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seilles, has publicly called upon the ments, they presented him with princely French nation to bestow on Dr. Edward domains, built for him the magnificent Jenner a reward worthy of the services palace of Blenheim, and erected on a which he has rendered to mankind. “It hill in his park, a splendid monument, is ten years," says he, “ since Dr. Jenner whose base, covered with inscriptions, ascertained that vaccine inoculation it attests bis martial exploits, and whose a preservative against the small-pox. It summit is crowned with a statue of that is upwards of thirty since he commenced general, there is nothing astonishing in his researches into the nature of the all this. But what excites inuch greater cow-pox. It is nine since he made public surprise is, that the same nation bas, that invaluable discovery; and it is since 1802, done nothing more for Jenseven since his practice was introduced ner, except that in 1805, the lord mayor, into France. It is now spread over and common council of London, bealmost every part of the globe. Several stowed on him a testimony of the public millions have experienced its beneficial gratitude, by presenting him with the effects, and every day is marked with freedom of the city, in a gold box, new and uniform success. What a debt enriched with diamonds and emblems of gratitude do we owe to the author of allusive to science, for the salutary disthis new method! Al nations pour forthcovery of the vaccine inoculation, owing their benedictions upon him. Every to his indefatigable researches.' Jenner country, every city, would fain offer him has become the man of all nations. a civic crown, and each individual express Like Hippocrates, he belongs to every his gratitude. What mortal was ever country." His name will live to the most more useful to society? No kind of remote posterity. It is the present genereward, no dignity, can be an adequate ration which owes him a great reinuneras compensation for such a service. The tion. May it be worthy of one of the noble and generous manner in which fairest epochs of the world! May the Jenner communicated his knowledge, his French nation, which is capable of appresolicitude to ascertain the results of his ciating great things, not delay it too experiments, are beyond all praise. long! Induced by these considerations, Engaged in accomplishing a great revolu- I would suggest to all the societies in tion in this iinportant part of medicine, the French empire for promoting the and in promoting the woltare of his advancement of the bealing art, the fellow.creatures, by a practice as simple following propositions:- 1. To open, with as it was extraordinary, he thought no- the consent and under the patronage thing, so that he could but ultimately of government, a subscription for Dr. succeed, either of time, trouble, or the Jenner. 2. The committee of the cenexpense incurred by a very extensive tral vaccine society, and the medical correspondence. The French physicians societies of the metropolis, should be were not the last to proclaim him the exclusively empowered to deterinine the benefactor of mankind; and in this they nature of the recompense to be decreed are joined by the public opinion. The to that great nan. 3. These societies central committee of vaccination, esta- might depute some of their miembers, 10 blished at Paris, under the auspices of present a plan to that effect; and to government, observes in ihe report obtain perinission of the ininister of the published by it in 1803 : ‘The committee interior, to invite the medical societies will not conclude this sketch of its pro- of the departments to contribute to the ceedings, without paying a just tribute present, by voluntary subscriptions. 4. of gratitude to Dr. Jenner, the illustrious Every learned society, and every indiviauthor of this discovery, who will iience- dual who cultivates the healing art, forth be numbered among thosc men should lihewise be at liberty to contriwho have done the most honor to science, bute. 5. At the period fixed for closing and the greatest service to hunauity.' the subscription, the committee formed The reward conferred on Jeuner, by the by the societies of Paris, should appoint English parliameni, in 1802, though deputies to go to England, when circum. accompanied with the most gratifying stances, and the government, shall permit, expressions, is very inadequate to the to present our homage and our gratitude incalculable advantages which will result to Dr. Jenner. 6. The same commitfrom his discovery. If the English tee should likewise deterinine the time nation, during the reign of queeu Anne, and place for erecting a statue in honor loader the duke of Marlborough with of him. 7. It is to be presumed, that honors; if, to reward luis military achieve the medical societies will not fail to 1
place the bust of Jenner beside that of which she has sustained. The bust is Hippocrates."
placed on a cippus, or the shaft of a ITALY.
