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and terms, used by the Greeks, found Frederic Accuin as the professor of ci. Sawde sucha method as that proposed by mistry and mineralogy, shall we be aca Mr. liali, they would not have made so cused of any ondue preference, if we Diany blunders respecting the terms, represent him as aifording great delight, the accent, the spelling, and pronuncia- as well as instruction, to the munerous toin, of the words they adopted. Had auditors who attend his lectures. thes, for instance, known low the There are also very highly qualified pro. Greeks pronomced the word rayws, a fessors of natural and moral philosophy, bare, they never would have translated &c. The reading-rooms were opence for and pronounced it lepus. Ilad they the proprietors on the 1st of Mav, 1808. kuown the force of the spiritus asper, Lectures on chemistry, mineralowy, naas it is termed among the Greeks, they tural philosophy, and other subjects, would not have put s before pnm, to were commenced by Mr. Accum, and creep, and trade serpo of it.
Mr. Jackson, in Novemher following.' But, in the early part of their history, Now the truth is, that some months bethe Greeks themselves seem to have fore the opening of the establishment, been in a similar situation with the and before the theatre was fit to receire Romans. From the term Jupiler Am- an audience, Mr. Jackson gave three mon, and a variety of others in their lectures on different subjects, before the mythology, the Greeks appear to have managers and a number of the proborrowed many things from the Jews: prietors, as specimens of his abilities as they seem, however, to have been as iga a public lecturer; and so much were norant of the pronunciation and mean these lectures to their satisfaction, that ing of many of the terms of arts, law, he was immediately engaged to give a religion, &c. which they borrowed, as course of thirty on natural philosophy, We are at this day, respecting the tnnes, and thirty on chemistry. This course he cadences, inusical instruments, instruc- commenced in the theatre of the surry tions, &c. mentioned in the titles of Institution, some time in October 1808; many of the Psalms of David. In a and completed, in due time, with great word, were it not that some of the credit to himself, and with apparent saGreek and Latin poets have made cer- tisfaction to the managers. And it is tain of their lines and verses chink but justice to state, that all the lectures and correspond with each other, we on natural and experimental philosophy, should have been at a loss to know, not astronomy, and chemistry, given that only how their words, but even bow season at the institution, were by Mr. many of the letters of their alphabet, are Jack-on. Twenty of this course were sounded. Tlse rhyme, and corresponding delivered before it was known that Mr. sounds, introduced into the poetical Accum was to lecture at the same in. compositions of modern times, will be of stitution; and Nir. Accum's course, some use in informing posterity how the which was on mineralogy, and delivered languages of the present day are soand- gratis, did not commence till the followed; bot, as some words, considerably ing year. I wish this true statement different in souod, are made to clink to be made public, that it may counwith one another, it may happen that teract any effects of the other, wla'h posterity will be at .a loss as to the true might be injurious to the reputation of a pronunciation of many. The adopłion respectable and industrious lecturer. of some soch plan as Mr. Hall pro Nov. 0, 1809. A LOVER OF TRUTH. poses, might, windoubtedly, partly help then in this particular. I am, with a To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. high sense of the value of many of your
SIR, bambers, an old friend, though Clapham. A New CORRESPONDEXT. N one of your late numbers, I pro
mised explanations of such names of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. stations in Antoninus, an lave never been SIE,
rationally explained. In the following N the last number of the Microcosm examples; as in my former letters, I
of London, rhere is some account of shall en teavour to explain our old ( inic the Surry Institution, part of which is ternis. A great number of these, wir, apparently designed to hold up one pub- Editor, have hitherto been totally une lic character to notice, at the expense of known in their imports, others have been another. In pages 158 and 159, it is imperfectly rendered, and many so ridistated: “Nor, when we mention Mr, culously derived, that it is scarcely cre
dible that our antiquaries who have ex- or Bel, here; each means Borier: and hibited their interpretations, could se. these terms, contrary to all the interpre. riously have believed in their being ap- tations of our antiquaries, imply no plicable. The present letter will abuis- more when applied to Cassibellanus, dantly prove these assertions.
than the Stream Borderer, London to Benonis.
