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che roses ; those of Shiraz, Kirman, and cannot be traced back two hundred Cashmere, are particularly celebrated, years. as the following quotations will prove.. In this opinion, I dissent very much
The learned Kæmpfer, (in his Amani. from many ingenious men; and amongst fales E.rodica, page 374, inforıns us, others from Mr. Weston, who, (in his that “the roses of Shiraz yield on dis- Specimen of the Conformity of Lansillation, a thick substance, resembling guages, &c. page 113,) expresses hiş butter, called attar gul; and this oil is belief that the otlar, or essence of roses, purchased for its weight in gold, and is in the oil with which the Psalmist desires anequalled in sweetness and fragrance; to be anointed, because he styles the oil which shows, that the roses of the ter- green.-Psalm xcii. 10. vitory of Persepolis, are of the hottest nature." The same traveller adds, “ that Delibutus sum in oleo viridi. sandal-wood gives additional strength to Nothing can be more vague than this the perfume;" and this observation is epithet; since many kinds of oil are of confirmed by Colonel Polier, who re- that colour, and since the ottar is not marks, however, at the same time, that always green: besides, it is not certain this addition reduces the value of the es- that the Hebrew epithet pro should be sence. The use of sandal-wood succeeds understood as expressing any particular better in the composition of simple rose- colour; and the Septuagint have renwater, which according to the ingenious dered it by the Greek word nion, fat ; Anquetil du Perron (see his Zendavesta, (the Eoglish version says, “I shall be pol. i. 525, &c.) is styled Sundali gulub, anointed with fresh oil.") I shall not or, if we may so translate it, rose-water here detain my readers by a long digres of sandal. In the first volume of Lin- sion, in which it might he proved that schoten's Voyages, (pp. 125-126) we the Hebrews, as well as the Christians, read, that the sandal-wood itself pro- employed only common oil, and nat per: duces an edoriferous oil,
fumes, in the consecration of their kings. The roses of Kirman are described, But, in support of my opinion on the by Olearius, and other travellers, as won- recent discovery of the ottar, I shall adderfully abundant, and a very delightful duce both negative and positive proofs; water is said to be distilled from them, and I hope to demonstrate, that it was which forms a considerable branch of not known before the year 1021 of the comunerce in that country; but those Mohamedan, qr 1612 of the Christian, writers have not made any mention of æra; my negative proofs are derived che essence.
from the silence of Eastern, and of EuThe most exquisite roses of Asia, ap. sopcan writers, prior to the epoch above pear to be those of Cashmere ; and Mr. mentioned. Forster, (in Journey from India to Pe. In the works of Hafiz, and of Sadi, fersburgh, vol. i. page 15, quarto edi- we find frequent mention of the gulub, or tion,) says, “I may venture to class in rose-water; none of the oltar, or essence, the first rank of vegetable produce, the Sherifaddin Ali Yezdi, who wrote a Mise pose of Cashmere, which, for its brilliancy tory of Tamerlane, often deseribes the and delicacy of odour, has long been perfumes lavishly expended in the enproverbial in the East; and its essential tertainments given by that Tartar con, oil, or otlar, is held in universal estima- queror, and his children ; but the histo sion." lodeed, long before the publication rian is silent on the subject of the ottar. of Mr. Forster's Travels, we had learned The Ayeen Akbery, or Commentary from Monsieur Aoquetil du Perron, that of the Grand Mogul Akber, translated by the best species of rose was produced in Mr. Gladwin, of Calcutta, coytains a Cashmere,
chapter on the regulation of the Imperial Roses are found in great abundance Perfuinery, in which various preparations also in Syria, Fajume, and the different of roses are noticed, without any mention provinces of the Barbary states; and an of the essence. This work, the Ayeen essence is extracted from them, but Akbery, was composed in the year of our much inferior to that of Persia, and of æra, 1569; and consequently, forty-ixo Cashmere. One would scarcely imagine years before the date that I have asthat a process, at once so simple, and so signed to the discovery of the ottar. universally known throughout the East, As to European travellers, I can venand even on the coasts of Western ture to affirm, that of those who visited Africa, and which is the result of another Persia and Hindoostan, and whose narprocess in use, from time immemorial, ratives prior to the seventeenth century
have been collected by Hackluit, Pur- Princess Nour-jehan first called the Otchas, De Bry, Melchisedec Thevenot, tar of Jchangir, (in compliment to the Bergeron, Churchill, Harris, &c. not one Emperor) and other perfumes of a mure has spokeu of the essence of roses: many inoderate value, and within the attaiiiof them describe the rose-water as a ment of persons of small forture, are of mast, pleasing perfume, and in terins her and her niother's invention." Tlie which prove their ignorance of the other succeeding chapter, entitled, History preparation.