column, supported by a simple pedestal, A very simple contrivance has been and adorned with a garland. Friendship, javenied by M. Fabroni, for transform- personifed under the form of a young ing any good common balance into an and beautiful female, is in a pensive and hydrostatic balance. It is a moveable sorrowful attitude. She is raising to columu, which, being placed in a vessel her eyes a corner of ber garment to dry proper for the purpose, bencaih any ba- her tears. "The drapery is well conlance whaterer, provided it be exact, trived; notwithstanding its fullness, and renders it capable of giving specific gra- the quantity of folds, it shows the convities, without the necessity of recurring tours of the figure. The portrait of to the extraordinary and expensive me- Volpato is a striking resemblance; and thods with which the machines now called the whole composition combines grace hydrostatic balances are attended. with simplicity. It is to be placed in the
M. Gonzatii has discovered a liquid vestibule of the church of the Apostles. shich instantaneously extinguishes tire. By an imperial decree, the museum of The following experiments svere publicly sculpture, of Turin, is to be restored. made with it at Venice. Some resin and M. SPALLA has been appointed director, oil were set fire to, and scarcely bad a and sculptor to the emperor, with
penfew drops of this liquid been poured on sion of 6000 francs. the flame, when it iinmediately.dis. appeared, leaving behind not the least The following circumstance, related trace of fire. Billets of wood, besmeared on the authority of an officer of his mawith pitch and resin, and afterwards jesty's ship Dædalus, occurred while dipped in this liquid, resisted the action that vessel was lying at Samana, St. of the hottest fire, to which they were Domingo.- Early in the forenoon of exposed for several hours. The inventor 20th November, 1808, several sharks affirms, that a few applications of this were seen swinming about the ship in eomposition to wood-work would pre expectation of prey. A honk and bait serve it from all danger of fire. He bas were put overboard, which one of them not thought fit to publish the manner in immediately seized with the greatest which this composition is prepared ; but voracity. A rope being passed over its it is probable that a solution of alum, fins, it was hoisted on buard by trventy pol-ash, and vitriol, is one of the ingre- men, In its maw was found a calf that dients.
bad been thrown overboard a few hours By a decree of the government of before. The length, from the snout to Lucca, a school of sculpture is to be the extremity of the tail, was ten feet, established at Carrara, to which will and Wie circumference of the body probe granted revenues for founding prizes, portionate. Three others of equal size and for assisting young sculptors. were successively caught; in the last
The celebrated sculptor Canova has were found sixty-two living young ones, erecied a funeral monument to the a turkey, and a live hawk's-bill turtle, memory of his friend and fellow.citizen, two feet six inches in length, and one Giovanni Volpato, an eminent engraver. fimmt nine inches broad; which, inimediIt consists of a beautifal marble tablet, ately after its release, swam about in a sculptured in demi-relievu, and repre: tubs of water, apparently nut in the least senting the portrait of the artist; before injured by its confinement. him, Friendship, seated, mourns the loss
PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. theory of this establishment was, that of Substance of a Lecture read before the concentrating in a focus the knowledge,
Board of Agriculture, by thcir Secre- talents, and abilities, which were scattary, on the Advantages which have tered, in men of n certain rank, through resulted from the Establishment of that the kingdom, Mr. Young proceeds to Institution.
detail its more immediate practical purA
FTER observing in the introduc- poses, and its actual benefits:
requisitions the measure,
requisitions for information from the the gratitude of every succeeding age : minister, or either house of parliament, though the effort unfortunately was unthe board has acted on various occa- successful; and it is lamentable to resions in perfect conformity with the flect, that the obstacles which arose to theory of its institution;" and I need not
were aggravated in no observe how extremely necessary it is to slight degree by efforts of private inbe prepared, with this view, by having terest. such well-arranged collections of facts, The next effort to which I beg leave as may at once be applicable to the in- to call your attention, was a successfut quiries which may probably come from attempt to bring all the weights and higher assemblies to this board.
micasures of the kingdom under the sumAnother branch of our quiescent du- mary jurisdiction of the magistrate. The ties, and perhaps not the least important, board received ample information that is that of considering the institution as the poor were defrauded in a muluitude an office of intelligence, for the use of of cases, mure especially in villages, by individuals who desire information ou defective weights and measures, without any subject of rural economy. It is cer- there existing suficient powers for the tainly the duty of the secretary to give speedy application of a remedy : it reat all times, and to all persons, every quested one of its members to bring a species of information in his power; to bill into parliament to remedy the evil; make whatever inquiries may be neces- this was done, and it passed into a law sary, with that view; and to introduce which has cver since been a blessing to such persons to each other, as can best thousands. supply their mutual wants: and it is no An act of parliament which had its exaggeration to assert, that this has been origin in the board, was that which took done to the amount of some thousands off a preposterous duty on the import of of cases.