V'erolnnium is th: next station, which Londinium has been derived from va- is explained in my last. rious sources; but a rational explanation Durocobrius, called also Durocobrioa, cannot be drawn from them. The old comes next. Dunstable is the Durocofoundation of this city is traced in Maic- brius of the Itinerary; but many writers land's Flistory of London: it was fifty feet conceive, that it hati been transposed by lower than at present at St. Paul's; and some early copyists, and that it should must, from his account, have been marshy, follow Magio-vinnio. Magiovinnio bath and often overflowed by the tides. Lon, then been supposed Dunstable; and or Lun, implies in the Gaelic, a lake, a from Mues and Gwin, two Welsh words, pood, or marsh; and even a stream, as in it hath been rendered the White Campa the rivers Lone and Lune. Din, trans- or the Ilhite Field. Our old antiquaries, lated Don by the Saxons, implies, as acquiescing in this translation, consi. will hereafter be shown, Land.' Among dered themselves obliged to fix Magintum the lens of Lincoln, on Boston Dyke, on the chalk-hill, or plain, of Dunstable; we have London Eastcote, a territory but where to place Durocobrius was a similar to our London in its ancient difficulty. Mr. Gale, making a traverse state; and this name implies, from the from the direct road, carried it to Herta above, the Fen Land, London will, from ford; but in doing this, bis distance from hence, be rationally explained by, the Dunstable was too great: Dr. Stukeley Siream or Marsh Land.
therefore departed from the main road to Sullonacis, or Sulloniacis, the next Berkhamstead. Later writers, consia station, is derived by Mr. Baxter, Dr. dering the White Field, and the White Stukeley, and others, from Cassibellanus; Plain, of not sufficient authority to overand Mr. Sharpe, who lived on the spot turn the Itinerary in its different roates, at Brockley Dill, erected there an obe- and finding Richard's Itinerary to corrolisk, with inscriptions to this purport. To borate the statements in Antoninus, have Cassibellanus I also could wish to give the again followed these authors; whilst honour of naming this station; but the others still suppose, that these names derivation of Sullonacis from Cassibel have been transposed: so little have an. janus, brings to remembrance the deri- tiquaries attended to this necessary part vation of Hurtland Point from Hercules. of their task, the analysing of 'old Hill has often been written in old names for the features of nature, that Baines, Hull; as at Hull Bishop, in So. the roots and serviles in these names merset, called also Hill Bishop. In the have been unknown for ages; nor bave Gaelic there is no H; and where other they generally understood, that many of languages began with an H, the Gaelic the present names are translations of ofçen used an S: hence Sil, or Sul, in older ones.--But to return : Durocobrius old names, implied Hill.*' On micart is derived from Du, Land, Roc, Plain, Land, and Ac Ridge, or Border, as shown and Bri, a Hill. All our writers bare in a former letter: Șullonaris will there been at a loss to account for Brius, which fore imply, the Hill Lund Ridge or hath evidently been changed in the Border settlement. Brockley is the dative case to Brire ; and they have vnipresent name, derived frinn Bruighe, à versally rendered it a Bridge, or a Ford. Hill, changed to Braiche, Broiche, and But no proof more is necessary, than the Brock: Ley implies Land; and Brock- explanation here given, to show that they ley, Hill Land.
have been, in this word, all mistaken : So much has been said by authors, of and it will be sufficient, if more proof be the import of the word Čassibellanus, required, to say, that at Dunstable, no that there seems no room for more to be Water, no Bridge, nor Ford, is to be introduced: but Cassieuchlain, Cassi found; and that the before-mentioned bellan, and Cassivellan, are synonymes. appellation of the Plain Lund Hill suits I have explained the first in a former exjctly its situation. letter. Fuch there is the same as vel, Of the translation Dunstuble we
must next speak ; but of Dun, much luas In the word Silures, Ur is Border, and lately been written: much more, Mr. the name implies te Hill Borderers.
Editor, tlan necessary for any purpuse,
except to show, that authors and critics In like manner Mon has, in composi, have misunderstood it. I must therefore tion of names, been supposed to imply examine this term; and this, because bil; but in this too, Mon-udh, or Muiza other words for Hill come in the same ais, luill land, or great hill, is understood. questionable shape.
