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dom; that nothing but yirtue deserves race, his Odes, is the only author our adiniration, and that,' without it, who has shown the compass of the Latin there can be no true or rational freedom. language, in all the variety of composiHe has proved liimself a master in the tion. This renders it a task of considerinose difñcult part of human conduct, that atle difficulty to imitate him, with any of arivising ouvis, which he always dnej degree of ease or elegance. He has a with great sincerity, but without the ap- nude of expression peculiar to himself, pearance of premeditation. By this me. which sometimes balflcs every attempt to thod, the advice had a better effect upon convey his meaning into the idiom of any. the person who received it, because moderis language There are few poets of there was no affcctation of superiority shum versions have been more frequently in him who gave it. Had this bcen vi attempted: no one, perhaps, has had sible, it would only have offended that less justice done to him; and it is the inherent pride in our

mature, which

more extraordinary, that his lesser Odes, makes every man so unwilling to acknow, I mean thuse that treat of humbler subledge, or he told or, bis faults. For in. jects, bare been unitormly found the ştance, when writing in praise of in sile, most dotheult; witness the 9th of ration, he addresses himself to an nin bin lib. 3, the favourite Ode of Scaliger. tious maii,'shows him the danger of his Those who will be at the pains to exadarling passi'n, and the charins of con- mine it, will find its peculiar merit to 'tentment. Thus, without touching his consist in the delicacy, brevity, and sim, fuible, by, descending to particulars, he plicity, of the expressions; the beautiful demonstrates to the person addressed order of the words, and he harmonious the danger of the measures he pursues. seetness of the numbers. This little The 10th Ode of lib. 2, to Licinius Mu. Orie, though of all others, perhaps, the ræna; is a fine example of this. Muræna most laboured at, has been the worst was brother-in-law to Mecænas, and, executed. Its beautiful and unaffected. througl his interest, could have little brevity sets translation at defiance; and doubt of being promoted. But tiris would is a model of that perfection of style, not satisfy his restless ambition;, nor which La Bruyere admired, the art of could the seasonable advice of Horace using the one proper expression, which - prevent him from entering into a conspi- can alone be right. racy withi Fannius and others, which cost Creech, who had done ample justice him bis life-In the 15th of lib. 1, to the philosophic verse of Lucretius, where he represents Nereus as declaring lost all his laurels by bis attempt upon to Paris the deplorable fate of Troy, Horace. He has also been fatal to the which will attend bis rape of Heten, he reputation of some others. The version warns Antony not to give himself up to of Francis.is, upon the whole, the best the charts of Cleopatra, which must executed : in some parts of the Odes, he inevitably end in his ruin; and in the is highly Horatian; moral, without bepreceding Ode, he, by a beautiful alle- irg dull; gay and spirited, with progory, exhibits to the Romans all the ca- priety; -and tender, without being lans lamities of their civil wars, and exhorts guid. Some of the imitations of Dunthem to peace. Ilavily inclined, as we combe are spirited and elegant; but, in obsented at the close o: our last Numbers general, he is inferior to Fraocis. to the: Stoic philosophy, towards the Quinctilian bas said, indeed, that he latter part of his life, he consequently would not have the whole of Horace ing armed himself with their principles terpreted ; and he, allules to the Odes, against the fear of death. Thus he de rather than to the Satires. This caution scribes his wise, man as braving adver- will appear singular, anei would, at leasi, sity, and expecung mortality to put an have seemed to be equally applicable to end to any misfortunes that may befal the rest of his works.' Creech gives this him. This is done allegorically, under reason , " which,” he says, "must be the characters of Pentheus and Pacchus; taken from the design and subject matter that is, the wise man will then display the of the poems. To describe and reforın a same coutage which Bacchus did in his vicians san, necessarily requires some auswer to Penthicus, in a tragedy of expressions which an ode caunot wante Euripides.

The paint which an artist uses must be . We shal close this general account-by agrecable to the piece which he designs. a, tem reunasks upon the duiculty of Satire is to instruct, and that supposes a translating this interesting puet. Här knowledge and discovery of the crime

whale

can

while Odcs are made only to instruct and the discovery, of which these pages treat, to please, and therefore every thing that is not by any means so ancient as many offends in tliem is unpardunable." have imagined. However numerous the

To enumerate the various editions of admirers of this fragrant Ollur may be Horace would more than till the columns in Europe, as in Asia, I wish to pay it we have already occupieri. We thus my public homage.- A verse froir therefore select only a few even of the Hafiz, the Persian Anacreon, will not be best.

here misplaced : Horatius, 410. Editio Princefs, sine anno, loco, vel typorn phiindicio.