of the Seventh Year of Jehängir's Reign, But a positive proof of what I have and of the Festival of the New Yeut, asserted, is derived from the annals of &c. begins with some particulars more The Moghal Empire, of which the authors precise and satisfactory than the passage were perhaps witnesses of the facts above given.--" At the coinmencemnet that they relate.
of this festival, the niother of Princess We shall begin by consulting a flistory Nourjehan, having presented some es of the Grand Moghuls, written in the sence of roses which she had extracted, Persian language by Mohammed Has and the Emperor having approved of it, ben; an important work, entitled, he thought proper to bestow on the dis
Tarikk Montekhch lubab, or The au- covery his own august name, and it was thentic Abridgment of Chronicles." called Ottar Jelungiri ; and to the priti
This, which is preserved among the ma- cess he gave a necklace of pearl, worth Buscripts of the National Library, in thirty thousand rupees; it is inteed a Paris, passes rapidly over the reigns of wonderful discovery, for no pertume Timur, and bis descendants; and in can equal it; and its vivifying odour is fact, commences with the account of grateful to angels, genii, anid men. The Beber, who in the year 1526, conquered author of this work recollects, that the Hudoostan; and it ends with the year price of good Ottar Jehangiri, until the 1677; when Mohammed Shah was on beginning of the reign of Aulumgír, (who the throne. The discovery of the oltar now resides in Paradise) was eignity of roses is twice noticed in this listory, rupees for a tolah; whilst, in our line, aud in the most unequivocal manner : this same essence has fallen in price to first, in a chapter entitled, Marriage of eight or sine rupees per tolah." the Princess Nour Jehan, with the In Those two quotations agree perfectly kabitent of Paradise, (that is, the lately with the following passage, from the flisNeceased). Jehungir, the Intentions and tory of Hindostan, compiled in English
Discoveries of the Queen of the World, by Mr. Gladwin, from numerous nate&c. This Princess, Nour Jehan, (a title rials collected with much lavour and exa signifying, Light of the Universe,) was the pease, during a residence of twenty-three celebrated beauty called also Jihr al years in India. “The inanner of inaking Nesa, (or the Bright Sun of Women.) the ottar," says this ingenious writer She inspired the Emperor Jehangir with " was at this time discovered by thic so violent a passion, that to possess her mother of Nourjehan. The otcar is üte charms he con sived the assassination of essential oil of rosës, which poats in a her husband; she even exercised the very small quantity on the surfirce of sovereign power, during the space of six distilled rose-water, whilst yet waith; and months, and money was coined in her it is collected by ineáris of a little bit of wame: but we are not authorized in at- cotton fastened to the end of a stick; it tributing to her (as is generally done) is the most delightful of all perfütives, iluse rupees which bear the signs of the and in fragrance equals the new-blust zodiacs for although struck under the rose. The Emperor, as a retard for the regn of Jehangir, they have quite a dif- invention, bestowed on the låttý a nieckfereut origin. This fascinating woman, lâce of most precious pearts; and the sho employed every art to secure her Princess Selima Sultana, (one of the influence over the monarch of Hin- widows of Akbar,) gave it the naine of dorretan, introduced many innovations in Oitar Jehangiri.' the female dress, and we may say, in Thus have the Eastern authors, in my vented fashions, à circumstance before opinion, cleared up every doubt 'as to Unknown in Asia; on this subject, the the epoch, and the author of this dischapter abore quoted, contains many covery; but none of them have indicated fanuus details: but it will be sufficient the manner in which the discovery was co extract one passage, relating to the mađe: this, however, we learn from th object which engages our attention. European traveller. Manucci, a phyThe Essence of Rose-water whích the síciau of Venice, duri., á tesidence w