The first of these is often writicu Monu; The words In En, An, On, and Un, the second is contracted in Alons. On in the language which gave names to the the contrary, Col, in Collis, implies bill, features of nature, imply Land; neither or head; but Is being a dininutive, of which, it must be observell, are roots Collis implies the little lead, or little for Hill. They often take D and T as Hill prefixes, and mean Land: and it D and Moreover, Pen, or Pin, is said to Timply Inclosed, as some authors have imply hill; and if P mean convexity, asserted, they will then imply Inclosed elevation, &c. as some authors have as. Land only. In Devon there is soune sérted, this may find claim thereto; and hill land named Haldon. The term yet the ancients added, even to this Hal is Hill; and Dou the Land. On one word, A, the Gaelic for a hill, in Pinna. side of the bill lies Chililey, written in The Saxons pronounced and wrote this Doomsday Book Chiderlein; derived word Pinhuu, Pinhou, and Pinhoe : their from Ceide, or Cheide, a bill, Er, Bor- word Hoe being derived from A, the der, and Lry, Land. On an end of this Gaelic for bill, pronounced Au; and writbill, is Penhill The old name of the parish ten as pronounced with the aspirate on which it es, is Dunchidic ; in which h, Huu: hence Hau, Hou, How, and Chd is also hill; Ic, is diminutive; and Hoe, for bill. To this we may add, that Dun, the land: and the little Hill Land we have the name Penkill in various describes exactly the district. In these places, all of which show, that Pen was word, then, as well as in Dunhill, Dun- not considered as generally implying ald, Dunbury, Dunbar, Dunkeld, Dun. hill; but only head, point, or end: and kellin, and other names, the words Don that hill was added to distinguish it from and Dun may be reckoned Land only. Inwer grounds, forming points or ends of But when Dun is written for Hill, which lands. it often is, Dun-a, or Dun-ais, is, I con- Having spoken of the word Dun, I ceive, understood: the first, as in Dun. will now compare Durocobrius with ucombe, Dunaford, &c. : the second, as Dunstable ; and here must observe, that contracted in Duns, in Scotland; a ter- Bri was translated Dun; or Duns; and ritory which stands on rising ground, in Duroc, Stable, or Table; you will
, Mr. the midst of the county of Mers. But Editor, judge which. Dun, as a contraction, is often put for A market, or a place for the public Hill; and as U was often pronounced as exposure of goods, was, by a northern ! in old terms, Din has been rendered nation, nained a Stupel; and the Saxons Hill also. Further, hills were often for- are supposed to have used the word in tified, and the names for hills were often 'this sense, in translating names of places adopted for the names of forts. Din, ending in Słable, or Staple. But in old and Dun, have therefore been rendered namnes, I know not of a more ridiculous fort, or fortified bill. Thus Dun, in supposition; and yet it hatti passed as Dunbarton, is applied as a fort; Bur, is truth for ages. It is my fortune, Mr. head or bill; and ton, the land. Cam- Editor, to attack vulgar errors; and den says, that this place was called whatever I have written on this subject, Danbrilton; and he derives it from the may well be accounted disquisitions Britons, because, he says, “ The Bri- upon them. A stable for a horse is tous held it longer than any other place derived from Sta, a stand, and Peall, a against the Scots, Picts, and Saxons: horse; and it literally implies a Horse for both by nature and situation, it is the Slanıl, or a llorse House.' In like manstrongest castle in all Scotland," &c. per Baile, a tribe, a town, a place, a Thus far I quote Camden; but he inis. station, or settlement; or Balla, a wall, took: for Bri and Bur are synonymes, a rampart, or fort; and Slu, a stand; inay and each means hill or head. It were imply the tribe habitation, the town, or an easy inatter to prove, that Britain also the station; or the walled place, or fort. iniplies the Hill Land. General Val- But further, Tabh, Tud, or Tub, may lancey says, that in the Eastern languages, imply the ocean, or water ; und by it islands are termed bill lands. In the comparison of surfaces, a level, or plain, Gaelic, I is an island, or clevated sure may be interred. This obtains also in face; and di is a hill: and this last the word Aquor, wherein from a level xordiinplies nearly perlinps the same as I. the sea is inferred. In my last, I showed
that Ur in Tybur, was changed to Ol in ones. This place was derived from the Titoli. Ur means border land, land, Gaelic word, Aunuch; and we might or border; and as Ur is only a variation render it the Market, as the word Stable of Er, border; so Ol is only a variation is usually rendered; for donach also imof El, in Tabel, or Table. The word plies a market: but in description of Tabel, or Table, may therefore imply places, although we must have recourse the Plain Land; and Dunstable will be to their features, we need not enquire an exact translation of Durucobrius. I whether they are old or young, por wheshall just add, that we have a Table Hill ther in ancient times they had markets at the Cape of Good Hope ; and that the or fairs. Aonach is said, by Gaelic situation of Barnstaple is on a plain cor-writers, to imply Hill; but Gaelic writers, responding exactly with the explanation like antiquaries, seldom analyse their bere given to Tuble.
