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pertinacious, or in any degree blame- time, many persons who cultivated the able, if, for the above reasons, I continue study of numismatics. "This opinion is the same practice in English ; leaving confirmed by plated medals; amongst every one to follow me or not, at his dise which are found some that never were, cretion, and trusting to time and expe- perhaps, in general currency as legal rience for a final decision. I must ex- coin. Such is a denarius of Tiberius, press my regret that the title of the Line with the reverse of the children of Aunean Society, as I would always write gustus, and the legend “ C. L. Casures it, has in its charter been spelt Linnean. Augusti F.Cos.desig, Princ. Juventutis." The latter had in view the name of Linné, Oiber coins esteemed, on whatever acand was so far proper; but I have always count, must rare, are discovered amongst conceived the diphthong to be more clas- the plated, especially those of the Roman sical, and, if we preserve the word Line empresses; and to a fraud directed naus in English, undoubtedly inore cor- against the ancient collectors, M. Waxrect. In this point, most certainly, every ell is willing to attribute those handsome writer may judge for hinselt, and in counterfeits, whilst the more coinmun speaking there luckily is no ambiguity. were probably made from the same mo

Norwich, JAMES EDWARD SMITII. tives which influence the coiners of base March 10, 1810.

money in our own times : and this ap

pears from the beauty of the former, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. which bespeaks the hands of excellent SIR,

artists; whilst the others are coarsely exeTHOSE coins which the French de- cuted, and often exhibit errors in the

dates and orthography, which show that plated medals, are generally of brass, the only object in making them, was that covered with a coat of gold' or silver. they inight circulate in place of the curSome few have been discovered of iron rent and legal money. and of lead, but hitherto this branch of We are authorised in supposing that pumismatic antiquity has been neglected; the plated medals are of the most remote which consideration induced M. Waxell, period of coinage. The oldest are found a very learned and ingenious Russian, among:t the Grecians, of which the re, lately in this country, to communicate, verscs are impressed with four strokes of in a little French work, (elegantly printed the punch, probably because the art of and published by Booth, in Duke-street,) striking both sides was not known in the result of his enquiries, which lie those early ages; or perhaps from the hopes may lead to interesting discoveries circumstance of the medal being placed on the subject of ancient Greek and Ro- on a block or supporter, whilst it received man coinage. From bis work we learn, the blow of the hamner. thar, in almost all nations, necessity or In M. Waxell':. collection, is a medal poverty, and we might perhaps add, ava- of Macedon, considered as of the most rice, occasioned the counterfeiting of le. ancient kind; this proves that the art gitimate coin, a'thoughi death was the of plating coins was practised about five punishment of this criine.--See Ulpiun : hundred years before the Christian æra. Leg. digest. ad leg. Cornel de falsis; and Among the Roman medals, some are Cod. Theod. fals. manete.

found of the first consular classes, plated; As merely counterfeits of current mo- and from the workmanship of these, it ney, the collectors of genuine medals appears that the art was introduced with have thought the plated beneath their 10- that of coinage in a certain degree of tice; but perhaps the principal origin of perfection, and that the Romans were these base coins inay be attributed to a indebted for it to the Greeks. desire of imposing on the amateurs, or vir- Pliny, speaking of those cranterfeits, tuosi, of early times. From the age of informs usihat in his time, some of them Augustus to that of Gordian the Third, were purchased at a higher price than thie the sciences flourished, and the emperors true medals ; a proof that ibey were col protected and encouraged artists of dis lected by persous desirous of completing tinguished abilities. Marcus Aurelius certain series, or of possessing curious patronized the ingenious; and, as Pliny and uncommon coins. Even at ibis tiine, informs us, Hadrian had formed a fine if a plated wedal exhibits a rare reverse, collection of medals, This example or interesting device, it differs very little would naturally influence his subjeets; in price from the genuine one; but those and in all probability there were, iu kis of common devices are not esteemed hy

collectors, collectors, unless the perfect state of their Herennius Etruscus Messius; from their preservation should render them some- time none are found but a very few what valuable.

of the lower einpire, plated in gold : of However, after a very accurate calcu- these latter M.'Waxell had seen one of lation, it will be found that anong one Honorius, and one of Zeno. hundred and fifty or two hundred me- From Augustus to Trajan Decius, some dals, one plated will be discovered. The of the Cesars and tyrants are found, but Grecian of this kind are inore rare than rarely; very few also are discovered of the Roman, and those of the kinys more Pompey, Mark Antony, or Julius C'esar. rare than those of the cities. Or Phe- The Ronan empresses are more rare nician, or Punic, or that class 'cailed on plated coins than the emperors; and disconnoscidas (or unknown), M. Waxell it is a curious circumstance, that those says, he has not yet found any,

empresses which are most rare on the The proportion of Greek to Ro- true inedals, are most often discovered man plated, is as one of the former to amongst the counterfeit. M. Waxell twenty-five of the latter.