India of forty years, enquired much wo ded at Wisbech, in Cambridgeshire. It the annals of that empire; and composed is to be regretied that few memorials rean historical work of considerable mago main of her; but two ancient and respectnitude, adorned with well-executed mic able inhabitants, irow deceased, have reniatures. This work, of whicù the authen. lated to the writer of tins the followiug ricity cannot be disputed, was translated incidents:—Wtren she first caine, she aud abridged by Catrou, under the title sought employment by standing (as is of a General History of the Mogul usual with labourers at this day who want Empire, trom its Foundation to the pre- work) on or near the foot of the bridge, seni Time;" and among the curious where, in hay-time and harvest, the farmanecdotes collected by Manucci, is one éts resurt every morning to hire. She which throws great light on the subject selected for her abode, a celiar in a part of this essay. It is natural to imayine, of the town called the Old Market, where that the adulterous amours of Jehangir she spun worsted; to dispose of which, with Nourjehan form an interesting she regularly had a stall on the market. portion of the Emperor's bistory; it was day.' Being once thus employed, she reat a feast giren by the ambitious female cognised by the arins and livery, a'coach to her illustrious lorer, that the essence and attendants going to the principal inn, of roses was discovered. Amidst, the (the Rose and Crown,) near to which her varieties of luxury displayed on that oc- stall stood, upon which, she inmediately casion, the princess had contrived that packed up her worsted, retired' to her rose-water should flow in a small canal cell
, and carefully concealed herself. throughout the gardens; whilst the Em- The owner, who was said to be the Duke peror walked with her along the borders of Argyle, endeavoured to find her, but of the canal, thiey perceived a kind of without effect. The house under which iscusă, fluating on the surface of the water; she lived has been since rebuilt, and and when it approached the brink, they part of it is now occupied by the Lady gathered and examined it; and this was Mary Knollis, aunt to the present Earl 65 a substance produced by the sun, from Banbury. She constantly attended, the rose-water. All the court agreed in when in health, the meeting of the Society acknowledging, that this oily substance of Friends in Wisbech; was humble and was the most exquisite perfume known çxemplary in her conduct, well esteemed in India, and m course of time, art en- by her neighbours, invariably avoided all deavoured to initate what had been at conversation relative to her family confirst the offspring of accident, and of nexions; and when in the freedom of nature."---(thistoire Generale des Mo- intercourse, any expressiou inadvertently gols; tom. 1. 320.)
escaped, leading to an enquiry, slre stops These particulars are by no means 011- ped short, seemed to regret having disworthy of credit; for Manucci arrived in closed so much, and silenced further reIndia, during the reign of Shah-jehu, search. She read the New Testament son and successor of Jehangir, whilst the in Greek; but even this circumstance was recollection of these circumstances was, discovered accidentally by an unexpected . no doubt, still fresh in the memory of se- call: was fond of birds, which were treveral persons. The essence had been, for quently allowed to leave their cages, and a long time, observed to swim on the sur- fly about ia her apartment. When near face of distilled rose-water; but in so eighty, she had a new set of teeth. She small a quantity, that no one had thought dred (according to the Friends' Register)
of collecting it; a fortunate accident in- "the 12th of 7th 'mo. 1742, aged 88," spired the idea; the discovery being once and was buried in the Society's grave-yard made, (hke most others.) appeared so sim. at Wisbech, where, out of respect to her ple, that we are astonished that the ottar meinory, box has been planted round her was not found by the first chemist who ap- grave, with ber initials, age, and date, plied this atembic to oxperiments on roses. which still remain to mark the spot of
Your's, &c. A. To the Editor of the Monthly Vagasine. SIR,
For the Monthly Maguzine. AN ÉStuart, the extraordinary cha- LETTERS descriptive of CHELTEN DAN, racter of whom some account is
und its vicinity. gren in the Monthly Magazine for Octo.