own words: for Aonach means Hill The term Mad, in Madning Bower, or Land, and describes the land of Hennock. Madkin or Muiden Bower; and 2 The Saxon translation, Auld Fields, was Mutning Money; (names given to the derived from Magh, a plain, or field: ald camp on this plain, and to the money Vin, Land, was mistaken for Fion, Old; found there, the explanations of wuch and the misapplicauon of the terms, as a are unknown,) is derived from Madh, a translation of Magintum, is evident; and hill, or plain : Ning, In, and En, imply, yet it is obvious, that Magio-vinnio was the as will be shown, land. The naine Alud. name from whence Old Fields was de. kin, Madin, or Maiden Bower, may be rived. deriven from Ber, or Bor, border; or it Camps, forts, towns, villages, and may be a corruption of Burg, a fort or resting places, took the ancient names village. Maiden Bower will then imply of lands on which they stood; and hence the hill or plain land border or fort: we have seldom any particular names for Dłudning Money the hill, or plain land these in very ancient appellations. The money. But enough of Durocabrus, its word Ton, originally Laud, was transs camp, and its money: we next arrive at ferred to the erections upon it. our fitih station,
Gaelic for a hill is also the name of a Magio-vinnio. Mugh, Gaelic for a fort. The word Hum, originally Border, plain, may be derived from the root has been termed village, town, &c. Alighe, a lull; and may be reudered hilly Cusan implies a fuot-way: in which Cos or plain. The letter M is ofien pretixed is foot; and An, the land or road. Greasto terms of magnitude in description; lann is an inn; and this word means and it will be worthy of relwark, that literally a guest-bouse, in which Lann many of the roots for bills and plains implies land, as well as house. I have are the same. The reason of this strange in a former letter stated, that in the coincidence is, that many words imply word Armin, Arm implies the arıay, and depth as well as height; and that the In the land or road; and this road was tops of hills, or elevated lands, as well as constructed for the army. Hence then bottoms, often contain level grounds. words for land were chosen for names of
Pin, in Magio-viunio, is written Nin in roads, and of inus: and In, or Inn, toa Magio-ninnium, a'wi In in Magintum: , was thus chosen, for an Inn-House inall of which are names for this station, plies a road-louse. Further, Vin, or When a syllable ends with a vowel, and Ven, being synonymes of In, this would a vowel is to begin another, a consonant naturally imply the same. To the ending is generally prefixed in old names. Thus in n, a t was often added; and hence the Trino-antes are generally writteu Ven would become l'ent. To the strong Trinobautes, and Trinovantes. The ending in t, the letter a was often postsyllables Vin, Nin, and In, are, from fixed, to recover the voice from dwelling #bat has been said, synonymes, and each on the syllable: Ta was also a plural iinplies land.But the preseñt name is ending. Hence Venta is an inu in the said to be, the Auld Fields, or the Old Spanish, as well as in the Gaelic; and in Fields, and to be at a little distance froin the Spanish, it also means a sale. In Fenny Stratford. There is in Devon a English we say that we want a Vent parish named Hennock, written in for our goods, when we want a sale, or Domsday Book Ainech, and Hanoch: a place of sale, for them. Proin the a celebrated etymologist, finding Hen, in ventas in Spain being inns, or restingWelsh, to meau old; and Cnoc, in Irish, places, many hecame towns of accome to imply Hill; rendered Hentuck, old modation, passage, trade, &c. ani a ; but he searcled not for the new great number of tuwns in that kingdom