Hafiz ! wesal.i-guil tulbce bemebu bultulan, 816. Ferrar. 1474.

'Jan Kun fedai Kbuk i rabi- bagbban i gul. fol. Mediol. ditto.

“()! Habz, thou desirest like 'he Nightfol. Venet. 1478, 1483, 1490. ingale the presence of the rose ! let thy very 12mo. apud Ald. 1501. soul be a ranson for the earth, where the fol. illustrated by 80 commenta. keeper of the Rose-garden walks!” tors. Basil, 1580. Of this edit. Dr. Harwood says, " that it con

In this couplet, he alludes to the loves tains the observations and remarks of the Nightingale and the Rose, which on Horace, which were made by have been celebrated by so many poets the great scholars of that illus- of Arabia, Persia, and Turkey. trious age-the glorious age of the The word Ortur, or Athr, used by the revival of literature; as well as Asiatics, to express the essence of roses, the criticisms or the old commen- is originally Arabic; and signifies an tators, Acron, Porphyrion, &c” aromatic odour, or perfume in general; 4to. Cruquii. L. Bat. 1593. Cru

it is derived from Allara, or A'rlura, (to quias is considered one of the best períume one's-self,) &c. and it seems to

commentators on Horace. Horatii Opera, a Dan. Heinsio, 12mo. Elz.

have some affinity with another Arabic L. Bar, 1629.

work, Katara, (to drop, or distil by in usum Delphini, 410. Paris, drops, &c.) and to the Hebrew Ketr, 1691.

(he has perfumed, &c.) The Chaldaic Horatius, cum notis v riorum, 8vo. Lug. word Katura expressed cleven kinds of

Bat. 1653, 1658, 63, 68, 70, aromatics, which the Jews burned in
The first of chese is the best. their sacrifices. (See Schultens's Clavis
à Bentley, 40. Cantab. 1711:- Dialect: ling Hebr. et Arab; page 296 :
Amster. 1713, 1728.

and Castelli Lexicon loptaglott, ad Baxter, 8vo. Lond. 1701, 1725. vocem 70p.).

· As to the resemblance Gesnesi, Lips. 1752, 1772. which Mr. Weston, (in a work which !

Oservationibus Zew- "shalt hereafter quote) imagines he has nii, 8vo. Lips. 1788-1802. Hora:ii Opera, 12mo.' Glasg. 1744, called and the European odour, I leave it for

found between the Arabic word Ottar, the immaculate edition. Horace, by Watson, Lat. and Eng. 2. vol. my readers to determine on the etymo8vo. Lond.

logy. I must here remark, iliat flowers by Francis, with the orig. text.

in general, and rises from meir peculiar 4 vol. 12mo. 1747. 4to. 1749. excellence, are termed in Arabic, ward; The edition by the late Gilb. Wakefield, is and in Persian, gul; but the ottar is not executed with uncommon accuracy and ele- to be confoundeil with the gulab, or gance.

rose-water, which is simply the product

of roses, distilled with water, according For the Monthly Magazine. to a process well known to all per umers, ENQUIRIES into the discovery of the boih'of Europe and Asia ; this, indeed,

ESSENCE of Ruses; transluted fiom the is the previous and indispensable preP.ECU EPCHES SUR LA DECOUVERTE DE paration, for obtaining the essence, or L'ESSENCE ROSE, of MONSIEUR ottur, for after a certain quantity of LANCLES, MEMBER, of the NATIONAL ro-es has been so distillet, (as Colonel INSTITUTE, KEEPER of the Or.IENTAL Polier indicates in the first volume of MANUSCRIPTS, &c. &c.