LETTER III. ber la-t, supposed to be a natural daugh
Cheltenbam, July 27, 1808. ter of King James II. after renouncing THANKS to the favourable state of the world and sendour of courts, resi. the weather, this place is now ra3
pidly álling; indeed, the last fortnight has house. Through Church Meadow,, a puured in upon us such crowds of compa- raised path is continued to the brook. E, that we are actually fearful of an in- A new crescent, situated immediately to vudation. The principal inns and best the right of this path, is in a state of conlodgings are already full
, while many poor siderable forwardness, and is intended to quiet scols, who really prefer the calm be embellished with a terrace in front, coafurt of obscurity to the gay flutter of which will command a pleasant, though fastian, have positively retired to the confined, prospect. A shallow stream, neigblouring villages, where lodgings are which has been dignified with the appelnot yet become scarce. Upwards of lation of the “ River Chelt," separates twelve hundred names already appear on this meadow from the well-walk, the acthe subscription-books; and to these nu- cess to which is over a small draw-bridge, merous additions are daily making. A on whose construction no praise can be few seasons ago, when one well alone bestowed. furnished our delicious morning-beverage, The scene here is highly interesting, it was constantly drank dry by eight and in no small degree beautiful. A o'clock. Now, thank Heaven, we are am. fine avenue ef elms leads directly to the ply supplied—nay spas are become so pump, above which another of lines exnumerous, that I think half the popula- tends to the second or “Orchard Well.”. tion of the kingdom might be supplied Here a serpentine walk, surrounding a with this sovereign panacea.
small lawn, shaded with firs and young At every turn l' greet some old ac elms, gives a charming finish to the quaintance, or see some distinguished whole. The pump rises in the form of personage; and our tea-tables teen with an obelisk, under an arched dome, near interesting anecdotes of illustrious visi- the centre of the walks; from whence tors. In London, a similarity of man. a romantic cottage at the upper extreners usually conceals those little traits of mity, terminates the view with a most character, that are so peculiarly interest-, happy effect; while the church spire, img to an intelligent observer; but here rising in the centre of the opposite averestraint is thrown off. Confined within nue, and exhibiting a dial, on which the a limited sphere of society, and a circuin progress of time inay be observed from scribed round of amusements, the various the walks, is an object inexpressibly pleapursuits of individuals are strictly scruti
. sing. On one side of the paved court, . nized, and publicity given to trivial oc- in which stands the purp, is a long room, currences, that in the great metropolis that occasionally affords shelter from the entirely escape observation. But hold; passing shower; and this room is usually I forget that I have not yet described our enlivened by Riviere's splendid and grand morning-promenade. Can you tempting display of jewellery. On the believe it? We rise here soon after six other is Fassana's print and toy-shop; o'clock, and immediately sally forth to together with an orchestra, where a band the well. The walk thither at this early of music regularly performs during the hour is truly delightful. Nature, clad in
Nature, clad in time of drinking the water. her gayest robe, gladdens every beart; and These walks are every morning at an pleasure seems to sparkle in every eye. early hour filled with company; and I ne
The common foot-way to the old spa, ver witnessed a scene more exhilarating lies through the church-yard, the different and more delightful than that which here walks of which are shaded by double uniformly presents itself. On every side rows of lime-trees, whose prim-trained interesting groups are to be seen, who, heads disgust the eye of taste with their while the balıny zephyrs of morning seem tedious uniformity. At the end of the to spread over each countenance the glow church-yard, many newsbuilt shops ex- of animation, biend the enjnyment of sobibit the promising appearance of a new cial converse with the pleasure of healthFreet, that will, in the course of time, pro- ful exercise. The young and the old, babig extend to the crescent. The the vigorous and the infirin, here mingle ground occupied by these, was lately a with unwonted alacrity, and appear to gravel walk, which, following a serpentine derive equal delight from the varied gaiety directiou, opened into Church 'Mead, with which they are surrounded. Here leaving at a little distance on the riglić we meet some of the brightest luminaries the "Great House," that 'memorable in the hemisphere of fashion, and observe monument of female caprice. This was many of the most distinguished frequentbuilt by the late Lady Stapleton, for a ers of Bond-street and St. James's; for family residence; but it is now converted too often are they compelled to resort
to a spacious and convenient lodging bither, to repair the devastations of the MONTULY MAG. No. 194.