has not met with any of Sabina, Faus. Tlie age of Augustus was the most tina the elder, Crispina, Lucilla, &c. but abundant in plated coins; and to the he had several of Matidia, Marciaua, length of his reign, and the great number Domitilla, Domitia, &c. and in his cola of denarii which he struck, that abund- lection he was fortunate enough to posance may be attributed. We find a sess a plated medallion of Doinitia; this great variety of curious reverses, besides confirms his opinion, that it was to come those of Agrippa, the rarity of which is plete tire series of rare coins for ancient well known: the beauty of those plated amateurs, that those common medals were coios, in some instances, equals the origi- fabricated. Silver medallions are of nals. Some of Tiberius's time, but not such rarity, as all collectors know, that so namerous, are found of great value; the very few found plated, are considered such as the fine denarius of that emperor, of equal value: perhaps, as being more with the image of his predecessor Au- scarce than the originals, they ought to gustus on the reverse. Or Caligula, the be more highly, prized. In the plated plated are as rare as the genuinc medals; state, the Greek medallions of Roman but those of Claudius pre-cnt several fine emperors are more rare than their Latin reverses, with portraits of Drusus and medallions. No plated quinarii of any of Agrippina. Under Nero also a emperor have yet been discovered; if great many are found, well executed, and such exist, they may be esteemed great of considerable beauty; especially those curiosities. which represent that emperor in his in. The art of fabricating those counterfancy; or with these legends, “ Equester feits, (as far as medals are concerned) ørdo principi juventutis," and " Sacerd. may be considered as lost; for no inodern coop. in omn. conl. suprà num. er s. c." ingenuity, even in England, where the on the reverses; also those which exhibit current money is so frequently counterhim with his mother Agrippina. Or feited, can by any means equal the per. Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, the reigns fection of those ancient productions, eswere so sbort, that the plated inedals of pecially in their high relief. those emperors are very rare, especially Some bave imagined, that the ancients those of the last two; but under Vespa- placed a coat of silver over the brass mesian, Titus, and above all, Domitian, they dal already coined; and this opinion was aprear in great numbers, and with a vas founded on the appearance of some meriety of reverses. Nerea's are rare. Of dals which retained scarcely any vestiges Trajan, Hadrian, and Antuninus Pius, of the silver cvatiny, whilst the impres. there are many; and chese, we may al- siou on the bronze was still sharp and most say, conclude the series of plaied perfect : but the fact is, those medals medals. M. Waxell had seen but one of had passed through the hands of Jews, Marcus Aurelius, struck under Antoni. wboy, by a simple process, bad reinoved nas; and only one of Commodus; per- the silver, and by means of some platina laps the wise administration of Marcus had improve the type of it on the bronze. Aurelius for sume tine succeeded in sup. But M. Waxell cannot believe that the pressing counterfeits. In M. Waxeli's ancients could give so gooi a finish to collection, is a denarius of Philip the fa- those medals by this method of coining: ther, which, from the size, may be con- he rather thinks that the plated inedals sidered as a medallion. The latest of were, like the true, struck with the hamdie emperors found hitherto on plated mer. A piece of brass, covered on both cuins of silver, are Trajan Decius, and sides with a leaf of silver, was placed in

the

the die, and received the impression; For the Monthly Magazine. the fractures on the edges wonid be a On Shakspeare's CHARACTER of six sutiicient proof of this, if there were not

JOIN FALSTAFF. another still more incontrovertible. This “ I have much to say in behalf of that Fal. is, the circumstance of M. Waxell's have staff."-Henry IV. Part 1, Act 2, Scene 4. ing in his own collection two plated medais, one or Domitian and the other of Nature,” it surely was in the producthe Ligion XV. which exhibit reverses tion of this character. He is a personage incuse or struck in, as intaglios: this the best known, the most conspicuous, may be ascribed to the carelessness of and the most original, in all the compothe comer, who to, precipitately substi: sitions of Shakspeare, or of any of our tuted the piece that was to be siruck, other dramatic writers. The critic who de withou'rrinormg that which had just lights in the motes that trouble the inind's been cuined; and which, adhering to the eye, and in the search after difficulties hammer by ine force of the descending which admit not of a solution, may find a blow, left i he reversed impression on the wide field for his lurubrations in that imview piece. This proves that the pla- portant question, Wbat gave rise to that ted coins of ihe ancients were struck in admirable characters and to him we the same manner as their denarij. leave the decision of a point equally im