Asiatic Researchers,) the rose water is FROM the çitle of this little essay, it left exposed to the cool air of the night;

mniglit appear, that I incur the re- and on the sext day, a very inconsiderproach of having devoted my time to "able portion of oliur is found congealed frrolous researches, but my object has on the surface of the rose water. It may teen tn correct an error. very frequent 'be easily supposed, that the quantity of among Orientalists; and to prove that cssence depends much on the quality of

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ebe roses ; those of Shiraz, Kirman, and cannot be traced back two hundred Cashmere, are particularly celebrated, years. *s the following quotations will prove. In this opinion, I dissent very much

The learned Kæmpfer, (in his Amani from many ingenious wen; and amongst lates £,rolicæ, page 374,) inforins us, others from Mr. Weston, who, (in his ahat "the roses of Shiraz yield on dis- Specimen of the Conformity of Langillation, a thick substance, resembling guages, &c. page 113,) expresses hiş butter, called attar gul; and this oil is belief that the ottar, or essence of roses, purchased for its weight in gold, and is is the oil with which the Psalmist desires inequalled in sweetness and fragrance; to be anointed, because he styles the oil which shows, that the roses of the ter- green.-Psalm xcii. 10. vitory of Persepolis, are of the hottest nature." The same traveller adds," that Delibutus sum in oleo viridi. sandal-wood gives additional strength to Nothing can be more vague than this the perfume;" and this observation is epithet; since many kinds of oil are of confirmed by Colonel Polier, who re- that colour, and since the ottar is not marks, however, at the same time, that always green : besides, ië is not certain this addition reduces the value of the es- that the Hebrew epithet 7v7 should be sence. The use of sandal-wood succeeds understood as expressing any particular better in the composition of simple rose- colour; ayd the Septuagint have renwater, which according to the ingenious dered it by the Greek word nion, fat ; Anquetil du Perron (see his Zendavesta, (the Eoglish version says, I shall be vol. i. 525, &c.) is styled Sundali gulub, anointed with fresh oil.") I shall not or, if we may so translate it, rose-water here detain my readers by a long digres of sandal. In the first volume of Line sion, in which it might be proved that schotel's Voyages, (pp. 125-126) we the Hebrews, as well as the Christians, read, that the sandal-wood itself pro- employed only common oil, and nat per duces an odoriferous oil,

fumes, in the consecration of their kings. Tbe roses of Kirman are described, But, in support of my opinion on the by Olearius, and other travellers, as won- recent discovery of the ottar, I shall ad. derfully abundant, and a very delightful duce both negative and positive proofs; water is said to be distilled from them, and I hope to demonstrate, that it was which forms a considerable branch of not known before the year 1021 of the comunerce in that country; but those Mohamedan, or 1612 of the Christian, writers have not made any mention of æra; my negative prools are derived the essence.

from the silence of Eastem, and of EuThe most exquisite roses of Asia, ap. rupean writers, prior to the epoch above pear to be those of Cashmere ; and Mr. mentioned.

Forster, (in Journey from India to Pe- In the works of Hafiz, and of Sadi, tersburgh, val. ii. page 15, quarto edi- we find frequent mention of the gulub, or tion,) says, “ I may venture to class in rose-water; none of the oftar, or essence, the first rank of vegetable produce, the Sherifaddin Ali Yezdi, who wrote a HisJose of Cashmere, which, for its brilliancy tory of Tamerlane, often describes the and delicacy of odour, has long been perfumes lavishly expended in the enproverbial in the East; and its essential tertainments given by that Tartar cono oil, or otlar, is held in universal estima- queror, and his children; but the histo: sion." Ladeed, long before the publication rian is silent on the subject of the oitar. of Mr. Korster's Travels, we had learned The Ayeen Akbery, or Commentary from Monsieur Anquetil du Perron, that of the Grand Mogul Akber, translated by she best species of rose was produced in Mr. Gladwin, of Calculta, contains Cashmere.

chapter on the regulation of the Imperial Roses are found in great abundance Perfumery, in which various preparations also in Syria, Faiume, and the different of roses are noticed, without any mention provinces of the Barbary states; and an of the essence. This work, the Ayeen essence is extracted from them, but Akbery, was composed in the year of our mnch inferior to tbat of Persia, and of æra, 1569; and consequently, forty-kyo Cashmere. One would scarcely imagine years before the date that I have asthat a process, at once so simple, and so signed to the discovery of the attrir. universally known throughove the East, As to European travellers, I can ven. and exen on the coasts of Western ture to affirm, that of those who visited Africa, and which is the result of another Persia and Hindoostan, and whose parprocess in use, from time immemorial, ratives prior to the seventeenth century have been collected by Hackluit, Pur- Princess Nour-jehan first called the Otchas, De Brs, Melchisedec Thevenot, tur of Jchangir, (in compliment to use Bergeron, Churchill

