is separately pounded, the pow. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. in equal parts, and put away in well

der is passed through a hair sieve, mixed SIR,

corked bottles. It is to be observed, I

AM disposed to think that the pro- that none of the roots must be employed,

cess for preparing aromatic vinegars, except those of the sea-holly, which pos. recommended by Mr. l

-, in one of your sess very great strength. late Magazines, is not so cheap nor so effective a method as the author has stated. book, I may not be as satisfactory on this

As I do not possess Mr. Fischer's If chalk be adried to common vinegar, point as your readers may wish; but some in small quantities, taking care to stir the of your correspondents will

, I trust, sup. vinegar upon every addition, and no ply all the necessary information, and more chalk be employed than is just suf- enumerate some of the many cures perficient to destroy the acidity of the vine- formed by this simple remedý. gar, little or no sediment will be formed,

Your's, &c. A. chalk being for the most part readily so. luble in this acid. The white matter, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. therefore, that is found in the liquor prepared according to Mr. I---'s process,

SIR, can only be the chalk 'that has been OOKING a few da

Lamu

ago, by way of added in excess, or that was more than famusement, into John Stowe's Chrosufficient to destroy the acidity of the nicle, Edinburgh, 1573, year 1464, I was vinegar. If this white matter, by being much struck with the following, which I. treated with oil of vitriol, is found to now literally copy: afford aromatic vinegar, the vinegar can Shepe iransported into Spain.-17.is be produced from the small quantity of yere King Edward gave a licence to pas acetate of lime only, left in it after the over certein Couteswolde shepe into supernatant liquor bas been decanted; Spain, by reason whereof, it has come to for if this sediment be well washed, it will pass, at this day, that the staple of be found to consist of mere chalk, and wolls, of Spain, kept at Brydges, in with sulphuric, to afford nothing but care Flanders, is so great that our staple is bonic acid. The decanied liquor, so far nothing comparable to it." from being " insipid," possesses a very From which it appears, that the wool marked taste, leaving a very unpleasant which we have for centuries imported sensation of bitterness in the mouth. from Spain, and upon wbich our finest

The usual method of purifying rooms, fabrics of woollen are manufactured, is with a mixture of common salt, oil of the produce of sheep originally bred in vitriol, and manganese, is not only our own country. cheaper but more expeditious, and beta It appears to me, therefore, worthy of ter calculated to produce the required enquiry, whether the Cotteswold breed effect, than the process recommended by bas degenerated, and from what cause Mr. I- The fumes of muriatic acid whether the breed of 1464 is extinct are more elastic, and more readily diffuse bow it was improved in Spain, and still themselves, than vinegar in the state of holls its value above British wool, in vapor; besides, they are more active in countries whose agricultural improve. destroying the principle of contagion. iments have not kept pace with ours; and Bristol. Your's, &c.

how far it is possible to produce the fie E. T. I. nest wool in this country, without the

importation

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importation of Merino rams as a cross to To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, the offspring of their ancestors.

The subject appears to me worthy of serious investigation; and I have not a IT

T was with satisfaction that I observed doubt that many useful communica

the other day, in your Magazine for tions may be produced, by the above November, the letter of your corres extract from that faithful chronicler, pondent I. L. P. on the forgery of Bank « bonest John Stowe."

Notes. The lamentable waste of human Your's, &c. J. C. Rankin, life which results from the prevalence of

this criure, inust be a subject of deep To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. regret tu every hunane and refiecting SIR,

person. To the unfortunate inen, six in N the Quarterly Review for Novem- number, whom I. L. P. mentions as

ber, 1809, there is an article on the having been capitally convicted at the recently-published travels of Mi. Ker last assizes for Lancaster, and who have Porter, in Russia, in which the Re- since been executed, he might have viewers, after stating the unnecessary added, that at the preceding spring. introduction of the whole story of Ham- assizes, there were el ven persons found let into the work, remark, that the “un- guilty of a similar offence, of whom fortunate prince is murdered over again seven were executed, and four trans by a vile translation from the vile Latin ported. And though in the newspapers of Saxo-Grammaticus." Now, without these men were said to have been entering upon any discussion concerning punished for forgery on the Bank of the fileness of the translation, which England, the trulli is, that they were must be left to shift for itself against found guilty, not of forgery properly sa the critic's insinuations (and these are, called, but of uttering Bank Notes, alas! too just,) I shall merely attempt knowing them to be forged; different to parry the blow aimed at the original crimes, certainly, but confounded togeauthor of the Danish story, or rather ther in one common punishment by a against his Latinity, by opposing a shield late act of parliament, by one clause of borrowed on the occasion, from a very which, persons having any forged notes celebrated champion in the field of lie in their possession, are made hable to terature, and probably at least as good a transportation. judge of Latinity as the Quarterly Re- If that superior mode of engraving, viewers. It is constructed of the follow. recommended by your correspondent, ing words: “Dama nobis dedit Saxonem should be found ineffectual to prevent de Grammaticum, qui suæ gentis historiam evil complained of, there is another which splendidè magnificèque contexuit: probo he does not touch upon, that would cere vividam et ardens ingenium, orationem tainly have the desired effect. It is nusquam remissam aut dormirantem, only in the small notes, for one and two tam miram verborum copiam, sententias pounds, that forgery to any extent crebras, et figurarum admirabilem varia exists. To furge the larger notes would etatem, ut satis admirari non queam, not answer the purpose: the parties unde illa ætate homini Dano tanta vis could not introduce them into circlieloquendi suppetierit.”—Erasmus, in Ci- lation; such notes are not wanted for ceroniano. If this will not protect the every-day payments; they do not ofien Dane against the critic's lance, let us get into the hands of ignorant people; try another mode of defence in the words and when taken, they are naturally of Vossius : “ Quod ad Saxonis dictionem, subject to a closer scrutiny, in protanta hujus est elegantia, ut ætatis illius portion to their increased value. To captum planè excedat, imò cum anti. confirm these remarks, I may appeal quioram et nostri sæculi plurimis certet." to fact. How rare, comparatively, were De Histor. Lat. lib. ii. cap. Iv. The executions for forgery, before the small celebrated Pontanus has compared the Bank Notes appeared! style of Saxo to that of Valerius Maximus. If then the evil arises from the circu