To this curious little work, which is portant, namely, Whether the name of well worthy the notice of antiquaries and Oldcastle was that which was first asmedallists, M. Waxell has subjoined an signed to him by his illustrious godfather engraved plate of several coins described the poet? For my own part, 'Davus in the course of his essay.

sum, non Edipus.' Heaven avert such

disquisitions from an epistolary quill! To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Those who are not thorough-bred blackSIR,

letter dogs, may content themselves with T

HAVE been much interested by the the account left us by the profound and

letters of your correspondent from erudite “Master Robert Shallow, justice Dunbartonshire, signed J. M. on the sub- of the peace and coram,” that he had been ject of benefit-clubs; and still more with page to Thomas Mowbray, duke of Nor. the spirit of benevolence in which they folk; but as, we believe little to be originate. There can be no doubt that, known of his birth, parentage, and eduamong all the methods devised of assist- cation, we may without regret leave such ing the lower classes in an hour of sick- considerations to the descendants of ness and sorrow, no one can be compared Aristarchus. to these, when formed upon just and To reduce the conduct of mankind to accurate principles, and rightly con- some fixed principles, and to bring the ducted; taking also into the account, thousand shades of human character to their tendency at once to relieve the dis- one standard, has long since occupied tresses, and to improve the character, of men of speculative habits and confined the persons assisted by them.

experience. Every one however who That gentleman has favoured me with has examined his own actions and their a letter, inclosing a well-written paper respective motives, can readily perceive from the Glasgow Herald of the 15th of that the aim of such theorists is a shadow December last, signed A. B. on the best of their own creating; and that they are, mode of making provision for funerals; a as Falstat hiinself expresses it, subject hitherto very imperfectly under- tially mad without seeming so." Can stood. This paper, in my opinion, merits it be any thing but infatuation, to endeamore general circulation, but as J. M. vour to prescribe limits to that which is has not favoured ine with his name, I ever changing, and to fix the most volahave no method of addressing him or his tile of all things? What naturalists friend, to request they would adopt mea- affirm of a certain species of shells, sures to this end, but through the medium that there are not two alike, may be in of your valuable Magazine. Will you an unqualified inamer asserted of the theii, sir, have the goodness to insert characiers of men. The reason of this this letter; which may lead to the further must be, that the infinite number of imdiscussion of a subject in which the wel pressions froin contingent and external fare of many is concerned, and which circumstances, which tend more immewill much oblige an occasional correo diately to constituie individual character, spondent?

CATII. Carpe. cannot be the same in any ewo possible York, Feb. 10, 1810.

instances.

These

essen

These remarks are fully illustrated in in your last Magazine, brings to my rethe character before us. Shakspeare, collection a story of a similar nature, whose knowledge was derived from that that was once told me by Messrs. Orhman infallible source, the page of Nature, had and Nutt, who formerly worked for not studied it su much in vain, as to be Messrs. Snetzler and Jones, organ-buildignorant of the principal feature in it-ers, in Stephen-street, Tottenham-courtthat “ foolish compounded clay, man." road, Falstaff is represented by him, as teeming About or nearly thirty years ago, a with the striking and prevalent imper- person came in great haste, between sefections of his fellow.creatures; though ven and eight in the evening, and knockthey are so well adjusted and propor- ing furiously at the door of Mr. Jones, tioned, as not to “outstep the modesty (the then surviving partner) told him, as of nature,” or to injure the whole. It soon as he recovered bis breath, that he is this combination of features, this com- must go immediately to the concert of position of parts, which in poetry, as well ancient music(then in Tottenham-street); as in the other fine arts, displays the ta- as the company was mostly assembled, Jents of a master. Where there exists as well as the musicians, who wished to in the character some leading trait, or tune their instraments previous to the passion, to which all other aflections are entrance of their majesties; but although subordinate, the task is far less difficult the gentleman at the organ had been putto execute; since we have, as it were, a ting down the keys, and he had himself centre given to which inferior principles been blowing with all bis might, they of action converge. Hence the hero of a could not, with their joint efforts, inake play, to whom the poet ivas assigned some the organ speak. simple object, which must affect every Mr. Jones therefore immediately set source of conduct, may be a character out; and, thinking that some accident really much easier to delineate, than one must have happened to the bellows, or whose part appears to be of secondary wind-trunk, went first to the back of the consequence. Iago evinces more labour organ without going into the room; when, and genius than Othello; and Shyluck finding the machinery apparently in periban Antonio, In the same manner, fect order, he entered the orchestra Falstaff exhibits the talents of the poet in his common working-dress, which more than any other personage introdu- he had n't had time to change; where be ced. It may bere be observed, that his- found all the spracely-dresseri musicians, tory, unless very remote or obscure, must with their instruments in their hands, cramp the faculties of the poet, and con. waung for the spell to be taken off the fine his range of invention.