, Harris, &c. not one Emperor) and other perfunies of a moře has spokeu of the essence of roses: many noderaté value, and within the attailof them describe the rose-water as a ment of persons of small forture, are of most pleasing perfume, and in terms her and her mother's inventioti." The which prove their ignorance of the other succeeding chapter, entitled, . History preparation.

of the Seventh Year of Jehungir's Reiga, Bat a positive proof of what I have and of the Festival of the New Yeut, asserted, is derived from the annals of &c. begins with some particulars more the Moghul Empire, of which the authors precise and satisfactory than the passage were perhaps witnesses of the facts above given.-" At the coinmencement that they relate.

of this festival, the niother of Princess We shall begin by consulting a flistory Nourjehan, having presented soine és of the Grand Moghuls, written in the sence of roses which she had extracted, Persian language by Mohammed Has- and the Emperor having approved of it, hem; an important work, entitled, he thought proper to bestow on the disa * Tarikh Montekach lubus, or The au- covery Inis own august nanie, and it was thentic Abridgment of Chronicles." called Ottur Jelungiri ; and to the pritThis, which is preserved among the ma- cess he gave a necklace of peal, word nuscripts of the National Library, in thirty thousand rupees; it is inteed a Paris, passes rapidly over the reigns of wonderful discovery, for nu perfume Timur,' and bis descendants; and in can equal it; and its vivifying odour is fact, commences with the account of grateful to angels, genii, and men. Tive Beber, who in the year 1526, conquered author of this work recollects, that die Hiudoostan; and it ends with the year price of good Ottar Jchangiri, until the 1077; when Mohammed Shah was on beginning of the reign of Aulumgir, (who the throne. The discovery of the oltar now resides in Paradise) was cigling of roses is twice noticed in this History, rupees for a toluh ; whilst, iv our time, and in the most unequivocal manner : this same essence has fallen in price to first, in a chapter entitled, Marriage of eight or wine rupees per telah." the Princess Nour Jehan, with the In- Those two quotations agree perfectly habitant of Paradise, (that is, the lately with the following passage, from the flisdeceased) Jehangir, the Intentions and tory of Hindostali

, compiled in English Discoveries of the Queen of the World, by Mr. Gladwin, from numerous mart$. This Princess, Nour Jehan, (a title rials collected with mucli labeur auld exsignifying, Light of the Universe,) was the pease, during a residence of twenty-tlirete celebrated beauty called also Hihr al years in India. “The manner of inaking Nesa, for the Bright Sun of Women..) the ottar," says this ingenious writet, Slie inspired the Emperor Jehangir with was at this tiine discovered by thic bo violent a passion, that to possess her mouier of Dourjehan. The otcar is ühe charms he con sived the assassination of essential oil of roses, ybich Boats in a her husband; she even exercised the very giall quantity or the surface of sovereign power, during the space of six distilled rose-water, whilst vet varth; and months and money was coined in her it is collected by means of a little bit of name: but we are not authorized in at- cotton fastened to the end of a stick; it tributing to her (as is generally done) is the most delighiful of att petruties,

which bear the signs of the and în fragrance equals the new-blown zodiacs for although struck under the föse. The Emperor, as a retard for thie reign of Je!angir, they have quite a dif. invention, bestowed on the latlý a neckfereut origin. This fascinating woman, lâce of most precious pearts; and tfie who employed every art to secure her Princess Selima Sultank, one of the influence over the monarch of Hin- widows of Akbar,) gave it the naine of dostan, introduced

innovations in Oitar Jehangiri. the female dress, and we may say, in- Thus, have the Eastern authors, in my vented fashions, a circumstance before opinion, cleared up every doubt as to Unknown in Asia; on this subject, the the epoch, and the author of this disstrapter above quoted, contains many covery; but none of them have indicated curious details: but it will be sufficient the manner in which the discovery was tu extråct one passage, relating to the made: this, however, we learn from 'n object which engages our attention. Furopean traveller. Manucci, a ply"The Essence of Rose-water which the síciau of Venice, during a residence in