This may serve as a lesson to Revie'wers lation of these small notes, it is natural of all kinds, how they hazard dashing to ask, Are they necessary? Į reply inconsiderate opinions, which, generally without hesitation, No. There cannot speaking, they are much too apt to do. be a question, that a supply of cash in January 9, 1810.

Your's, &c their place would soon be found when
CASTIGATOR.wanted. At present, the notes have

drnsen

[graphic]

driven the cash out of circulation, be- his Majesty's reign, the peers of England cause it could be more profitably and I ciand bave been doubled, and the employed. There is a gain on the baronets have never been so nunerous exportation of gold to the continent; as they at present are; those of England and much, no doubt, has gone out of the amount tu five hundred and sixty-one, kingdom: but let the small notes be those of Scotland one hundred and forty called in, and gold enough will return to eight, and of Ireland one hundred and fill up the vacuum. It is, like any other three: in all cight hundred and twelve. commodity that is permitted to cir- This statement, one would think, either culate freely, certain to find its way to argued ainazing magnanimity and talent the best market; and (unlike some in our countrymen, (thys to be able to commodities), it is almost impossible swell our list of worthies) or afforded a to prevent 'its circulating freely, so convincing proof of their excessive casily is it smuggled. Those, therefore, if vanity. When we look candidly into such there be, who think that if the small the cause, we shall indeed find it highly notes were abolished, we should want a creditable to our country; for we shall medium to carry on the daily commerce observe that at least one-half of this boof life, may rest assured they are much norable body is composed of men remistaken. To annihilate the whole, warded for their merits; and that to the understood to be abore four millions other half, the motive of vanity is falsely in amount, would indeed produce a and invidiously ascribed. temporary inconvenience. But this The people of this country, Sir, have is neither necessary, nor, dispersed as of late been gradually refining; or, if I the notes are over the country, would may so terin it, the lower orders have it be, practicable. Let them be gra- been trying to reduce to the same level dually called in, and no inconvenience with themselves the weh-born, the wellwhatever to the public would result. educated, and the affluent; and accordo

To prevent then the prevalence of ingly all kinds of fraud and corruption these lamentable crimes, and their are exercised in order to enable them to cruel consequences, if nothing else sill effect this by the aid of dress, and every do, there can be no hesitation in saying species of imitation. llence is it to be that the small notes should be altogether wondered at, that the man whose family done away. Severe methods have beer has enjoyed for many generations lieretried too long. The keeper of Lancaster ditary possessions, should feel himself castle, a good and humane man, is, I somewhat mortified at the upstart pride am told, grieved and shocked with the I have alluded to? He seeks title therefore numerous executions that have taken not from vanity, not from a wish of haplace there of late. To pass sentence on ving additional superiority, but only froin ihe crinioals must no doubt have been the honest desire of maintaining that very painful to the mild and venerable which nature has allotted to him. Ilow

judge who usually presides in the court; is the wife of a man of fortune to be and a strong, though perhaps unfounded, distinguished now? Are not those persons opinion, that these awful examples are who are most decidedly her inferiors necessary to the support of public addressed by the same appellation? Who credit, can, I presume, be the only rea- is there that is noi now dubbed an esquire son why the individuals have not been and a gentleman? recomniended to the royal mercy,

From the time of William the ConIt is scarcely necessary to observe, queror to the days of James I. we find that the measure above recommended, every man possessing a certain tenure, a would not interfere with the Bank-re- knight; and now that knighthood is striction law. The Bank might be pro- rendered an inferior order by the introbibited from issuing notes under 51.'va- duction of baronetage, it certainly should Jue; and yet privileged not to pay its be the aim of every man to get himself notes in cash, as long as parliament inay enrolled in this respectable order, who

Your's, &c. possesses upwards of a thousand a year Der. 19, 1809.

T. F. in landed property. I am far from inclu

ding other men, even did their incomes To the Editor of the Alonthly Magazine. amount to double or treble this sum; it $IR,

would be hard to say what sort of a THE race for obtaining tities and diedley we might then have! Landed

bereditary distinctions, has of late property slould alone be included; for, years increased astonishingly. During this devolving inalienably to the heirs

through

think proper.

TOE

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