oil-cakes from America: and another The institution was hardly established, legislative measure adopted on the rebefore a severe scarcity aillicteil the king- commendation of the board was, the don; and the board, with the utmost exemption from excise granted to drainassiduiiy, gave an immediate attention ing tiles; an object of no slight importto a subject which naturally drew upon ance, as, without this attention, the tar it every eye. To answer the immediate would have operated as a prohibition in pressure, many experiments were or- this branch of the first of all improve. dered and executed on the manufacturing of bread from every species of An object which at a
very early grain which could, by various inixtures, period attracted the attention of the be made to enter into its composition. board, was the inquiry into the proFourscore sorts of bread were at once priety of annexing land to cottages. Some exhibited to the eyes of the public; and persons entertaining doubts as to the those who recollect the examination, general application of this system, the must remember the pleasure very gene- board adopted a measure that was rally expressed at the sight of a resource founded in prudence, in order to ascer. which till then had been quite unknown. tam how far this system extended, and These experiments were registered and what were its effects in situations reprinted, and remain for future use. moved from the immediate superinten.
But an object of much greater impor- dance of a few humane landlords. The tance, also occupied the attention of the board, under the auspices of a noble board; this was the cultivation' of the lord, himself the beneficent patrouizer inmense wastes of the kingdom, by a of the system on his own extensive general enclosure act. In order to estates, dispatched a persou (Mr. Gourascertain the amount of these deserts, so lay) every way qualified for the cmploye disgraceful to the richest country in the ment, to ascertain all the circumstances world, inquiries were set on foot in every on the spot: he was directed to proceed district, and the result produced the to Burleigh, and io follow the system enormous ainnunt of more than twenty- wherever he found it. This he did two millions of acres! The energy and through an extent of between seventy vigour with which the president execu- and eighty miles; he saw it under almost red the wishes of the board, in making every variation of circumstance, with no thiese inquiries, and in framing a bill that other exception than that of soils too should remedy so great an evil, merited barren to support a cow. The report the highest commendation, and deserves he made was equally curious and in
portant: the poor people universnlly paid members not attending to form a board a fair rent for their land, supported thiem- before the adjournment, I thought it was selves through the two scarcities without my duty to write a letter to Mr. Pitt, to the sinallest assistance from the parishes, that purport in which I conceived the and were cominended by their employers board would have addressed him had it as the most industrious and moral of the assembled. I stated, from ample inlabouring class. The poor-rates in the formation, the deficiency of the late districts which this system pervaded, crop, which I conceived was much were from three-pence to one shilling greater than was supposed at that time, and sixpence in the pound; whereas in and earnestly recommended to him, co districts adjoining, but not under this take immediate measures for the intromanagement, they were six, seven, and duction of rice from 1 dia. In March ten, times as much. I will venture to 1800, Lord Carrington was elected to asseri, that had :he board never per. the presidency, and his lord hip urged to formed any other service to the public the minister the same measure. After than this single csertion, it would well much consideration on the subject, no bare ineritesi every shilling that was ever remedy occurred so certaini, sate, and voted to it.
economical, for supplying the expected Their next excriion was on the subject deficiency, as the importation of a suffiof craining. The uncommon
cient quantity of rice froin India; from which attended V11. Elkington's practice some cause or o her, however, the criin many considerable drains es, executed tical period for ettectual encouragement on principles unknown, or but otoscurely was suffered to pass by, and though a huted ai by osihers, and pracused by bounty on the importation was subsenone hut brisiselt, very justly attracted quently offered the rice did not arrive the attention of the board. They pro- till after the abundant harvest of 1801. ceeded in this business as they had done The article, in consequence, became a in evoy other: they began by procuring mere drug, and the government was all the information that was to be had; called upon to pay no less a sum than and being well satisfied of the importance three hundred and fifty thousand pounds, of the discovery, they recommended him to perform the parliamentary guarantee to the beneficence of parliament, who to the importers. This is sufficient to voted to him one thousand pounds. But prove, that whether the board was atthis was not all: that mall, so ingenious iended to or disregarded, its merit with on the spots demanding his skill, was the public remained the same. Two astonishingly confused and obscure in millions and a half might have been explaining his ideas; to such a degree, saved, had the board been listened to. indeut, that there was no slight danger On occasion of the first scarcity, the of his art dving with him. To prevent board had ample reason to be convinced this, the board employed a person of of the great importance of potatoes, as a skill and ingenuity (Mr. Johnston) to remedy for that deficiency under which take a considerable journey with Mr. the nation Jaboured.