many

those rupees

India of forty years, enquired much to ded at Wisbech, in Cambridgeshire. Ic the annals of that enspire; and composed is to be regretied that tew memorials rean historical work of considerable mag- main of her; but two ancient and respecta nitude, adorned with well-executed mic able inhabitants, irow deceasea, have reniatures. This work, of which the authen- lared to the writer of this the followiug licity cannot be disputed, was translated incidents :-Wiren she first 'came, she aud abridged by Catro, under the tile sought employment by standing (as is of a "General History of the Mogul usual with labourers at this day who want Empire, from its Foundation to the pre- work) on or near the foot of the bridge, sent Time;" and among the curious where, in hay-time and harvest, the farmanecdotes collected by Manucci, is one ers resurt every morning to hire. She which throws great light on the sunject selected for her abode, a cellar in a part of this essay. It is natural to imayine, of the town called the Old Market, where that the adulterous amours of Jehangir she spun worsted; to dispose of which, with Nourjehan torn an interesting she regularly had a stall on the markets portion of the Emperor's bistory; it was day.' Being once thus employed, she reat a teasi ghen by the ambitious female cognised by the arms and livery, a coach to her illustrious lover, that the essence and attendants going to the principal inn, of roses was discovered. Amidst the (the Rose and Crown,) near to which her varieties of luxury displayed on that occ stall stood, upon which, she imediately casion, the princess had contrived that packed up her worsted, retired to her rose-water should flow in a sinall canal cell, and carefully concealed herself. throughout the gardens; whilst the Em- The owner, who was said to be the Duke peror walked with her along the borders of Argyle, endeavoured to find her, but of the canal, they perceived a kind of without effect. The'house under which scusñ, fluating on the surface of the water; she lived has been since' rebuilt, and and when it approached the brink, they part of it is now occupied by the Lady gathered and examined it; and this was Mary Knollis, aunt to the present Earl of a substance procluced by the sun, from Banbury. She constantly attended, che rose-water. All the court agreed in when in health, the meeting of the Society acknowledging, that this vily substance of Friends in Wisbech; was humble and was the most exquisite perfund known çxemplary in her conduct, well esteemed in India, and a course of time, art en- by her neighbours, invariably avoided ali deavoured to imitate what had been at conversation relative to her family confirst the offspring of accident, and of nexions; and when in the freedom of nature, "---(Ilistoire Generale des Mo- intercourse, any expression inadvertently gols ; tom. 1.320.)

escaped, leathng to an enquiry, slre stops These particulars are by no means 011- ped short, seemed to regret baving disa worthy of credit; for Manucci arrived in closed so much, and silenced further reIndia, during the reign of Shalı-jeha, scarcks. She rear the New Festament son and successor of Jehangir, whilst the in Greek; but even this cireumstance was recollection of these circumstances was, discovered accidentally by an unexpected no doubt, still fresh in the memory of se- call: was fond of birds, which were free veral persous. The essence had been, for quently allowed to leave their cages, and a long time, observed to swim on the sur- fly about in ber apartment. When near face of distilled rose-water; hut in so eighty, she had a 'new set of teeth. She small a quantity, that no one had thought died (according to the Friends' Register) of collecting it; a fortunate accident in- “ the 12th of 7th 'mo. 1742, 'aged 88," spired the idea; the discovery being once and was buried in the Society's grave-yard made, (hke most o:fiers) appeared so sime at Wisbech, where, out of respect to her ple, that we are astonished that the ottar meinory, box has been planted round her was not found by the first chemist who ap- grave, with ber initials, age, and daie, plied bis alembic to experiments on roses.

which still remain to mark the spot of

her interment. Your's, &c. A. To the Editor of the Monthly Magasine.

For the Monthly Magazine.
SIR,
AA É Swart, the extraordinary cha- LETTENS descriptive of CHELTENHAM,.
racter of whom some account is

und its VICINITY. ghen in the Monthly Magazine for Octo.

LETTER III. ber la-t, supposed to be a natural daugh

Cheltenbam, Yuly 27, 1808. ter of King James II. after renouncing THANKS to the favourable state of the world and sendour of courts, resi the weather, this place is now ra. 3

pidly

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