have the name Venta in their endings. Devon there is a parish named Hushnan We also had our Venta Belgurum, l'enta In this word, Ur, with the aspirate II, Icenorum, and Venta Siturum : names implies, the Wuter; and Hum is border wtrich bave never been rightly under- but an etymologist rendered Hux, hook; stood or rendered by our antiquaries, and stated that the place was formerly of the word Isca, as well as Venta, the Habitation of Hook or Crook! I much has been wirtten. Leon, or Lion, confess that the above derivations were in Cuer Leon, the translation of Iscá gotten, like this last,“ by hook or crook : Silurum, has been rendered, in a learned for neither the Water Slone, nor the disquisition by a Welsh etymologist of High Stone, nor the to cut a Slone, nor the first eminence, “The Waters.” Exon, the White Stone in the Revelations, is the translation of Isca Danmoniorum, applicable in description of names of old must therefore be translated the same. settlements. in Lectorodo, Lue implies But the translation Waters describes a lake, or streain. To in Lucto, is the not the situation of these places. I am same as To, or Tou, in Brito, or Brilou, aware that A, An, and On, are plural an old name of Bristol. Bri inplies endings in conimon words; but they are Hill; and To or Tou, being a synonyme not often so when applied in description of Tol, whose root is 01, implies border of places. Exon was higher froni the land, or border, by this letter. Slow, siver formerly, than it is at present. The arid Stol, (words whose origin is une letter A is Gaelic for a bill; Isca knowil,) being also synonymes of Tou, might therefore imply, the Water Hill.. and Tol, in Brilou, Britol, Bristow, 'The Saxons seem to have supposed A to and Bristol, all names of this city, inust be a contraction of An or On, which was also imply the same. Moreover, Rose a term for land; and hence Exon meant implies a passage, or road; and Lur, the water land. The same must be said from Dorus, a passage or door, will of Leon, or Lion, in Caerleon. The imply nearly the saine; and hence Luca mistake of our etymologisis arises froin torodo will imply the Lake ar Strear their not distinguishing augments and Border, Pussage, or Rond. In Lacteroio, diminutives, and some words for land, in the Saxons scen to have considered To old names of places, from the plural as Tov, Tow, or Toffe, a stream, in their endings of their common words. Trom translation Tuffeceuster: Lar, from augments and diminutives we have de- Lach, they may have reckoned fort, or sived these plural endings. As augments camp; but Doro, in this case, must have and diminutives in description, they im- beci omitted in their translation. Oa ply great or little: as plural endings in the contrary, if Dor was considered by common words, they mean many or few. them the inclosed border, or camp; then This may appear stranye, but is not more they sunk Lac, in rendering the name strange than true; and it is a curious In either then, or in any case, their fact, that from etymologists' not knowing translation seems to be a very partial, if the difference, their translations in these not an erroneous, one.
The next stapoints have never been applicable in tion is, description.
Bennodenta. As B and P were in I have now removed many difficulties; some languages the same letter, what and proceed to Laclorodo, or Laclodoro. I have already said of Pinna, and Vin, This name has been derived loy our an. Ven, and Venta, will be sufficient. í tiquaries from Luch, a stone, and Dour, shall however mention, that stations water: but by monsieur Bullet, in his and camps were not generally, in ancient Celtic Dictionary, froin Luch, a stone, times, places of passage ; but the public and Torri, lo cut.
Somewhat like this roads rather lay in sight, or passed by, was Bremenium explained hy a leared than through them.
Some stations writer from Bre and Muen, which he there were which lay on the road, and rendered the high stone. The name of were so placed for its protection: to Whitstone, in Cornwall, was derived by such the term Venta was applicably Mr. Hals, abo wrote its parochial his. given. Bennaventa is said to have been tory, from the White Stone mentioned situated at a place called Burnt Walls. in the Revelations ! In the county of We have the naine Burnt, or Brent
Wood. Ber is sometiines written Bre; In like manner, Verla, originaliy im. and hence Beren, Heard or 11l| Land, plied, the Hill Lands.
hias been contracted to Bern and Burn, + ii. 17.
and changed to Bren: to the ending in