It was proposed Elkongton, for the purpose of examining at one of their meetings, to offer a prion the spot the chief drainages which mium of one thousand pounds to the had been effected, and of having the person who should make the greatest principles duly explained. The under exertions in that branch of cultivation; taking was very successful : Mr. John- but the sum being found too great for the stun inade himself master of the art, and finances of the board, the scheme dropreported it to the board in a treatise, ped, not however without some effect; whi.n has been published for perpetua- for a newspaper erroneously reporting ting a discovery that would have been that the board had actually made the list, but for this well-imagined precau- offer, vccasioned exertions in various tion of the board.
parts of the kingdoin, as we afterwards The deficiency of the crops in 1799, found, by applications froin individuals furi, ished the hard with another oppor- for information relative to the mode of tunity of manifesting their vigilance for reporting the experiments; and the the public good. On my arrival in town, meetings at that time were convinced, the beginnmg of November in that year, that had such a premium been offered, I found the president (Lord Sounerville) the effect of it would have been very not returned to England from Portugal, considerable. whither he had gone for the recovery of Another effort tending to the same his health; and a sufficient oumber of end, was that of offering premiuins in the MONTHLY Mac. No. 197.
year 1805, for encouraging the culture rity, and the consequences which have of spring wheat: these were widely flowed from them; they describe the imclaimed, and, having been followed by plements of husbandry, and mark such many others since, have proved that the as merit removal from a confined district article is well established in many dise to a more general application; they enter tricts.
into all the minutiæ of the cultivation of I come now to bring to your recol. arable land, and are equally attentive to lection, the method and success with the pasturage and meadows of the king. which this institution obeyed a requisi. dom; they give the particulars of woods tion from the house of lords, to inquire and plantations; they enter largely into into, and to report, the means of break- the detail of the wasto-lands of the kinging up certain portions of grass-land, as dom, their soil, climate, and value, the a remedy for scarcity, and laying thein improvements which have been made dowy again without injury to the pro- upon them, and others of which they are prietors. The board deliberated with susceptible; they report upon the means great attention upon this important obe used for the improvement of all the vaject, and determined, by offering consi- rious soils, whether hy draining, irrigaderable premiums, to call to its assistance tion, paring and burning, manuring, or the information of practical nen in every embanking; they describe the live-stock part of the kingdom. The plan was at- of the kingdom, and the great improvetended with all the success that could be ments which have been made in that desired: three hundred and fifty memoirs important department; they note the were sent in claim of the premiums; the price, and various other circumstances, best of them were printed at full length, respecting rural labour, the state of the and extracts from many others, forming poor, and the various efforts which have on the whole, a mass or full and complete been made for ameliorating their condiinformation, derived from the practice tion; and they give such particulars reand experience of men known to bave lating to manufactures and commerce, as been highly successful in their agricul- connect them with rural economy. Froin tural exertions. No subject ju the this detail, which does not however inwhole range of agriculture was ever so clude the whole of the inquiries directed fully elucidated. These memoirs further by the board, it must be sufficiently obcontain much other incidental matter of vious, that these works must necessarily considerable importance; and they have, lay such a foundation for a scientific in various parts of the kingdom, been knowledge in every branch of agriculsuccessfully acted upon. I come now to ture, as cannot fail of diffusing a spirit the more active exertions of the board; of improvement through every part of in which the principal feature that de- the realm: this is their direct tendency; mands your attention, is the iminense and if they should fail of effecting that undertaking of surveying fourscore pro- object, it is not so much the fault of the vinces; that is to say, an enpire, in works themselves, as of the neglect of ulrich no district was to be omitted from those who do not sufficiently examine the Land's End to the Orkneys. The them. It may be asserted with equal reports which have been already printed, safety, that no inquirer into the facts on from among those written ones which which the science of political economy this measure produced, detail many par- ought to be founded, can neglect conticulars relating to the extent, soil, and sulting these works without manifesting clinate, of each county; the rivers, na. an ignorance proportioned to such neye vigations, roads, and whatever contri- lect: in fact, they may be as useful to a butes to internal communication; the member of the legislature, as they ought tenures by which landed property is pos to be to a practical fariner; and I do not sessed and occupied, including the effect found this assertion on a reference to a of long and short leases: they describe few of the best of these productions, but those circumstances which demand at. am justified in the opinion by a perusal tention in the buildings necessary to the of the worst. It must be in the recoloccupation of land; they note the pay- lection of many members of the house ments to which it is subjected in rent, of commons, ihat Mr. Picc founded tithe, and parochial taxes; they give the many of his calculations that were size of farms, and the consequences of brought forward in a budget, on the inboth large and small occupations; they formacion derived from one of these present a detail of enclosures, whether reports. by private exertion or by public authue. That I do not estimate this undertak.