As it was

organ, and the full chord of D" to set often the fate of Shakspeare, to have no them going. other model than the stiff forms afforded Sitting down to the organ, Mr. Jones by the pencil of the historian, or fre. now put down the keys with one hand, quently the bare outline of the annalist, having, as it were mechanically, with the so he ever considered them (as, to the other, first drawn out one of the stops; poet they certainly should be) as the ba- when lo! the organ uttered its harunosis on which imagination is at liberty to nious sounds as treely as ever it had done, raise a splendid superstructure. It is froin to the astonishment of the gentleman who this consideration, that we learn to estic had before been at the keys; who at mate the merit of Shakspeare in his lis. length perceived that, far from having, torical plays; some of which show how like the organist of Norwich, drawn out much may be done by the poet, even the whole range of stops and wished for where the subject and its particulars are more, he had forgotten to draw any of sieither distani nor obscure. In my next them. letter, I will continue my observations, Whether this absent gentleman was and introduce you more intimately to tie the celebrated Mr. Joan Bates, who at company of our corpulent knight, tov that time used generally to take the organ: μεγαν και θαυμασον. . For the present, and conduct that concert, I was not inadieu.

A. B. E. formed. *And indecsi, I should hardly

suppose it could be he, were it not that, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. besides absence of mind being, by no SIR,

means an unusual concoinitant of men PE account of the opening of the of genius, he had an additional cause as

organ at AyIshan, in the Extracts well as excuse for such absence; for, from the Pori-folio of a Man of Letters, being about that time smitten with the 1

charins

TIE

charms of nriss Ifarrup, although his guide them, might at the time be wan.
fingers were wandering over the keys of dering toward the lady.
the organ, his thoughts, which ought to

For the Monthly Magazine.
METEOROLOGICAL ABSTRACT for the last twELVE MONTIS at CARLISLE.

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January 45 14 32,6 30,11 28,46 29,516) 3,50 fFebruary 502941, 30,40 28.50 29,619 3,53 March 54 | so | 42,95 30,50 29,18 30,090

,56 April 57 27 41 21 30,54 28,95 29,868 1,20 May 76 34 54,7 30,32 29,21 29,908 3,75 June 70 39 55.07 30.57 29,09 29,905 2,85 Paly

T6 51 59,35 30,28 29,43 29,932 1,84 Augast

70 51 57,91 29,94 29,30 29,692 5,19 September 68 33 | 53,6 30,15 20,20 29,706 4,95 October 61 S6 51,22 30,32 29.76 30,150 November 51 20 40,41 30,48 29.12 29,988 1,84 Decernber| 51 $139,83 30,04 | 28,06 29,438 5,18

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An. Mean 47,4875 Annual Mean 29,817 31,77 196 220 145

Total. Total.) Total. Total General Remarks on the Weather, &c. pleasant. Towards the end of the month,

observed at Carliste, during the year we had some showers of snow and sleet, 1809.

at which time snow was observed on the ANUARY was marked by a suc- surrounding mountains.

April. The weather during this structive weather we ever witnessed; month was extremely severe and unseathe former part of the month was ex- sonable; the average temperature of ceedingly scoriny, with heavy falls of several days, was nearly as low as the snow, rain, and sleet: from the 18th till freezing point, We had some very heavy the 27th, we had a most intensely severe falls of snow, and the mountains were frost, accompanied with a strong perle. clother in white during the whole of the trating east wind; on the 23d, 24th, and month, It will be observed, on iospect. 25th, an excessive quantity of snow fell, ing the table, that the average tempeshe average depth of the whole about rature of this month is lower than that twenty inches : a mild thaw, with heavy of the preceding, and nearly the same as rain, and commenced on the 27th; melt. February, Notwithstanding the extreme ed the snow suddenly, which swelled the coldness of the season, soine straggling sivers here beyond their bounds to such a birundines were seen in this district, as degree, that immense damage was done, early as the 12th of this month; but they and much private property destroyed. were not numerous till about three weeks

February --The inean temperature of after this period. this month (419) is in this climate un- May was very cold and gloomy, with Usually high for the season. This high showers of hail, till the 7th; it afterwards degree of temperature was attended was dry, bright, and pleasant, till the with very stormy weather; and during the 14cb. In the afternoon of chat day, former part of the inonth, rain fell in a storm of thunder and lightning oc. guch torrents, is tu cause the rivers to curred, which was attended with a me, Q.erflow their banks and adjoining low lancholy accident: a young man driving grounds, for the space of four or five some cattle in a lame leading to Broaddays.

field, about eight miles from this city, Murch was remarkably dry, and, with was struck dead by the lightning; the soune trifling exceptions, temperate and electric tuid passed through his head,

shattering

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